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Full text of "Biblia, devoted to Biblical archaeology and oriental research"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




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BIBLIA 



DEVOTED TO 



Biblical Archaeology and Oriental 

Research. 



APRIL, 1898 — MARCH, 1899. 
VOL. XI. 



EDITED BY CHAS. H. 8. DAVIS, M. D., Ph. D. 
A880. EDITOR, M188 MARIE N. BUCKMAN. 



MERIDEN, CONN. 
BIBLIA PUBLISHING COMPANY. 
1899. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



VOL XI. 



Abydos, M. Amelineau't Story of his 
Find at 163 

Ancient Books of the World, Selec- 
tions from, 35 

Archseological Survey Fund, Sub- 
scriptions to the, 23, 49, 7a, 
loi, 130, 156, 182, 202, 219, 252, 282 

Archaeological Notes, 13, 37, 64, 

99, 116, 150, 175. 204, 219, 258, 283 
Assnr-nasir-pa], Prayer of, .6 

Babylonian Expedition, . . . 88 
Babylonians, Jastrow on the Religion 

of the— C^J. H, 5. Davis, . . 267 
Behnesa, Papyri from, . . 166 

Beni Hassan III.— /^ LL Griffith, 

M, A 29 

Biblical Ciiticism, The Value of the 

Spade in — M. G, Kyle, . ' . . 293 
Biblical Criticism, Exploration and, . 91 
Book Reviews, 23, 50, 73, 102, 

123. 147. 173. 2o7, 231, 253, . . 267 

Buddha, Relics of 265 

Business Methods, Ancient, .11 

Corinth, American Work at, . . 264 
Corinth, Work at Ancient, . 34 

Creation, The Date and Meaning of— 

Geo, St, Clair, K G. S., . . 287 
Deir-el-Bahari, The Restoration of — 

Somers Clark, F. S, A,, i 

Deluge, Babylonian Story of the, 3 

Denderah, Excavations slV^N. deG. 

Davies, 106 



Easter. The Andent—Beatrice Mar- 
lowe, 

Ebers, Georg Merits. Portrait, 

Eden, The Garden ot—Geo. St, 
Clair, KG.S. 

EgypU Antiquities in-^/oAn Walsh, 

E^STP^ Exploration Fund, 1899— 
Rev. Wm. C mnslow, D. D„ 
LL.D 

^STP^ Exploration Fund, Annual 
Meeting oi—Rev, Wm, C Wins- 
low, D,D,, LL.D., 

Egypt, Exploration Fund, Exhibi 
tion 

Egypt, Exploration Fund, Subscript 
tion to the, 22, 49t 71. 100, 130, 
156, 182, 202, 218, 252, 281, 282, 

Egyptian Dictionary, 

Egyptian Race, The Origin of the. 

El Kab—/ /. Tylor, R S. A, Por- 
trait, 

Fowler. Sir John, 

Genisah Manuscripts, 

Golgotha or Calvary, 

Graeco-Roman Branch, Subscrip- 
tions to the, 23, 50, 72, loi, 
130, 156, 182, 202, 219, 252, . . 182 

Greece, Foreign Arch»ological 
Schools in, 141 

Greek Papyri— /« J. 5. Cotton, M,A, 157 

Hierakonopolis-/ax. S, Cotton, Af,A,, 183 

Hieroglyphs, The Origin of— /ax. 5. 
Cotton, M. ^., . . . . 261 



5 

144 

136 



251 



"4 



306 
60 

7 

53 
^8 
196 
198 



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CONTENTS, 



Hieroglyphics, Preface to a Collec- 
tion oi—F. LI. Griffith, M. A,, . 8i 

Hittite Dedpherment, Jensen's — 
Chas. H. S. Davis, . . .109 

Hittites and their Language— CAax. 
//. S. Davis, 159 

Java, Gods and Temples of —i?/v. A, 
Kings ley Glover, , . . .235 

Jerusalem, The Names of — Rev, 
Theo. F, Wright, Ph.D., . . 83 

Judah, The Tombs of the Kings of, . 31 

Manuscripts of the Bible, Early, 89 

New Testament Apocrypha, Late 
Discoveries of, . , . . 244 

Osiris, Discovery of the Tomb of, . 8 

Oxyrhynchus Papyri, The— /aj. 5. 
Cotton, M. A., . . .79 

Oxyrhynchus, Two Letters from— 
Jas. S. Cotton, M. A., . . .59 

Palestine Exploration Fund — Rev. 
Theo. F Wright, Ph. D., 20, 
47, 69, 100, 112, 148, 169, 200, 216, 249 



Petrie*s Work in Egypt— /<w. S. Cot- 
ton, M. A., Portrait . 27 

Pharaoh's, Strikes under the, . .168 

Prehistoric Civilization — Chas. H. S. 
Davis, 191 

Punt, The Land of— /aj. S. Cotton^ 
A 



M. 



139 



Pjrramid Built? How was the Great, 
5. Beswick, C. E., . . ,186 

Pyramid, The Great, The Problem 
Solved— 5. Beswick, C. -£"., . .211 

Quirigua, Ruins at — Rev. H. C. 
Farrar, D. D., . . . . 239 

Recherches sur les Origines, Notice 
of Morgan's— /: LI. Griffith^ M.A. 56 

Sphinx. The Problem Solved— 5. 
Beswick, C E., . . . .131 

Sphinx, More About the— 5. Bes- 
wick, C. E., . , . . .241 

Susa. DeMorgan's' Discoveries at, . 242 

Thebes, Recent Discoveries of Royal 
Mummies at— /^ LI. Griffith, M.A., 105 



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BIBLIA 

A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCH^OI^OGY, KTHNOU>6T, LITBRATURB, RBUOION, HISTORY, 
BPIORAPHY, 6B06RAPHY, LANOUAOBS, BTC 

Voir. XI. Boston, Mass., April, 1898. No. i. 



THE RESTORATION OP DEIR-EL-BAHARL 

FROM a recent letter to the London office of the Eg3T>t Ex- 
ploration Fund, written by Mr. Somers Clarke, F.S.A., who 
has volunteered to superintend the restoration of Deir-el-Bahari, 
we are permitted to give the following extract to readers of 
BiBLiA. Mr. Clarke is an interested member of the Executive 
Committee of the Fund, and has worked in Egypt several win- 
ters on his own account, and this report of his present labor is 
the latest news from the field. 

I have just paid a visit to Deir-el-Bahari, and report to you 
upon the progress of the work. 

You know already that work has been concentrated on the 
most difficult part of the problem set before us — reestablishing 
the very dilapidated wall which forms the west side of the Upper 
Court, and which has been at some time in part dislocated and 
in part overthrown by pressure from behind. I have the satis- 
faction to say that the southern half of this wall has now been 
**set on its legs" without any slip or accident. All the old 
stones we found are now in their proper places, and only such 
new ones have been built in as were necessary to support or retain 
the old. 

The bases of the niches in the wall had been entirely cut away 
by tombs. These tombs are now filled in. The top layer of the 
filling in is made solid with masonry in mortar ; and on this the 
return walls of the niches, in some cases themselves rebuilt, are 
securely standing. We were in fear of much rubbish pouring 
down from behind when the insecure stonework was touched. 



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2 BIBLIA. 

The rock itself proved to be more secure than we anticipated, 
and it now stands up behind the wall without pressing upon it 
anywhere. 

In the middle of the west wall stand the red g^nite jambs 
and lintel of the central doorway. These jambs once formed an 
outer facing, and the wall within was built of limestone blocks. 
These were terribly dislocated. It was out of the question to 
get them back exactly into their original places : in the effort to 
do this the sculptured faces would have been shelled off, and 
more harm done than good. We therefore resolved to solidify 
the mass, and to put into the joints plenty of cement. This is now 
done ; and the great interior lintel stone, weighing several tons, 
has once more, after many centuries, been established in its 
place. The first and principal room of the sanctuary is now 
therefore restored to its original form, although its wall surfaces 
are far from intact. 

The timber shoring is now placed against the south end of 
the northern half of the western wall. The difficulties to be met 
with in this case are far greater than those we have encountered 
in dealing with the other half. Nearly all the masonry still in 
place must come down, as it has been crushed and pushed for- 
ward in such a way that it threatens at any moment to fall into 
the courtyard. Great care is needed in removing the mass of 
small and large stones which press on this dilapidated wall, 
which has been patched up with many sculptured stones. The 
stones of the wall and niches are all numbered, and a space is 
prepared upon which, as they are taken down, they will all be 
laid out in order. 

Nothing can exceed the care and diligence with which Mr. 
Carter has carried out the work ; and I must again express my 
admiration for his ingenious resourcefulness in dealing with the 
most awkward situations. 

In the Southern Hall of Offerings Mariette gashed a g^at 
hole on either side of a tall granite stela in the west wall. * * * 
These holes were patched with broken stones, those covered 
with inscriptions being left here and there on the floor. The 
wall above, left without sufficient support, was falling away 
from the arched ceiling. This wall has now been repaired : the 
sculptured stones are set in their places, and a great hole behind 
is now filled in solid. By taking this work in hand at the same 
time as the repair of the west wall of the Upper Court already 
described, we have been able to transfer a good deal of stone 

A ' 



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BIBLIA. 3 

chips and rubbish from a place where they were a danger into a 
place where they are essentially necessary, and carriage from 
one point to the other has been a matter of a few yards. 
February 5, i8g8. 



BABYLONIAN STORY OP THB DELUQE. 

WHEN, in 1872, the late Mr. George Smith discovered the 
famous Ass3rrian Creation and Deluge records, it created 
a great sensation both in Europe and this country. As the 
Assyrians copied their literature from Babylonian sources, it 
was expected that the thousands of Assyrian inscriptions which 
had been collected in the British Museum would yield traces at 
least of some of their ancient Babylonian legends. These tab; 
lets had been accumulating for some twenty years, and while 
Mr. Smith was preparing his fourth volume of Cuneiform In- 
scriptions, he noticed references to the Creation in a tablet, and 
allusions in other tablets to similar legends. He therefore set 
about searching through the thousands of tablets, and was for- 
tunate enough to find fragments which, when pieced together, 
formed some portion of the Creation story. Afterwards, at 
Kouyunjik, on the site of the palace of Assurbanipal, he found 
other fragments which made up the series of twelve of the so- 
called Deluge or Izdubar series. 

We now have another and a new account of the Deluge, which 
has been found at Sippara by P^re V. Scheil. This account is 
poetic in its construction, dating from the time of King Ammi- 
zaduga (about 2140 B. C), and is only a copy of a legend 
which undoubtedly dates back many centuries. This fragment 
is a portion of the first, second, seventh and eighth columns of 
what was apparently a cylinder of eight columns. Fortunately 
the end is preserved, and it shows that this document was the 
tenth chapter of a story which had for its title, "While the Man 
Rested," thus varying from Smith's version of the Deluge which 
formed the eleventh chapter of another story. 

Pire Scheil has contributed an article on his discovery to the 
Independent, which says in regard to it — 

Every Biblical scholar knows that the Hebrew account of the 
Deluge found in Genesis has been paralleled by two Babylonian 
accounts — one, that of Berosus, a Babylonian historian, whose 
narrative has been handed down to us by early Greek Christian 
writers ; and the other, that found on Assjrrian tablets by George 
Smith. Both resemble, and yet both differ from the Genesis 



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4 BIBLIA. 

Story. Biblical critics have differed as to the age of the Biblical 
story, the more conservative holding that, being written by 
Moses, it is older than his time and was incorporated by him in- 
to the Book of Genesis, while the newer school of critics were, 
until the discovery of the Tel-el- Amama tablets, inclined to 
believe that the story was borrowed from Nineveh or Babylon at 
the time of the captivity, or not long before it, at which time the 
Book of Genesis was written. 

The discovery by George Smith of a full poetical account of 
the Deluge, on tablets in King Assurbanipal's library at Nine- 
veh, was of immense interest; but it did not assure us of the age 
of the Deluge story among the inhabitants of the Euphrates 
Valley ; for it was on tablets written in Assurbanipal's reign, 
that is, scarce six hundred years before Christ. To be sure, 
these were said to be copied from tablets in Babylonian libraries, 
but we did not know how old these original tablets were. Be- 
sides, the Deluge story was on the eleventh tablet in a long poem, 
compiled in twelve books, one for each month, in a quite artifi- 
cial way, and might belong to a comparatively late period of 
religious and literary syncretism. The original Babylonian 
tablets, from which the Ass)nian copies were made, were much 
desired. 

Now Pfere Scheil has made the discovery. To be sure, the 
record on the tablet does not amount to much, it is such a frag- 
mentary bit ; but it is large enough to make sure that the tablet 
contained the story of the Deluge, and, most fortunately, the 
most important part of all is preserved, the colophon, with the 
date. It is dated in the reign of Ammi-zaduga, King of Baby- 
lon, and we know that he reigned about 2140 B. C. That is, we 
have here a precious bit of clay on which was written a poetical 
story of the Deluge, seven centuries before Moses and about the 
time of Isaac or Jacob. That is enough to make the discovery 
memorable. We learn positively that the story of the Deluge 
was familiar to the common people of Babylonia, and therefore 
of all the East from Syria to Persia. 

Professor Sayce has lately stated, misapprehending Pfere 
Scheil's oral announcement, that the new text verbally agrees 
with that discovered by George Smith, showing the care and 
accuracy with which the document was preserved from genera- 
tion to generation, with **no change even in the form of a single 
word." This is not the fact. This is an entirely different 
redaction, and Pfere Scheil suggests that different cities would 



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BIBLIA. 5 

have their different poetical editions of the story. This fragment 
belongs to the story current at Sippara, where the fragment was 
found, and we may suppose that the account given by Berosus 
was also from the Sippara edition, for Berosus tells us that 
Xisuthrus (Noah), before the flood, buried in Sippara the rec- 
ords of the world's antediluvian history. The cuneiform account 
discovered by George Smith seems to have originated in the city 
of Surippak ; at any rate, the Noah of that story came from the 
Surippak. There are in that account no such passages as we 
have in this new fragment, which shows that we have to do with 
another version, we do not know how old, for it is itself a copy 
from a partly effaced original. 

This text is in poetry. It proves that the poetic construction 
was fixed more than two thousand years before Christ. Each 
line is divided into two hemistichs, as in Hebrew poetry. The 
fragment is large enough to show that it is a poem full of poly- 
theistic and mythical details, of which the Genesis version has 
been thoroughly purged, giving us a tale purely monotheistic, 
absolutely ethical, and fit to give religious instruction to an 
unscientific people in the infancy of civilization. 



The oldest piece of wrought iron in existence is believed to 
be a roughly-fashioned sickle-blade found by Belzoni in Kar- 
mas, near Thebes. It was embedded in mortar under the base 
of the Sphinx, and on that account is known as '* the sickle of 
the Sphinx." It is now in the British Museum, and is believed 
to be nearly 4000 years old. 

AN ANCIENT EASTBR. 

I LOOKED upon the lotus flower, and lo ! 
Within the great Abydos of the past, 
Its crowded streets, its sacred temple vast, 

With those who watched six thousand years ago, 

To wait their Lord, I stood ; eve's crimson glow 
Athwart the Libyan hills had faded fast, 
Across the waste of sands a shade was cast. 

And night closed in o*er Egypt's wail of woe ; 

The silent, solemn hours beneath the stars, 
The ark in slow procession held on high. 
Incense and offering on the air upborne. 

And then the splendor through day's golden bars ; 
" Osiris risen I "— ** Lord of Life ! " they cry, 
And o'er the land dawned Egypt's Easter mom. 

Bbatricb Haiixx>wb. 



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6 BIBLIA. 

THE PRAYER OP A55UR-NAZIR-PAL. 

THE following is a beautiful prayer of Assur-nazir-pal I., the 
son of Samsi-Rimman, whose reign may be placed about 
B. C. 1800, five centuries before the time of Moses. The text 
with translation has been published by Briinnou, in the Zeitschrifi 
fur Assyriologie, Vol. V., 69. We give the first half, and the 
references in the footnotes show the striking similarity of many 
phrases to the Hebrew Psalms. 

** To the lady of Nineveh, the exalted one of the gods, 

The daughter of the Moon, the sister of the Snn, 

Who reigns over all realms ! 

To her who determines decrees, the goddess of the whole earth ; 

To the lady of Heaven €md Earth, who receives prayers ; 

To her who hearkens unto pleading and takes hold of petitions ! 

To the merciful goddess who loves justice I* 

Istar, everything that is disturbed distresses her ! 

Oh, for the afiElictions which I behold, I weep before thee ! 

To my words full of sighing direct thy ears ! 

To my afflicted cry let thy mind be open ! 

Look upon me, oh lady, that through thy turning towards me the heart 
of thy servant may become strong.t 

I am Assur-nazir-pal, thy afflicted servant, 

Humble, adoring thy divinity, watchful, thy favorite ! 

Who approved the free-will offering, who without intermission offers thy 
sacrifices ; 

Who delights in thy festivals, who restores thy shrines ; 

Who makes plentiful the wine, the joy of thy heart, which thou lovest. J 

The son of Samsi-Rimman who adored the great gods, 

I am begotten in the midst of the mountains of which none knoweth ; 

I was unlearned, and to your ladyship never did I pray I 

The people of Assyria also, we did not draw near to thy divinity ! 

But thou, oh Istar, mighty princess of the gods. 

In the lifting up of thine eyes didst thou teach me,§ and didst desire 
my rule I 

Thou didst take me from the mountains and didst call me to the thresh- 
hold of men 1 

Thou didst preserve for me the sceptre of righteousness II until £he grow- 
ing old of all mankind. 

And thou, oh Istar, didst make great my name 1 

Thou hast granted unto the faithful salvation and mercy .IT 

Out of thy mouth went forth the decree, to make anew the gods. 

The temples which were falling in I repaired. 

The fallen gods I built up, and restored to their places. 



• Cf. Ps. 4 : Xi 27. «• t Cf. Ps. 80 : 3, 7, 9, % Cf. ** Wine which cheereth God and 

man/' Judges 9 : 13. f Cf. Ps. 4 : 6—** In the lifting up of thy countenance." 

II Cf . ** The sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre." Ps. 45 : 6. IT Cf . Ps. 3 : 8— 

** Salvation belongeth unto the I«ord.'' Also Ps. 1x9 : 155. 



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BIBLIA. 7 

THE ORIGIN OP THE EGYPTIAN RACE. 

TT has long been a matter of dispute regarding tlie race-origin 
-*- of the ancient Egyptians. The ethnologists have maintained 
the African theory, and the philologists the Asiatic theory. The 
greater nmnber of Egyptologists, such as Brugsch, Ebers, 
Lauth, Lieblein, de Roug6, and others, have inclined to the 
Asiatic theory. Maspero say«, however, ** A more minute ex- 
amination compels us to recognize that the hypothesis of an 
Asiatic origin, however attractive it may seem, is somewhat 
difficult to maintain." 

In an interesting paper which appeared last year in the Bulletin 
€t Mhnoires de la SocUtf des AnHqzuiries de France ^ M. le Vi- 
compte J. de Roug6 attempts to throw some light on the origin 
of the Egyptian race, and to prove the theory of its Asiatic deri- 
vation. According to M. de Roug6, there exists three theories 
as to the origin of the Egyptians : (i) That the entry of the 
population into Eg3Trt was made by the way of Asia, passing 
through the Isthmus of Suez ; (2) that Egypt became occupied 
by a colony which came in part from Asia, but passed through 
Ethiopia; (3) that the majority of the Egyptian population had its 
origin in Africa and passed into Egypt by the west and south- 
west. This last is a more recent theory which has been in a 
measure accepted by M. Maspero, and is supported by a large 
number of students of natural history and of ethnology, while 
the theory of the Asiatic origin is based on linguistic compari- 
sons and a study of the monuments, especially the primitive 
monuments of Babylonia. 

The father of the Vicompte de Roug6, in his study of the 
monuments belonging to the first six dynasties, has brought out 
numerous points of contact which connect the Egyptian lan- 
guage with the Syro-Aramean dialects ; analogies which can be 
traced both in the g^mmar and the lexicon. The demonstration 
of these analogies is indeed so striking that even M. Maspero, 
after having suggested the probability of an African origin, is 
forced to admit that the language in many ways and in a large 
number of its roots appears to connect itself with the Semitic 
idioms, and that the larger portion of the grammatical usages 
among the Semitic languages can be traced in the Egyptian 
language in its rudimentary state. 

From Babylonia, the history of whose origin is now being 
rapidly developed, we must expect valuable enlightenment. 
The discoveries of M. de Sarzec at Tello furnish valuable corre- 



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8 BIBLIA. 

spondences ; and it is impossible not to be struck with the resem- 
blance between these specimens of the primitive civilization of 
Babylonia and the productions of Egyptian art of the earliest 
times. Even the material of the statues of Gondea recall the 
diorite of the Egyptian figures. In their artistic methods, also, 
there is a marked similarity. Dr. Fritz Hommel of Munich has 
been so struck by these resemblances that he believes Egyptian 
civilization was derived directly from Babylonia, and finds anal- 
ogies not only in the statuary and the pyramidal constructions, 
but between the names and the rdles of the principal divinities 
of these two peoples as well. He also draws curious analogies 
between the hieroglyphic system erf Egypt and the writings <rf 
the primitive inscriptions of Babylonia. 

In another order of comparison, M. Mauss, who has written 
scholarly works on the monuments of Palestine, was led to study 
the different standards of measures which were used by the chief 
peoples of antiquity ; and he reached the conclusion that the 
Egyptian cubit was identical with the cubit of ancient Baby- 
lonia ; he also notices the same resemblance between the dry 
and liquid measures of the two nations. 



THE DISCOVERY OP THE TOMB OP 0SIR15. 

THE first lists of the kings of Egypt were made by order of 
Seti I. of the eighteenth dynasty, some 3000 years after 
Menes, the first known king of Egypt. This list was made up, 
undoubtedly, from copies of earlier historical works and half 
remembered traditions. Until recently the monuments have 
told us nothing of the first three dynasties. Although Menes 
was always the starting-point in history, yet by many Egyptol- 
ogists even he was considered to be a mythical character, but 
since his tomb has been discovered we are on more substantial 
ground. The Egyptians claimed to possess an uninterrupted 
list of the Pharaohs who had ruled over the Nile Valley from 
the time of Menes. These lists were first put together from 
fragments of papyrus, and some monuments bearing the name 
of kings, and the few facts the priests possessed were woven to- 
gether by conjectures, often in a very improbable manner. The 
discoveries of late years, however, have succeeded in detecting 
many falsifications, and establishing the truth in some instances, 
and the inscriptions supply us with proofs that some of these 
princes lived and reigned. Before the time of Menes, the vivid 
imagination of the Egyptian priests claimed that Egypt was 



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SJBLIA. 9 

ruled by the gods, and they collected many apocryphal traditions 
for their sacred archives. 

The recent discovery of M. AmeUneau not only takes the his- 
tory of Egypt back several thousand years, but will make it 
necessary for a revision and rewriting the history of ancient 
Egypt, especially of its earliest section. It will also a£fect the 
history of those other nations who have elevated their first rulers 
to the position of a hero, then of a demigod, and finally of a full 
and complete divinity. 

Says M. AmeUneau : — 

** Everybody who has had a little education or has read a lit- 
tle knows, or at least has heard of, the legend of Osiris. The 
benevolent god, benignant and charming, to whom is generally 
attributed the progress of civilization in the Nile Valley, who 
taught his contemporaries how to cultivate the earth, to enjoy 
the rural pleasures, to charm their leisures and to forget their 
fatigues with the help of simple and touching songs, has been 
considered, up to the present time, more as a creation of the 
imagination than as a real, mortal being. 

''The part which, in the succession of centuries, the religious 
traditions of humanity made him play some ten thousand years 
ago was not calculated to increase the belief in his reality. But 
hereafter it will be difficult to doubt that Osiris, Isis, his sister- 
wife, and Horus, their son, lived in reality, and played, at least 
partially, the parts with which legends and traditions have 
credited them. 

** The Egyptian texts speak very often of Osiris*s tomb, which 
is designated under the name of 'staircase of the great god.' 
They add that the high officials that lived a short time after that 
epoch desired greatly to be buried near Osiris, who had preceded 
them in life and in death. I discovered on the first of January 
of this year this famous staircase, and the next day I struck a 
monument which cannot leave any doubt as to the destination 
of the tomb which my excavations brought to light. 

** Two years ago I had already begun a very important work, 
if we consider only the number of cubic metres A sand removed, 
and my diggings on one side had stopped at a point three or 
four metres from a large tomb. During my previous excavations 
I had found a great number of traces of Osiris worship, but they 
could be explained by the general devotion that people of Aby- 
dos as well as other parts of Egypt had for the god of the dead, 
who was also called sometimes 'the universal lord,' because 

2» 



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lo BIB LI A. 

men arc all strbnritted to death's law. During the whole of last 
year my time was devoted to works which I did not expect would 
last so long, and it was only this year that I was able to resume 
what was left uncompleted. 

" The hill under which was hidden Osiris's tomb is about 180 
metres in length by 160 metres in width, and is here and there 
seven or eight metres high. 

'* The tomb was in the shape of a large rectangle^ and on the 
four sides of it were a series of tombs which would number about 
200. Moreover, the necropolis, known in the country under the 
name of Om-el-Gaab-el-Gharby, contained the sepulchres of 
persons of very high rank, among them kings, the stelas of 
which I discovered two years ago* So this first point was 
settled. 

''On January i appeared this fortunate staircase mentioned 
in the texts. The next day I discovered a unique monument. 
It was a granite monolith in the shape of a bed decorated with 
the head and legs of a lion. On this bed was lying a mummy 
bearing what is known as the white crown, holding in his hands^ 
which came out of the case, a flagellum and a pastoral cane. 
Near the head were two hawks, and two more were at the feet* 
The dead were designated by the inscription: 'Osiris, the Good 
Being.* The hawks were labelled: *Horus, avenger of his 
father/ and the goddess Isis is also designated by her name. 

** This monument is 1.70 metres in length, and about one 
metre in width and height. The tomb itself has the shape of a 
dwelling, with a courtyard in front. It contained fourteen 
rooms and the staircase — five rooms to the north, five to the 
south and four to the east. The western face was open. The 
two extremities, south and north, were closed by a wall on the 
east side. The tomb was about 13 metres in length, 12 metres 
in width and 2^ metres in depth. There were evidences of fire 
in it. I found at the bottom of the rooms indisputable proof of 
the work of spoliators. This fact of the tomb having been de- 
stroyed by fire has rendered sterile a great part of my labor. 
This is to be lamented, and t^e case is hopeless, foi^ what i^ lost^ 
is lost forever.** //../* a( .v . ;,^ ^./ v^i.^. v % j^jlrf^h/^'^ 

A wonderful Buddhist road has been found by General Blood /'. ''^' 
in the Boner country, which seems to be very similar to the one 
over the Malakhand. It is a very steep fine foot, graded pack- 
road, leading over what is known as the old Tanga Pass. Long 
stretches of it are disused and covered with jungle, but the 
revetments are still in fair condition. 



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BIBLIA^ It 

ANCIENT BUSINESS METHODS. 

T iTlXE by little we are becoming familiar with many features 
-*-^ of the every-day life of ancient Egypt, and the latest reve- 
lations of the pap5rri give us a curious insight into the business 
methods of 2500 years before Christ, Mr. GrifBth has pieced 
together with infinite care some fragments of papyri dug out of 
the ruins of Kahun by Flinders Petrie several years ago. From 
them we learn that each head of a household had his number, 
which, with his name, appears to have indorsed a sort of census 
paper. The numbering seems not to have been limited to the 
military men. The householder was called on, when a new king 
came to the throne, to go to the court of the Waztn and take an 
oath of fealty. The record of one Hera has leaped to light after 
these thousands of years. He was a soldier and a soldier's son; 
he was numbered 100 ; his father's name was Tehuti, and his 
wife and infant son at first comprised his family. By and by 
the father died, and the widow and five daughters, two of them 
infants, were added to the household of Hera. That Hera was 
not only a soldier and a soldier's son, but the father of a soldier, 
is discovered in another record, the record of that infant son, 
who, no longer a child, but still a minor, has himself to head 
the household list taken *'year 3, 4th month of Verdure, day 25, 
under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
Sekhem-Ka-Ra, living for ever to eternity," says the papyrus. 
It purports — this papjrrus — to be **a copy of the specification 
of the persons of the household of the soldier, Hera's son Sene* 
£ru, his father having been in the second of the established 
trained bands, Northern Division." So here is more of Hera's 
history revealed. But poor Senefru ! He now had a fine house- 
hold of women — his mother, Hera's widow (she was Sat-Sepdu's 
daughter Shepset, a priestly woman of Gesab) ; his father's 
mother Harekhni ; and three of his father's sisters, Katsenut, 
Isis, and Sat-Senefru. Uttle thought Hera and his son Senefru 
that in 1898 their little household would be told over to the 
readers of a daily paper in a new Babylon, in what is, like the 
time of their deed, a month of Verdure, although nominally a 
month of winter. But their names thus come up today, and 
their story is told, while high and mighty ones of their day and 
generation are unknown, and even ** Sekhem-Ka-Ra, living for 
ever to eternity," at whose name they doubtless trembled, is 
known only to a few pundits. 

In looking at the specimens of old Egyptian wills given by 



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12 BIBLIA. 

Mr. Griffith in his article in TTte Law Quarterfy Revtem^ a 
question arises to which he himself makes no reference. It 
concerns that ** Sat-Sepda*s daughter, Shepset, a priestly woman 
of Gesab/* There is a will of a priest in these old papyri said 
to be that of Uah, a son of Shepset, and the will makes over his 
slaves and certain property to his wife, ** the woman of Gesab, 
Sat-Sepdu's daughter, Shefdu, who is called Teta." Teta was 
Sat-Sepdu*^s daughter as well as Shepset. Had Uah then, being 
Shepset's son, married Shepset's sister? That would be, in our 
days, a gross breach of *'the table of kindred and affinity 
wherein whosoevei are related are forbidden in Scripture and 
our laws to marry together,*' and wherein, moreover, the mar- 
riage of a man with his mother's sister is specifically debarred. 
Mr. Griffith ought to have cleared up this. The Marriage Law 
Reform Association would have been interested, especially if 
further prying into the papyri had produced cases of marriage 
with a deceased wife's sister. It seems from these old Egyptian 
documents that a man abdicating his office in favor of his son 
gave that son a pretty name, thus : ** I am giving my regula- 

torship of priestly orders to my son , as * old man's stafif,' 

even as I grow old ; let him be promoted at this instant." Mr. 
Griffith gives samples of *'tomb endowments," which are really 
provisions for the priesthood. These documents are given in 
The Law Quarterly as reading for the lawyers. But their gen- 
eral interest is undeniable. Where will our records be four or 
five thousand years hence, our perishable paper being so inferior 
to the papyri which are today unrolling the history of these far- 
off times ? 

Dr. A. M. Pairbairn, Principal of Mansfield College, Oxford, 
has accepted the Haskell Lectureship in succession to Dr. 
Barrows, and will go to India to deliver a series of lectures to 
educated English-speaking Hindoos on the Christian religion. 
Some time ago the missionaries of India, English and American, 
of various denominations, sent Dr. Pairbairn a unanimous in- 
vitation to visit India and deliver a series of lectures. The 
tiaskell Lectureship, which is vested with the authorities of the 
Chicago University, was accordingly offered to Dr. Pairbairn, 
who has signified his acceptance, and hopes to make arrange- 
ments for the visit at the end of this year. Should this be 
impossible. Dr. Pairbairn will postpone his visit for another 
year. 



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BIBLIA. 13 

ARCtLCOLOaiCAL NOTES. 



Rev. H. V. Hilprecht, Ph. D. 

Herman VoUrat Hilprecht was bom 
in Hohenerleben, Anhalt, Germany, 
July 28, 1859. He studied theology, 
oriental languages, and law, in the Uni- 
.versity of Leipsic and received the degree 
of Ph. D. in 1883. After spending two 
years in Switzerland for his health, he 
was appointed by the Bavarian Govern- 
ment adjunct professor of Old Testament 
theology in the University of Krlangen 
in 1885, and in 1886 came to Philadel- 
phia as linguistic editor of the Sunday 

(Fn>ml'heSuud.ySchoolTime..) ^^^^^^ ^^^ g^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

was elected Professor of Assyriolog^ in the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He spent two years in the British Museum studying 
cuneiform literature. He is known among Assyriolog^sts by his 
Freihrief Nebukadnezars /. (Leipsic, 1883). In the spring of 
1887 he delivered, in the Chapel of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, a course of lectures on ** The Family and Civic Life of the 
Egyptians,'* ** The Most Flourishing Period of Egyptian Liter- 
ature,*' and ''Egypt in the Time of Israel's Sojourn." The 
Sunday School Times of Feb. 5 says, editorially, ** Professor 
Hilprecht's explorations and studies in Babylonia have pushed 
back the record of human history by several millenniums, and 
has brought into vividness the course of ancient kingdoms, and 
the social and individual life of peoples in prominence long 
before an age when the world was supposed to be yet uninhabited. 
Professor Hilprecht is just returning from Constantinople with 
a store of new treasures unearthed at Nippur. The Sultan of 
Turkey has conferred upon him the insignia of the highest Turk- 
ish decoration — * Osmanie, with the star on the breast' — 
together with expressions of the highest satisfaction with Pro- 
fessor Hilprecht's work for the Imperial Museum and for the 
Nippur expedition. The oldest learned society of Greece, the 
' Syllogos,' elected Professor Hilprecht, at the same time with 
the Patriarch of the Greek Church, an honorary member, with 
highly complimentary words of approval. The future king of 
Bavaria sent to him a richly framed copy of his own portrait, 
with an expression of high personal satisfaction with his discov- 
eries and work. Professor Hilprecht had before received various 



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X4 BIBLIA. 

decorations from royalty, and honors from learned societies. In 
Germany, in France, and in England, he is recognized as at the 
very head in his field of Oriental research ; and the United States 
has cause to be proud of this. The University of Pennsylvania, 
Th€ Sunday School Times^ and the members of the Babylonian 
Expedition, have peculiar reason to congratulate their repre- 
sentative in this general recognition of his faithfulness and 
ability in his great services.** 



A discovery which may prove to be of great interest to stu- 
dents of Buddhist history has been made within the last few 
days on the Birdpore Estate, Basti district. A stupa situated at 
the twentieth mile on the Uska-Nepal road has been excavated, 
and, after digging down i8 feet of solid brickwork set in clay, a 
huge stone chest, 4 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 8 inches by 2 feet i J 
inches, was unearthed. The lid was broken in four pieces, and 
the box was completely closed and embedded in solid brickwork ; 
it was in perfect preservation and measured inside 36 inches by 
iSj inches by 22I inches. On removing the lid the following 
articles were revealed : Two small marble vases, with lids, 8 
inches high and 4i inches in diameter, one ordinary lota-shaped 
marble vessel, one small round marble box, and one crystal bowl 
with cover, the handle of which was a hollow fish filled with 
gold. All these vessels contained ornaments and relics, consist- 
ing of pearls, gold-leaf stars, gold-leaf stamped with figures, 
gold and gold ornaments, stars and other shapes cut in garnets, 
amethyst, topaz, cornelian, etc. They also contained crystals 
and beads and quantities of small bones in good preservation. 
No coins were found, and the only inscription was round the lid 
of one of the bowls, the lettering being the same as that on the 
Lumbani Garden pillar commemorating the birthplace of 
Buddha. It seems, from a cursory rendering of this inscription 
by qualified experts, that these ornaments and relics may have 
belonged to Buddha himself. 

In refutation of M. de Mortillet*s theory that the ancient 
Egyptians were of African origin, M. de Morgan, in his 
Recherches sur les Origines de PEgypte^ states the case in favor 
of their being Asiatics, as follows : — 

I. Language. M. Maspero, though he believes that the first 
Egyptians were Africans, admits that there is a relationship 
between the Semitic language and that of the Pharaohs, and 
that they must at some time have belonged to the same group. 



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BIBLIA. 15 

2. Writing. Four thousand years before Christ only two 
peoples possessed writing — the Chaldeans on the Euphrates 
and the Egyptians on the Nile. The two writings had a com- 
mon origin — the representation of objects — and this funda- 
mental idea took a different development in each country. The 
distance between the two countries is only 1200 kilometres in a 
straight line, and they might easily have had relations with one 
another. 

3. Metals. Bronze is found in the royal tombs at Negada 
and Abydos, that is, at the very beginning of the art and cus- 
toms of the Pharaohs. Now, bronze was first known in Asia. 
[M. Berthelot's analysis shows that it was not bronze but cop- 
per that was found in these tombs.] 

4. Fine Arts. Most of the artistic objects and monuments of 
the ancient empire have a striking similarity with like objects 
and monuments found in Chaldea ; as examples of this may be 
taken the statues of Ra-Hotep and of Nefri, the alabaster lions 
of Saqqarah, the ivory lions and dogs of Negada, some hard 
stone vases, and finally, the architecture of the tomb at Negada 
itself, whose strange indented ground plan recalls the monu- 
ments of Chaldea. 

5. Bricks. Brick monuments are found only in the Egyptian 
period ; the aborigines did not have them. The important part 
that unbaked brick takes in the architecture of Chaldea, where 
the soil furnishes no other materials, is well known. The fact 
that it only appears with the first Egyptians proves that the 
discovery is not indigenous to Egypt, and it seems likely that 
the invention was made in the valley of the Tigris and 
Euphrates. 

6. Measures. The unit of measures used in constructing the 
the monuments of Tello, according to Mr. C. Mauss, is identi- 
cal with the Egyptian cubit. This coincidence of the unit of 
measure in the two countries is a fact of the greatest importance 
in investigating the origin of the Egyptians. 

7. Cylinders. At the beginning of the Egyptian Empire 
(Negada- Abydos), the seals were stamped with a cylinder. It 
is only later that the true seal, which usually took the form of 
the scarab, appeared. In Chaldea, however, the use of the 
cylinder was kept up to the last year of the Achemenids. 

8. Animals. Among the animals that are seen drawn in the 
mastabas of the ancient empire are the ox, the sheep, and the 
Asiatic goat, besides many African species. 



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16 BIBLIA. 

9. Vegetables. Wheat and barley are found in quantities 
among the offerings'in the royal tombs of Negada and Abydos. 
We know that these cereals came from Mesopotamia, and not 
the slightest trace of such grains was found in the tombs of an 
earlier date than the Egyptian civilization. 

10. Tombs. The aborig^inal tombs are merely hollowed out 
of the alluvial soil. Those of the Egyptian period are either 
built in the desert, like the monuments of Negada and Abydos, 
the mastabas and the Pyramids, or cut into the rock of the cliffs, 
like the Tombs of Thebes, Siout, and Beni Hassan, or else dug 
through geological layers, like the wells of Saqqarah and 
Dashur. Moreover, the burning of the tomb at Negada and of 
some of the royal tombs at Abydos may be compared with the 
Assyrian custom of burning up their dead kings with their 
palaces. 

So many common elements, customs and practices are found 
between the two countries that it seems difficult to deny a close 
relationship between the two peoples. 



Contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Arc/ueolo- 
gy, Vol. XX., Part i : Babylonian Hieroglyphics, Rev. C. J. 
Ball, 111. ; Noli me Tangere (a Mathematical Demonstration of 
the Exactness of Biblical Chronology), Prof. Dr. Julius Oppert; 
Fragments of the Sahadic Version of the Pauline Epistles, etc., 
John E. Gilmore ; Door Lintel Discovered by Mr. George 
Smith at Kouyunjik, Hormuzd Rassam ; Story of the Deluge, 
from Sippara ; Menepthah Stela, mentioning the Israelites, 
Joseph Offord. 

Rev. Mr. Ball prefaces his article with the following note : 
** There are people who still find a difficulty in admitting the 
pictorial origin of the cuneiform characters. For my own part, 
I am not quite convinced of the truth of this opinion, in spite of 
the fact that many characters still await their pictorial explana- 
tion ; I also believe, as I stated in these Proceedings for June, 
1890, that the Egyptian and Chinese hieroglyphic systems are 
both offshoots of the primitive system of Chaldea, now only 
represented by the so-called linear writing, from which the 
cuneiform script was gradually derived.'* 

In commenting upon the ideogram denoting Nineveh, Mr. 
Ball says : '' It is surely a fact of capital importance for a right 
estimate of the character of the Biblical Book of Jonah that the 
name of the city to which the prophet was sent was expressed 



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BIB LI A, vj 

in writing, from the earliest period, by a combination of the 
symbols for house and ^sh. For this fact at once suggests that 
the three days' sojourn of Jonah in the House of the Fishy t,e., in 
Nineveh, might be symbolized or Haggadically represented as 
a three days' abode in the bowels of a * Great Fish ; *' much as 
Israel's enforced sojourn in Babylon could be compared with 
being swallowed up by a dragon (Jer. li. : 34)." 

Professor Oppert says that in the present state of Assyriolog- 
ical science, we are enabled to show that the Books of Kings 
are the real basis of our historical knowledge of the subject of 
chronology, and that the pretended cuneiform chronology must 
bow to the mathematical correctness of the Holy Scriptures. 
Professor Oppert says that it has become quite a fashion to look 
at the statements of the Books of Kings and Chronicles as quite 
inexact, ever since the lists of the Assyrian Eponyms were 
discovered. 

Prof. Flinders Petrie does not believe in Buropeanizing other 
races. He says, ** By real education, leading out the mind to a 
natural and solid growth, much can be done ; but not by en- 
forcing a mass of accomplishments and artificialties of life. The 
general impression in England is that reading, writing, and 
arithmetic are the elements of education. They might be so to 
us * in the foremost files of time,* but they assuredly are not so 
to other races. The complex ideas of connecting forms and 
sounds is far too great a step for many brains, and when we suc- 
ceed, to our delight, in turning out finished readers. Nature 
comes in with the stem reply, * Of their children not one has 
been reared.' Our bigoted belief in reading and writing is not 
in the least justified when we look at the mass of mankind. 
The exquisite art and noble architecture of Mycenae, the undy- 
ing song of Homer, the extensive trade of the Bronze Age, all 
belonged to people who never read or wrote. At this day some 
of my best friends, in Egypt, are happily ignorant of such ac- 
complishments, and assuredly I never encourage them to any 
such useless waste of their brains. The great essentials of a 
valuable character — moderation, justice, sympathy, politeness 
and consideration, quick observation, shrewdness, ability to 
plan and prearrange, a keen sense of the uses and properties of 
things — all these are the qualities for which I value my Egyp- 
tian friends, and such qualities are what should be evolved by 
any education worth the name." 
3' 



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i8 BIB LI A. 

How many of the engineering works of the nineteenth century- 
will there be in existence in the year 6000 ? Very few, we fear, 
and still less those that continue in that far-ofiF age to serve a 
useful purpose. Yet there is, at least, one great undertaking 
conceived and executed by an engineer which, during the space 
of four thousand years, has never ceased its office, on which the 
life of a fertile province absolutely depends today. We refer to 
the Bahr Yousef — the canal of Joseph — built, according to 
tradition, by the son of Jacob, and which constitutes not the 
least of the many blessings he conferred on Eg^ypt during the 
years of his prosperous rule. This canal took its rise from the 
Nile at Asiut, and ran almost parallel with it for nearly two 
hundred and fifty miles, creeping along under the western cliffs 
of the Nile Valley, with many a bend and winding, until at 
length it gained an eminence, as compared with the river bed, 
which enabled it to turn westward through a narrow pass and 
enter a district which was otherwise shut off from the fertilizing 
floods on which all vegetation in Egypt depends. The northern 
end stood seventeen feet above low Nile, while at the southern 
end it was at an equal elevation with the river. Through this 
cut ran a perennial stream, which watered a province named the 
Fay Am, endowing it with fertility and supporting a large popu- 
lation. In the time of the annual flood a great part of the canal 
was under water, and then the river's current would rush in a 
more direct course into the pass, canying with it the rich silt 
which takes the place of manure and keeps the soil in a constant 
state of productiveness. All this, with the exception of the 
tradition that Joseph built it, can be verified today, and it is not 
mere supposition or rumor. Until eight years ago it was firmly 
believed that the design has always teen limited to an irrigation 
scheme, larger, no doubt, than that now in operation, as shown 
by the traces of abandoned canals, and by the slow aggregation 
of waste water which has accumulated in the Birket el Querum, 
but still essentially the same in character. Many accounts have 
been written by Greek and Roman historians, such as Herodo- 
tus, Strabo, Pliny, and repeated ih monkish legends, or jwj:- 
trayed in the maps of the middle ages, which agreed with the 
folk lore of the district. These tales explained that the canal 
dug by the ancient Israelites served to carry the surplus waters 
of the Nile into an extensive lake lying south of the Faydm, 
and so large that it not only modified the climate, tempering the 
arid winds of the desert and converting them into the balmy 



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BIBLIA. 19 

ai^ wliidi nourish the vines and the olives into a fulkiess and 
fragrance unknown in any other i)art of the country, but also 
added to the food supply of the land such immense quantities of 
fish that the royal prerogative of the right of piscary at the great 
weir was valued at $1 ,250,000 annually. This lake was said to 
be 450 miles round, and to be navigated by a fleet of vessels, 
and the whole circumference was the scene of industry and 
prosperity. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, who occupies the only chair of Assyriology 
in England, now spends the greater part of the year in a 
dahabiyek on the Nile. This is a combination of a yacht and a 
house-boat, fitted up for a permanent residence, and is the 
largest boat of its kind on the river. It is amid these surround- 
ings that Prof. Sayce writes those innumerable books devoted 
to the subject so dear to him. There, with a large library, he 
is able to do his work without interruption. 

In a recent interview, P^rof . Sayce was asked how he came to 
be interested in archaeological research. '' I alwa}rs had a fancy 
for it ; it was ingrained in me. When I was a small boy my 
lungs were not strong, and I had to pass much of the winter in 
the house. \ was obliged to amuse myself as best I could, and 
took a great fancy to the forms of the letters in the Hebrew 
Bible. These I learned, with the result, I suppose, that I came 
to have a love for the East a^d Oriental things. When I was a 
3choolboy I read Layard's Travels with great delight, and (rotp 
that time forward I date my interest in Assjrriology. Tp^en I 
wished to know something of cuneiform characters and their 
ineaning. B^t I was not able to take up the subject seriously 
until \ had finished my Oxford work and taken my degree. 
When I was an undergraduate I always had a great liking for 
the study of languages, and my lungs still being bad, I was 
obliged to spend my winters in the south of Prance and north of 
Spain. That led me to take an interest in the Basque language. 
As soon as I was free from my Oxford work I devoted niyself to 
my special pursuits, ^nd published an Assypan gramn^ar for 
comparative purposes, in which I endeavored to compare the 
grammatical foniia of Assyrian with those of the other Semitic 
languages, and as far as possible to trace the origin and devel- 
opment of them. Then \ devoted myself to the study of com- 
parative philology.?' 

Prof. 3^yce's vork has now extended over thirty years, c^i^d 
il^ng that titne )ie ^1^ l^elped to t^mild up ^liat w^ now ^n<>w 
about the Assyrian language and the history of Babylon. 



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20 BIBLIA. 

The contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology, Vol. XX., Part 2, are as follows: Roman Inscrip- 
tions Relating to Hadrian's Jewish War, Joseph Offord; 
Abraham and the Land of his Nativity, Hormuzd Rassam ; 
Thotmfes III., ^ait-il le fils de Thotm&s I.? Prof. J. Lieblein; 
The Beginnings of the Egyptian Monarchy, Prof. A. H. Sayce; 
Note on the Coptic Spell, W. E. Crum. 

Mr. Rassam is convinced that •*Ur of the Chaldees," the 
supposed birthplace of Abraham, was not situated in Southern 
Mesopotamia, as is generally supposed, but in Northern Meso- 
potamia, from the neighborhood of Haran, at the upper part of 
the Euphrates. Mr. Rassam says that the origin of the Chal- 
deans and their ruling power have been from time immemorial 
a puzzle, and up to the present time scholars are not agreed as 
to the etymology of the word Arphaxad, from which all the 
Semitic nations believe this nationality of the Chaldeans and 
Hebrews sprang. Why the authors of the Septuagint translated 
the word Chasdia into Chaldean is not easily to be understood, 
unless they adopted the word from the Chaldeans themselves, 
as we know from Josephus that they were called by that name 
in his time. Mr. Rassam shows from the history of Diesearchus, 
a disciple of Aristotle, and a philosopher of great repute, that 
the Chaldeans were first called Cephenes from Cepheus, and 
afterwards ChcUdaans from Chald<tuSy an Assyrian king. This 
Chaldseus built Babylon near the Euphrates, and placed the 
Chaldeans in it. ^__ 

Mr. Quibell, working for the Eg^pt Research Account, has 
found an eagle, with a head of solid gold. The backsheesh 
given to the actual finder, as calculated on the weight of the 
metal, amounted to one hundred dollars. 

THB PALB5TINE EXPLORATION fOJND. 

PROFESSOR Karl Riickert of Freiburg has kindly sent a 
copy of his recent pamphlet of a hundred well-printed pages 
on the •* Situation of Mount Zion.*' After the manner of his 
people he has gone into every aspect of the question in the effort 
to determine whether the hill in the southwestern part of Jeru- 
salem or that in the southeastern part is the Zion of the Bible. 
The heads of his treatise are, (1) Condition of the Question and 
its Solution; (2) Conformation of Jerusalem and its Indications; 
(3) Position of Mount Zion according to Tradition ; (4) The 
Proper Zion of the Historical Scriptures ; (5) The Improper 



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BIB LI A. at 

Zion in the Prophetical and purely Poetical Scriptures; (6) 
Contour of Manasseh's Defences; (7) Night Ride of Nehemiah; 
(8) Construction by Shallun [Nehemiah iii : 15] ; (9) Path of 
the Southern Chorus of Thanksgiving [Nehemiah xii] ; (10) 
Position of the Citadel in the Maccabaean Time ; (11) Designa- 
tion of the Temple Site as Mount Zion; (r2) Result of the 
Discussion. 

Dr. Rtickert takes the ground that what is now called Zion, 
the hill surmounted by the Armenian buildings, properly has 
that name ; that it was so known as early as David's time and 
was captured by him, and that it and it alone would have con- 
tinued to be known as Zion but for the prophetic and poedc 
writers who used Zion as a secondary name for Jerusalem and 
for its temple. Those who hold that the Zion of David was the 
temple site on the hill Ophel are misled by taking as of primary 
importance passages which should not overbalance the historical 
and geographical statements of other passages. Moreover, tra- 
dition and the superior height and natural defences of the western 
hill point the same way. 

A map is g^ven which very clearly indicates the writer's 
conclusions. It is the first map which fully embodies the re- 
sults of Dr. Bliss' excavations, which are constantly referred to 
in the pamphlet. The monograph is a model of clear and cogent 
reasoning. 

A similar pamphlet of great merit has come from Mr. J. M. 
Tenz, a Swiss gentleman residing in London, who has g^ven 
much thought to Jerusalem topography. He calls his essay ** A 
Brief Description of Ancient Jerusalem, the I^ast Days of our 
Lord and Saviour upon Earth, and the Destruction of the City 
by the Roman Army under Titus." Mr. Tenz takes the same 
ground as to Zion. ** Zion was once the stronghold of the Jeb- 
usites. It is the highest of the four hills.*' He also says, — 

** Solomon brought the ark of God out of the city of David, 
which is Zion, and placed it in the most holy place. From that 
time the name Zion was giVen not only to the city of David, but 
also to the Temple, and to Jerusalem." 

He understands the words, **the dew of Hermon and the dew 
that descended upon the mountains of Zion," to mean that Her- 
mon was known as Zion, but this is an unnecessary conclusion, 
for the dew just as much descended on the mountains in and 
near Jerusalem as it did elsewhere. 

The subscriptions since last report have been— 



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12 



BIBLIA. 



Atkinson, John B., Esq., . I5.00 
Barron, Miss R. H., . . 5.00 
Bartlctt, Rev. S. C, D.D., . 5.00 
Billheimer, Rev. T.C., D.D., 5.00 
Billings, G. P., Esq., . . 5.00 
Binney, Rev. Prof. John, . 2.50 
Carriere, C. P., Esq., . . 2.50 
Corwell Library, . . . 2.50 
Coxe, Eckley B., Jr., . . 5.00 
Crowthers, Dr. A. J.. . . 2.50 
Davis, Rev. John, D.D., . 5.00 
Ewell, Rev. J. L., D.D., . 2.50 
Gibbs, David J., Esq., . . 5.00 
Herbmch, Rev. E., Ph.D., . 2.50 
Hoffman, Rev. E. A., D.D., 20.00 
Holmes, Daniel, Esq., . . 5.00 
JOHNSON, REVERDY, Esq. 25.00 
Lawrence, Miss M. E., . 5.00 

The delay in obtaining the new firman has been so great that 
Dr. Bliss accepted an invitation to give some lectures in the 
country. His stay will probably be short, but every effort will 
be made to give friends in New York and London an opportu- 
nity to hear from his own lips his story of work at Jerusalem. 
While in London he has been busy preparing for the press a 
full account of that excavation along the old wall and upon the 
line of the road to the Fountain Gate. 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for United States. 

42 Quifuy Street^ Cambridge^ Mass. 



Little, Prof. G. T., . . I5.00 

Lowrey, Miss R. S., , . 5.00 

McNary, J. W., Esq., . • 5.00 

Merrill, Rev. G. E., D.D., . 2.50 

Nevins, Rev. J. C, Ph.D., . 5.00 

Peters, Rev. J. P., D.D., . 10.00 

Pierrepont, H. E., Esq., . 10.00 

Pyne, M. Taylor, Esq., . 5.00 

Sage Library , New Jersey, . 5.00 

Sharpe, Miss E. M., . . 5.00 

Sharpe, Miss M. A., . . 10.00 

Small, Samnel, Esq., . .5.00 

Steele, Mrs. E. B., . . 5.00 

Vanx, George, Esq., . . 10.00 

Wellesley College, Mass., . 2.50 

Western Tbeo. Seminary, . 2.50 

Wright. T. P 10.00 

Zabriski, Mrs. N. L., . . 10.00 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. THE 

ARCHiCOLOaiCAL SURVEY FUND, AND THE 

QRABCO-RQMAN BRANCH. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from February 20 to March 20 are gratefully acknowledged : 
♦Art Museum of Detroit, 
Mrs. Selden N. Baird, . 
♦Charles Buncher, 
W. Camac, .... 
Miss Eliza Collamore. . 
y. Collingwood, . 

gckley Brinton Coxe, Jr., . 
rew Theo. Seminary, . 
Henry P. English, 
Mrs. S. I. Hnrtt, . 
♦Kalamazoo Public Library, 
♦Prof. Francis W. Kejacy, . 
♦ Received thnraifh Detroit Branch. 



I5.00 


Rev. James B. King, . 


I5.00 


5.00 


J. Townsend Lansing, . 


5.00 


5.00 


Mrs. H. S. Macomber, . 


I.OO 


S.oo 


Rev. G. L. Mackay, D.D., 


5.00 


xo.oo 


♦Mrs. Geo. Whitney Moore, 


5.00 


xo.oo 


M. Taylor Pyne, . 


1.00 


5.00 


Mrs. Henry E. Raymond, 


. 5.15 


5.00 


Rev. Edward A. Renouf , D.I 


)., 5.00 


5.00 


Miss Abby W. Turner, 


5.00 


10.00 


Wm. M. Weed, . 


5.00 


509 


Kiss E. J. Whitney, . 


5.00 


10.00 


Rev. J. Zimifierman, D.D., . 


5.00 



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BIB LI A. 23 

From February 20 to March 20, I have received very 
thankfully these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey 
Fund: 

Drew Thco. Seminary, . . I5.00 M. Taylor Pyne, . . . fc.oo 
Henry P. English, . . 5.00 Rev. Edward A. Renouf,D.D., 5.00 

From February 20 to March 20, the following subscriptions 
to the Graeco-Roman Branch are gratefully acknowledged : 



Prof. S. C. Bartlett, D.D., 
Mrs. M. A. Bradshaw, . 
^Charles Bnncher, 
Drew Theo. Seminary, 
Mrs. S. I. Hnrtt, . 



I5.00 J. Townsend Lansing, . . I5.00 

5.00 Rev. Wm. L. Ropes, . . 3.00 

5.00 Chas. W. Smith, . . . 5.00 

5.00 Copies of Logia and Slides, . 2.25 
5.00 



* Received through Detroit Branch. 

Francis C. Foster, 

Honorary Treasurer. 
Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, $9 Temple Street, Boston. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



ThB MYCBNi^AN AGB : A STUDY OP THB MONUMBNTS AND Cui«TURB 

OF Prb-Hombric Grbbcb. By Dr. Chrbstos Tsountas, Ephor 
OP Antiquitibs and Dirbctor op Excavations at Mycbnjs, 
AND J. Irving Manatt, Ph.D., LL.D., Profbssor in Brown Uni- 
vbrsity. With an Introduction by Dr. Wii,hbi,m DdRppBi«D. 

Mycenae was the capital of Agamemnon's kingdom, and was 
at that time the principal city in Greece. Homer calls it ** the 
wide wayed '* city, ** rich in gold." Thucydides, too, mentions 
its reputation for wealth. Today the discoveries of Mycenae 
form the earliest chapter in the history of Greek antiquities. 
One of the most brilliant episodes in the labors oi Dr. Schlie- 
mann was the exploration of the acropolis of Mycenae, and the 
result of his work brought to light not only gold and jewels to 
the amount of some $25,000, but they revealed to us with posi- 
tive certainty the civilization and social state of Greece 3000 
years ago, and the influences under which society in the heroic 
age attained its development, and the primitive art of Greece 
arose. Before Schliemann's discoveries no one could trace the 
history of Greece further back than the eighth or ninth century, 
or the history of art beyond the sixth or seventh. The Homeric 
poems were our sole source of light upon the civilization of the 
pre-historic or Homeric age of Greece, and although they ap- 
peared fanciful, yet we now knoW that iH essentialj^ Etomet's 
pictures answer to reality. 



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24 BIBLIA, 

In 1886 a young Greek archaeologist^ Chrestos Tsountas, was 
commissioned by his Government to continue the exploration of 
Mycenae which Dr. Schliemann had begun, and since that time 
he has been diligently at work, and has unearthed not only the 
palace of the kings, and the fortress with its secret water way, 
but also the dwellings of the humbler people, and the village 
cemeteries, each composed of rock-hewn tombs, whose disposi- 
tion and contents have shed new light on the civic and religious 
life of the time. But Dr. Tsountas has not only given us a record 
of his explorations, but he has undertaken for the first time a 
systematic handling of the whole subject of pre-historic Greek 
culture in the light of the monuments. Now for the first time 
the reader of Homer can find out ** what the * blue-frieze ' of the 
palace of Alcinous was like ; what sort of bathroom Nestor's 
daughter, Polycasta, bathed Telemachus in ; what Achilles ate, 
and Helen wore ; and how the body of Agamemnon was en- 
tombed." We know also from these excavations how princes 
and people built and adorned their palaces and dwellings ; what 
was their daily food, and dress, and armor ; what was the char- 
acter of their art and their trade relations ; and how they fash- 
ioned their tombs and were buried in them. We learn that the 
Mycenseans were fond of comfort and luxury, and had a refined 
taste often with wealth to gratify it. In a Mycenaean palace, 
the floors were of concrete, the walls frescoed and crowned with 
richly-carved friezes, while the doorways and woodwork were 
covered with bronze. The furniture was ornamented with gold, 
silver, bronze and ivory, and the vessels were of terra-cotta, 
alabaster, bronze, silver and gold, many of them wrought with 
designs of wondrous beauty. 

Heretofore Homer has been our only guide to a knowledge of 
the primitive dress of the Greeks, but now Dr. Tsountas shows 
us entire toilets of men and women, from the rudest to the most 
refined stage of Mycenaean culture. These enable us to trace 
the evolution of dress from the primitive Aryan breech-cloth to 
fashions which at least foreshadow the elegance of Ionian Greece. 
Of the women, Schliemann observes that ** They were literally 
laden with golden jewelry," and Dr. Tsountas gives us a great 
many illustrations of rings, collars, necklaces, bracelets, often 
inlaid with precious stones, and many of which would be fash- 
ionable at the present day. We see the "golden lady" of 
Homer, in the diadem of gold on the brow, golden fillets and 
pins of exquisite technique shining out of her dark hair; golden 



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BIBLIA. 25 

bands about her throat and golden necklaces upon her bosom ; 
gold bracelets upon her arms, gold rings chased with inimitable 
art upon her fingers, and finally her very robes agleam with 
gold. 

All of this shows an advanced stage of culture in a pre- 
Homeric time, and we view with astonishment the startling 
revelation of a wealth and power and refinement of which his- 
tory gives us hardly a hint. They had beg^un to chisel exquisite 
designs in marble, and their gem-engraving left little for their 
successors to excel. With mould and hammer they turned 
bronze to an infinity of shapes and uses, with ever varying dec- 
orations. Gold was hammered into sheets of marvelous delicacy, 
and drawn out into very fine wire for chains. By inla)dng ivory, 
gold and the like upon bodies of a different material the Mycen- 
seans produced genuine polychrome designs instinct with life 
and reality, such as we see on the dagger-blades. Some of the 
wall-paintings date from before 2000 B. C. The decorated pot- 
tery from Mycenae would fill a museum. 

We find that in Mycenaean times there existed a system of 
writing, hieroglyphic in character, partly syllabic, partly ideo- 
graphic. While it had something in common with the hiero- 
glyphic writing of Egypt, and still more with that of the 
Hittites, it was independent of both. About eighty of these 
signs are now known to us-^^Ji^'J 

Professor Manatt of Brown University, was a United States Con- 
sul in Greece for four years, and was well acquainted with Dr. 
Tsountas' work, and has kept in touch with the progress of 
archaeological study and exploration. He has taken an earlier 
work of Dr. Tsountas, and not only translated it, but has added 
whatever has been found available, either in original sources or 
in recent literature, so that hardly a page before us but has con- 
tributions from Professor Manatt. This book is not only the 
latest but is also the best book on archaeological work in Greece, 
and will be warmly welcomed not only by classical scholars and 
archaeologists, but by all educated readers. Besides maps, 
plans and tables, there are over one hundred and fifty illustra- 
tions, including many full-page plates. It is bound in handsome 
style, with embossed figures in gold, representing the golden 
cups from Vaphio, which are wrought with design of wondrous 
life and beauty. 

(Boston and New York : Houghton, MiflSin & Co. Large 
8vo, 417 pages. Price $6.00.) 



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26 BIBLIA. 

We have received from Professor C. J. Labib of Cairo the 
second volume of the DicHannaire Copte-Arabe, extending from 
L to O. The first volume of this excellent work was noticed in 
BiBWA in July, 1896. This work is the only dictionary avail- 
able for native students, and is a good complement to the 
author's Coptic-Arabic Grammar, The work appears to be ex- 
haustive, including a large number of Greek words from the 
Bible and liturgical books, besides those of older works, includ- 
ing Goodwin's lists. Professor Labib, however, often suggests 
different etymologies, etc. We notice that not only the Coptic 
or Memphitic, Sahidic and Bashmuric, but also the Achmimic 
dialects are represented. 

Manuscripts of nearly the whole of the sacred Scriptures, lit- 
urgies of the Coptic Churcl», the works erf some of the early 
Fathers, the Acts of the Council of Nice, and the lives of a con- 
siderable number of the saints and martjnrs exist in Coptic. The 
translations of the Old Testament were made from the Septua- 
gint, and not from the Hebrew^ and we find in the Coptic and 
Sahidic versions, that the translators often used Greek words in 
the translation when they possessed Coptic words which fully 
expressed the same idea. Professor Labib does not always seem 
to be aware of this foreign origin, but on the whole he has given 
us a valuable and painstaking work. 

(Cairo: Coptic Orthodoxe Patriarchal, 1896, 8vo, 176 pages.) 



Mr. George St. Clair, author of ** Buried Cities and Bible 
Countries,'* has nearly ready, ** Creation Records Discovered in 
Egypt," being studies in the ** Book of the Dead.'* Mr. St. 
Clair will endeavor to show that — (i) The Myths are all related 
to one another, and are neither separate fables nor idle fancies. 
(2) That they reveal an astro-religious system, and tell a true 
story of astronomical progress, calendar correction and theolog- 
ical changes, before the time of our written histories. (3) That 
an era not far removed from 4004 B. C. was an important era in 
this history, but was not the beginning. The narratives of cre- 
ation, fall of angels, fall of man, evil serpent, flood, babel, &c., 
appear in these records in their fresh and true meaning. 

The book will consist of about 450 pages, 8vo, bound in cloth, 
and published at \os 61/, but subscribers sending their orders 
before publication will receive it for six shillings. The author's 
address is Castle Road, Cardiff. 



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W. M. FLINDERS PCTRIC 

(Prom "Progress'*) 



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BIBLIA 

A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHJQOI/)GT, 9THNOU>GT, I^ITERATURS, RBUOION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, I.ANGUAG9S, 9TC 

Voi,. XI. Boston, Mass., May, 1898. No. 2. 



PROF. PETRIE'S WORK IN EQYPT. 

AS already announced in Bxblia, the scene of Prof. Petxie's 
- work this winter has been the old cemetery of Denderah, 
the ancient Ta-n-terer, sacred to Hathor, and capital of the 
sixth nome of Upper Egypt. Denderah is a familiar place to 
Nile voyagers, being situated on the left bank of the river, just 
where it makes the great bend to Koptos and Thebes. The con- 
cession granted the Egypt Exploration Fund by the Government 
included the tract of nearly thirty miles westward along the 
river from Denderah to Hu or How, the ancient Het-seshesht. 
The whole of this tract, inclusive of the bordering desert, has 
been examined by Prof. Petrie, who reports it full of cemeteries, 
mostly of the Old Kingdom and the XVIIIth dynasty. Most of 
them have been worked out and destroyed in recent years, but 
plenty remains for another season's work. The work of last 
winter was practically confined to the cemetery of Denderah 
itself. 

Prof. Petrie arrived at Denderah on December 18, having been 
delayed by various minor troubles en route. There he found 
his huts already built, under the superintendence of one of his 
assistants, who had gone on in advance ; and within two days 
he had commenced digging, with about thirty of his old workers 
from Koptos. He took with him three assistants from England 
— Mr. Mace, a pupil of his in Egyptology at University College, 
who was able to relieve him of much of the toilsome task of 
recording the petty objects daily discovered ; Mr^Davies, whose 
special qualifications are those of an artist ; and Mr. Maclvor, 



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28 BIBLIA. 

who has measured scientifically many hundreds of skulls and 
skeletons, so that these need not be sent to England. Towards 
the end of his stay, he was also joined by Mr. Rosher, who has 
been working this year in Egypt on account of Philadelphia. 

Prof. Petrie left Denderah on April i, and was due to arrive 
in England about April 25. The time spent in exploring the 
cemetery of Denderah was therefore a little more than three 
months. The whole was sampled throughout ; and all impor- 
tant tombs were carefully worked over. Prof. Petrie himself is 
quite satisfied with the results, which may be thus briefly sum- 
marized : — 

IVth Dynasty — A fine stele of Abu Suten, very early. 

Vlth Dynasty — Three great mastabas, containing the tombs 
of officials under Pepi I. and II., with carved stone panels and 
false-door steles. One of these mastabas had a long tunnel of 
brickwork, sloping down like a pyramid passage from the north, 
and arched with a semicircular arch, the oldest yet seen. The 
chambers below were lined with stone, sculptured and painted 
offerings and bands of inscriptions. 

Vlth to Vllth Dynasties — A large sarcophagus of Prince 
Beb, covered with a religious text, about equal in length to a 
long pyramid text. It was but roughly done in parts, and a good 
deal has perished ; but Prof. Petrie has been able to make out 
from 12,000 to 15,000 signs, which occupied him nearly ten days 
in copying. This is the most important religious text that has 
been found since the pyramid texts. 

Xlth Dynasty — A beautiful double statuette of the finest 
work, of a man named Menhiihotep and his wife. The man has 
lost his head, but the woman is perfect. A large half-ton stele 
of a man named Khnum-er-du, with inscription of about 1000 
signs, of good work. 

Xllth (?) D3masty — A large stone heap proved to cover a 
Xllth (?) dynasty burial of a woman, being the first stone-heap 
burial that Prof. Petrie has ever yet opened successfully. The 
woman had an armlet of garnet and silver beads, two good 
scarabs, &c. ; and there were also found in this tomb a number 
of small stone vases and an exquisite diorite shell. Of the same 
date is a bronze battle-axe of open work, with a kneeling figure 
in it. 

XlXth Dynasty — Two lots of bronze vessels of temple furni- 
ture, probably buried by thieves. The main objects are : an 
incense-burner, 19 inches long ; two libation vases, one with 



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BIBLIA. 29 

cartouches of Rameses II. ; two beautiful fluted vases, like those 
represented in the XVIIIth dynasty ; a cooking pot ; three 
bowls, one with handles, &c., &c. 

Ptolemaic — A Ptolemaic cemetery contained tombs all of one 
type. A stairway descends to a chamber, in the three sides of 
which are wide recesses, each containing from six to eight 
bodies, with their heads inwards. Some of the bodies had on 
them amulets of glazed pottery, one as many as 80 ; and also 
labels of limestone with demotic writing. 

Roman — A large collection of very fine glass mosaics, over 
150 fine squares, flowers, &c., from inlaying, besides a large 
quantity of plain glass borders. Three lots of coins, including 
242 of Diocletian to Constantine, and over 2000 of Constans to 
Arcadius. 

These Roman objects were found in animal-catacombs, which 
themselves deserve a few words of description. These consist 
of brickwork tunnels or galleries many hundreds of feet long, 
and from eight to ten feet wide. They were used for the cata- 
combs of sacred animals, from the XVIIIth dynasty to Roman 
times. The animals were mummified, or merely dried, and 
stacked in great masses. Then occasionally fires took place and 
burned up whole galleries of them, vitrifying the bricks, and 
leaving only a layer of burnt bones four to six inches deep. Of 
bones. Prof. Petrie identified cat, dog, ichneumon, ox, gazelle, 
ibis, hawk, and snake, as well as entire dried bodies of dogs and 
ichneumons. 

It remains to state that Prof. Petrie 's total expenditure at 
Denderah will amount to about ;^350 (say $1750), though near- 
ly as much more will be required for packing and transport, 
publication, &c. J. S. C. 

BENI HASAN III. 

THE last volume published by the Archaeological Survey of 
the Egypt Exploration Fund may be said to have opened 
up new ground in describing and discussing in detail over one 
hundred hieroglyphic signs, reproduced in their original colors 
from exceptionally fine examples in the tombs of Beni Hasan. 
The picture writing of Egypt offers a rich store of archaeological 
information to the student who, in investigating the connection 
between the powers of the signs and the objects which they rep- 
resent, constantly comes upon new and interesting facts and 
ideas. In the forthcoming volume of the Survey nearly two 



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30 BIB LI A. 

hundred signs will be treated, and the working out of the prob- 
lems involved will here be more complete. 

A hieroglyphic sign in the first place signifies a word for the 
object or action which it represents, and in the second place 
is used for other words of similar sound or for a similar sound 
forming part of another word. Thus a fat and toothsome fish, 
the Chromis Niloticus^ represents ^^«./, or a syllable of the same 
sound in a longer word. (The / is only a feminine ending and 
not radical.) Another instance : menkh is the name of a chisel, 
and the sign of the chisel is used to signify any word composed 
of the radicals m, n and kh. 

Besides a value in sound, hieroglyphic sig^s have also a value 
in meaning — as it is technically called, an** ideographic "value. 
Thus, a picture of an ox may be added to a group of phonetic 
sig^s in order to show that the meaning of the group is an ox, 
or something similar, and not any of the other words that might 
be spelt by the same signs. 

Usually the explanations of the values of signs are very 
straightforward, but sometimes the investigator is at present 
baffled, and a few instances show that there might be curious 
widenings of the ideographic power. Thus the figure of a har- 
poon-head of bone or ivory is the determinative of all names of 
reeds. Fortunately in this case all the steps of the derivation 
are clear. The harpoon-head sig^ is unmistakably drawn from 
originals identical with those recently found by Professor Petrie 
in pre-historic graves at Negada. Being made of bone and 
named qs — **the bone*' — of the harpoon, it become the symbol 
of bone, ivory, etc., in general ; then the resemblance of reeds, 
hollow and with polished stems, to bone, led to the sig^ being 
the distinctive determinative of reeds among plants. 

Few signs have such wide, indirect powers as the sign of the 
harpoon-head, but they are of special interest in showing the 
working of the primitive mind. The figure of the soul as a 
human-headed hawk is well known, but we can now add that 
the same idea was also symbolized by sacred flame or smoke in 
a burning censer. 

These and multitudes of similar matters are to be found dis- 
cussed for the first time in the above volumes. This study of 
hieroglyphics carries us far behind ideas recorded in writing. 

F. Li,. Griffith. 



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BIB LI A. 31 

THE TOMBS OP THE KINQS OP JUDAH. 

IN the Recueil d" Archiologie Orientnle^ Vol. II., Nos. 16 and 
17, M. Clermont-Ganneau commences the outline of his 
hypothesis on the probable site of the tombs of David and the 
kings of Judah. Professor £. Montet in the April number of 
the Asiatic Quarterly Review^ gives a full synopsis of M. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau's article and expresses his opinion as to the pos- 
sibility of recovering the sepulchres of the kings of Judah. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau considers that the necropolis of the 
kings of Judah is to be found in the hill southeast of Jerusalem, 
which is called Ophel. This hill seems to have been, in reality, 
the site of primitive Jerusalem, which in the Bible is called **the 
City of David.*' It was upon the northern side of ** this hill of 
Zion'* that the temple stood; and it was at its eastern base 
where gushed forth the only fountain that Jerusalem ever pos- 
sessed. All M. Clermont-Ganneau 's topographical arguments 
go to confirm this view. 

The hill of Ophel is perforated by an excavated tunnel dating 
from the eighth century before Christ, and very probably from 
King Hezekiah's time. This tunnel is a subterranean aqueduct 
intended to lead to the basin or piscina of Siloam, situated to the 
southeast of Jerusalem, the water of an intermittent spring, 
which issues from the base of the east side of the hill of Ophel ; 
this water, left to its own natural course, flows through the val- 
ley of Kedron. In ancient times, when the hill of Ophel was 
defended on its eastern side by an enclosing wall, which for 
strategic reasons should have been built upon the height, the 
spring, the water of which flowed into the brook Kedron, was 
necessarily left outside the walls. It was to remedy this great 
inconvenience, in the event of the city being besieged, that a 
sort of covered way was contrived, thus giving access to the 
water of the spring. This covered way consists of a very curious 
and complicated system of wells, and of horizontal galleries and 
inclines, which were discovered in 1868. 

The subterranean canal, formed of a series of galleries, some 
straight and some curved, is 533 metres in length. An inscrip- 
tion, which has been discovered, shows that the work was 
effected by two gangs of miners who started from opposite sides 
and met, in spite of the imperfect means then adopted for exca- 
vations of this kind. We read in the inscription that the miner 
** heard the voice of his companion when he called him " (sec- 
ond and third lines), for the workmen '* struck at each other, 



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S2 BIBLIA. 

pick against pick, when meeting '* (fourth line). The narrow- 
ness of the gallery, the mean width of which is 0.63 metres, and 
the height i . 1 16 metres, does not, in reality, permit of more than 
one miner to work and only in a sitting posture ; it is true that 
this position, which we should consider very uncomfortable, is 
one that Eastern workmen prefer. 

The canal of Siloam has a most peculiar characteristic, which 
has up to now been unexplained ; the tunnel is not rectilinear. 
If the constructors had allowed it would have been relatively 
easy to have excavated in a straight line, as we can see from 
the processes of the ** rep^rage '* (bench-marking) employed by 
the ancients in subterranean wo As of art. A simple placing of 
offset staves in the gpround by means of lights corresponding to 
the exterior signals would have been sufScient, but the engi- 
neers did not wish to construct a rectilinear aqueduct, and they 
must have had their reasons for acting as they did. 

At first the canal of Siloam appears to be arbitrarily sinuous, 
but on examining it closer, one does not fail to recognize that 
the two unequal curves, and in the inverse sense in which it 
appears, in those parts of its route which touch at the two ex- 
tremities, are intentional. What are the two curves for? The 
smallest, situated towards the north at the side of the spring, 
can be explained in the following way : The detour (winding) 
imposed on the underground gallery may have been intended to 
allow access to the canal from the top of the hill by means of a 
pit 50 metres deep. Owing to this circuit the aqueduct passed 
under a part of the city included in the circumference of the 
protecting wall ; the inhabitants of this elevated quarter could 
therefore draw water direct from the aqueduct of Siloam. 

As regards the larger curve, that of the south, M. Clermont- 
Ganneau thinks that it was caused by the absolute necessity of 
avoiding the necropolis and subterranean tomb of David and of 
those of the kings of Judah, a necropolis which was excavated 
under the hill of Ophel. Evident proof is thus derived in the 
unfinished galleries and the pits of orientation (direction) which 
all seem to have for their object to keep the canal at a distance, 
at all cost, from the royal tombs. Indeed, if the inner wall 
{''paroi'^) of rock had been perforated, the sepulchral vault 
would have been inundated, and the possibility of its violation 
made easier. 

What gives a very great weight to the hypothesis of M. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau is, that it alone gives a sufl&cient and analjrtical 



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BIBLIA. 33 

explanation of the large curve of the aqueduct of Siloam. 
There must have been of necessity an imperative motive for this 
strange deviation of a canal which was so much easier to make 
rectilinear as many of its parts offer straight sections. 

A legend of Jewish origin, related in a pamphlet on the lives 
and sepulchres of the prophets, which is attributed to Epiphanrus 
(who died 403 A. D.), supports this conjecture. According to 
this narrative, the Prophet Isaiah, who was about to be put to 
death by the King Manasses, is supposed to be buried under 
the oak of Rogel,* ** close to the passage of waters (springs) 
which Hezekiah had caused to disappear by covering them up" 
(with earth). **This source,'* says the legend, **was inter- 
mittent. The tomb which the Jews are supposed to have erected 
to the prophet, near Siloam (Silo6), was situated not far from 
the tombs of the kings, on the south side." 

King David, according to the Bible (i Kings 11 : 10), was 
interred in the ** city of David," that is to say, upon the hill of 
Ophel ; according to tradition, it was Solomon who is said to 
have built, towards the east of Zion, the tomb of David, with a 
difficult, complicated entrance free from suspicion. If the tomb 
of the Kings of Judah is actually dug under the hill of Ophel, 
the entrance to it must be very small, as is the case with many 
an ancient royal necropolis, probably, to all appearances, the 
mouth of a well. 

M. Clermont-Ganneau asks for a few thousand francs to be 
devoted to making preliminary borings for the purpose of con- 
firming or confuting his hypothesis. The experiment is a hun- 
dred times worth the trouble of trying it. Will a generous donor 
be found to facilitate this enterprise ? We venture to hope it. 
Happy the scholar who is entrusted with these researches. 
Suppose one were to discover^some day the tomb of David and 
of the kings of Judah ? After all said, it is not impossible. 



* Name of a spring quoted in the Bible, and which appears to have 
been the source of Siloam. 



ThiQ Journal of the Anthropological Sodefy of Bombay^ Vol. IV., 
No. 5, contains ** On the Star Worshippers of Mesopotamia," 
by S. M. Zwemer ; ** On Conversion to Hinduism," by Tribho- 
vandas Manguldas Mathubhai ; * * Note on Embalming in Modem 
India," by Surat Chandra Mitra. 



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34 BIBLIA. 

WORK AT ANCIENT CORINTH. 

PROFESSOR Benjamin Ide Wheeler of Cornell University 
writes that the American excavations on the site of ancient 
Corinth were resumed by Director Richardson on March 23. 
The work will be pushed this year with unusual vigor, in the 
hope of making up for the enforced suspension of the excava- 
tions during the war excitement of last spring. As a large 
amount of earth has to be removed in order to uncover the agora 
which, is at the point where the work is now beginning, about 
fifteen feet deep, a portion of the track, some 1500 feet, which 
was used by the French in the excavations at Delphi, has been 
purchased, as well as twelve dump-cars, and the slow process of 
conveying dirt in baskets on the shoulders of men will be re- 
placed by more wholesale methods. The work started with 
eighty men and various mules. 

The excavations of year before last were largely tentative in 
their character, but resulted in the discovery of the theatre, a 
brilliantly fortunate success in itself, inasmuch as it serves to 
locate the general topography, and guide with certainty to at 
least the neighborhood of the agora. One of the trial trenches 
which was dug in the hope of finding the agora came upon a 
broad, finely-paved street, running between what were evidently 
important public buildings ; but little has been done beyond 
this. It remains for the work of this year, which will be con- 
ducted in the region of this trench, to lay bare the street and its 
buildings. 

SuflBicient land has been expropriated by the Government and 
placed at the disposal of the American School to occupy the 
excavators for the present year. The funds left over from what 
was collected in 1896 and 1897 are suflBicient to buy the track 
and cars, and to make a beginning of this year's work. Fifteen 
hundred dollars more, however, is needed. The treasurer of 
the school, Gardiner M. I^ane, No. 44 State street, Boston, will 
receive contributions for the purpose. 

The new Austrian Institute, under the direction of Dr. Adolph 
Wilhelm, has just begun exploration and excavation on the site 
of the Artemis temple of I^usoi in the northern Peloponnesus. 
Mr. Hogarth, the new director of the English School, is pros- 
pecting with a view to beginning excavations in Crete. 



M. J. Reinach will soon publish a work descriptive of his 
excavations at Sippara, which he does not identify as the 
Sepharvaim of the Old Testament. 



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BIBLIA. 35 

SELECTIONS PROM THE ANCIENT BOOKS OF THE WORLD. 

4 4 'T^HERE was something undefined and complete, coming 
-*- into existence before Heaven and Earth. How still it 
was and formless, standing alone, and undergoing no change, 
reaching everywhere and in no danger (of being exhausted) ! 
It may be regarded as the mother of all things." — Lao-tsze 6oo 
B.C. 

** In the beginning there arose the Golden Child (Hiranya- 
garbha) ; as soon as bom, he alone was the lord of all that is. 
He stablished the earth and this heaven : — Who is the God to 
whom we shall offer sacrifice ? 

He who gives breath, he who g^ves strength, whose command 
all the bright Gods revere, whose shadow is immortality, whose 
shadow is death. Who is the God to whom we offer sacrifice ? 

He who through his might became the sole king of the 
breathing and twinkling world, who governs all this, man and 
h^2iSi.''—Rig'Veda. 

** And therefore, O Great Creator, the Living Lord! (inspired) 
by Thy Benevolent mind, I approach You, (and beseech of 
Thee) to grant me (as a bountiful gift) for both the worlds, the 
corporeal and (for that) of mind, those attainments which are 
to be derived from the (Divine) Righteousness, and by means 
of which (that personified Righteousness within us) may intro- 
duce those who are its recipients into beatitude and glory." — 
Zend-Avesta. 

** God, there is no god but He, the living, the self-subsistent. 
Slumber takes him not, nor sleep. His is what is in the heav- 
ens and what is in the earth. Who is it that intercedes with 
Him save by His permission ? He knows what is before them 
and what behind them, and they comprehend not aught of His 
knowledge but of what He pleases. His throne extends over 
the heavens and the earth, and it tires Him not to guard them 
both for He is high and grand." — Koran. 

** O God, deliver us from occupation with trifles, and show us 
the realities of things as they actually are. Withdraw the veil 
of heedlessness from our mental vision, and cause everything to 
appear to us as it is. Suffer not the Unreal to take the form of 
the Real in our eyes, neither draw a veil of the Unreal over the 
Realty of the Real. Make these imaginary forms mirrors for 
the effulgences of Thy Beauty, not means to our illusion and 



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36 BIBLIA. 

withdrawal from Thee; and cause these phantoms of our fancy to 
become a source of wisdom and insight, not an incentive to 
ignorance and blindness. Our deprivation and separation is 
wholly from ourselves ; leave us not with ourselves, but grant 
us deliverance from ourselves, and vouchsafe unto us knowledge 
of Thyself.** — Sufi Prayer from LawaHh of Jami. 

** The I^rd is my shepherd ; I shall not want. 

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures ; 

He leadeth me beside the still waters. 

He restoreth my soul : 

He guideth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's 
sake. 

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, 

I will fear no evil ; for thou art with me : 

Thy rod and thy stafi, they comfort me. 

Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine 
enemies : 

Thou hast anointed my head with oil ; my cup runneth over. 

Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my 
Ufe: 

And I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.*' — Old 
Testament, 

** They who imagine truth in untruth, and see untruth in 
truth, never arrive at truth, but follow vain desires. 

They who know truth in truth, and untruth in untruth, arrive 
at truth, and follow true desires. 

As rain breaks through the ill-thatched house, passion will 
break through an unreflecting mind. 

The evil-doer mourns in this world, and he mourns in the 
next ; he mourns in both. He mourns and suffers when he sees 
the evil of his own work.** — Dhammapada, 

** May it be thy will, O Lord, our God, to give us long life, a 
life of peace, of good deeds, of blessing, of sustenance, of bodily 
vigor ; a life marked by the fear of sin, a life free from shame or 
reproach, a life of prosperity and honor, a life in which love of 
the Law and fear of thee shall inspire us, a life in which the de- 
sires of our hearts shall be fulfilled for good.** — Talmud, 

** Praise to Amen-Ra, the good God beloved, the Ancient of 
Heavens, the oldest of the earth. Lord of Eternity, Maker Ever- 
lasting. He is the causer of pleasure and light, maker of grass 



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BIB LIA 



37 



for the cattle and of fruitful trees for man, causing the fish to 
live in the river and the birds to fill the air, lying awake when 
all men sleep to seek out the good of His creatures. We worship 
Thy Spirit who alone hast made us; we whom Thou hast made, 
thank Thee that Thou hast given us birth ; we give Thee praises 
for Thy mercy to us." — Book of the Dead. 



ARCHiCOLOQlCAL NOTES. 



Mr. F. LI. Griffith, M.A., F.5.A. 

Mr. F. U. Griffith, M.A., F.S.A., 
formerly connected with the British 
Museum, is one of the younger English 
Egyptologists, and is noted for his 
critical ability, exact method, and 
extensive knowledge of the ancient 
Egyptian literature. Mr. Griffith is a 
member of the Committee of the Egypt 
Exploration Fund, and he is the author 
of several volumes of the Fund and its 
Archaeological Survey. Mr. Griffith is 
F. Li. QriflBth also the editor of the annual Archaeo- 

(Fn>mThcS«ndaySchoolTW) j^^.^^j ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ExploratioU 

Fund. 



We are indebted to Progress for the very fine portrait of Dr. 
W. M. Flinders Petrie. Dr. Petrie stands at the head of Egyp- 
tian explorers, and his work in other directions in Egyptology 
has won for him the honorary degrees of D.C.I<. (Oxoni), 
I^L.D. (Edinburgh), as well as Ph.D. (Strasburg). Dr. Petrie 
was bom in 1853, and spends most of his time in Egypt, directing 
explorations there, and he also occupies the chair of Egyptology 
in University College, London. A biographical sketch of Dr. 
Petrie, with an account of some of his most remarkable achieve- 
ments in exploration, will be found in Bibua for November, 
1896. 

Says Professor Petrie, ** Discoveries come so incessantly, and 
the point of view so often changes, in the ever-widening inter- 
ests of Egyptian history, that each year puts out of date a great 
part of what has been written. Any general work on Eg^yptian 
history or art needs revision every few months, so thickly have 
new subjects and new standpoints come before us lately. 



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38 BIBLIA, 

Contents of the Vienna Oriental Journal ^ Vol. XI., No. 4 : A 
List of the Strasburg Collection of Digambara Manuscripts, by 
Ernst I/eumann ; Names of the Medicinal Remedies of the 
Arabs, by Moritz Steinschneider ; The Book of the Clear Lumi- 
nous Diamond, making one to pass over to the Other Life, 
translated from the Mandchou text by Charles de Harlez ; 
Turkish Folk-songs, according to the Annotations by Schahen 
Efendi Alan, published by Maximilian Bittner ; Reviews ; Mis- 
cellaneous Notes. 



Jn u'LKv: t),^^^ 'M/^ //'-^ ^' ^ 

The whole contents of the ^mb of Negadi, discovered by 
Flinders Petrieinthe winter of 1894-95, have been kept together 
and preserved in a separate room in the Gizeh Museum. Dr. 
Ludwig Borchardt, Director of the German School at Cairo, 
writing to the Independent on the subject, says: ** One of the 
principal objects of this royal tomb was found to bear the ordi- 
nary as well as the Horus-name of the king — a fact which had 
escaped the fortunate discoverer. The object is a small ivory 
plate with incised representations of funerary offerings before 
the king. Animals are being sacrificed to him ; jars full of beer 
and other things are being offered. The figure of the king, in 
front of a hanging mat, is not preserved ; but the upper comer 
still remains with the two names, which were written above the 
figure. First, there is the same Horus-name which occurs on 
all the inscribed objects of this tomb, and which may be trans- 
lated 'The Warrior.* Besides the Horus-name in a sort of 
cartouche is the title * Lord of Vulture and Serpent-Crown ' 
(Lord of Upper and Lower Egypt), and beneath the title the 
sign which represi nts a checker-board, and has the syllabic val- 
ue Mn, There can therefore be no doubt that the king buried 
in the royal tomb of Negada, of whom we have only known the 
Horus-name * The Warrior,* had also the name Mn, Now, 
there is no other known Egyptian king who could be identified 
with this name Mn than the first king of the Manethonian 
dynasty, called Menes by the Greeks. . . . The final con- 
clusion is this : In Negada we have before us the tomb of the 
oldest king of whom the Egyptians had preserved any memory, 
and whom they considered the founder of the Egyptian mon- 
archy. . . . The scientific value of the proof that Menes 
was the king buried in the royal tomb of Negada lies rather in 
the fact that we have now settled the question of the age of that 
culture which was presented to us by the excavations of Ballas, 



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BiBLiA. 39 

Negada and Abydos, The products of a whole period of Egyp- 
tian civilization which had been misunderstood, and had been 
used to support false historical conclusions, fall into their true 
place, and our knowledge of the history of Egyptian culture is 
carried back not merely a few centuries, but to a period pre* 
senting characteristics different from the oldest previously known 
period, but containing the germs of the later development/' 



The Chaldaeans invented the carving of precious stones, and 
no people ever made a more constant use of those cylinders^ 
cones and seals of every form, on which are seen, engraved in 
lines fine and deep, the same images which monumental sculp- 
ture drew upon the walls of temples and palaces. These stones 
carved in intaglio, whether haematite, porphyry, chalcedony, 
marbles or onyx of every variety, were worn around the neck, 
on the fingers, on the wrist, or fastened to the garment. The 
seal-«ngraving of Assyria and Babylonia do not surpass in artis- 
tic merit the Chaldean work, and those manufactured at Nineveh 
are distinguished from those of Babylon and Chaldaea by a more 
commercial style. Inscriptions are rarer, and engraved in Nine- 
vite characters : the myths represented by the engravers are the 
same as at Babylon, but the figures have a more modem 
appearance. 

The general form of Egyptian engraved stones is that of the 
scarabaeus or beetle, with an oval flat base, the suriace of which 
receives the engraving in flat intaglio. The greater number of 
scarabaei were mounted in rings, which frequentiy bore the 
name of the wearer, the name of the monarch in whose reign he 
Kved, and also the emblems of certain deities. The Egyptians 
also used a class of engraved stones similar to the cylinders of 
the Assyrians. The seals of Babylonia especially are of valuable 
assistance in depicting the customs and habits of the inhabitants. 

Herodotus says of them, ** everyone carries a seal," showing 
that their use was universal, from the highest to the lowest in 
the land. The examples of Babylonian cylinders and seals ex- 
isting to this day, are very numerous, and afford an ample field 
for observation and study. Judging from the figures depicted 
on their cylinders, the Babylonians wore their hair long, either 
falling in tresses over their shoulders, or gathered into a species 
of knot behind. They were clad in what appears to be a long 
flounced robe, descending from the neck to the feet, some also 
in addition wore what looks like a short flounced jacket. Their 



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40 BIBLIA. 

most usual head-dress was a low cap or turban with two curved 
horns branching out ; others are depicted wearing a high crown 
or mitre. According to Herodotus the dress of the Babylonians 
consisted of a linen tunic reaching to the feet, over which was a 
tunic made of wool, over this again a short white cloak. He 
also says they carried walking-sticks with elaborately carved 
heads. Their seals usually bear the name of the owner and 
that of his father, also that of the god he worshipped and under 
whose especial protection the possessor of the seal was supposed 
to be. 

At a recent meeting of the Philosophical Society of Washing- 
ton Mr. J. E. Watkins presented a paper on •* The Transporta- 
tion and Lifting of Heavy Bodies by the Ancient Engineers. '* 
The purpose of the paper was to show how many of the struc- 
tures regarded as remarkable by expert engineers of the present 
day, and which some archaeologists declare must have required 
in their erection the use of immense machines, could have been 
constructed by primitive tools and simple methods. 

By means of diagrams the speaker explained how inclined 
planes of earth could be used in placing in position stone blocks 
or slabs, of enormous weight, levers and pry-bars being em- 
ployed in raising them. He then demonstrated how easily, 
comparatively speaking, the Pyramids could have been con- 
structed by these simple methods, and the earth which had been 
used for the inclined planes filled into the pits from which it 
was taken, leaving the ground as level as before. As an illus- 
tration the Pyramid of Gizeh was cited, some of the stones of 
which were transported a distance of five hundred miles. In 
this case the highest embankment necessary when the workmen 
reached the top course, assuming that a 20 per cent grade was 
adopted, would have been 750 yards long, containing about 
7,500,000 cubic yards, if the sides of the embankment stood at 
an angle of 30 degrees, which is not at all improbable. A force 
of ten thousand men could have built such an embankment in a 
single twelvemonth, a very small part of the total labor, which 
it is stated called for the services of one hundred thousand men 
for twenty years. 



Mr. A. Grunwedel, of the Ethnological Museum of Berlin, 
has just brought out a new work entitled the '' BuddhisHscke 
Studien,'' forming the fifth volume of the publications of the 



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BIBLIA. 41 

Museum. The author's contribution towards the study of 
Buddhistic arts in India is well known among those who are 
interested in this line of research. In the present work he has 
chosen for his special subject the Buddhistic Birth - stories 
(Jaiakas), to speak more precisely, the reliefs, sculptures, and 
wall-paintings illustrating the Birth-stories told by Buddha 
himself. He gives the abstracts of some 55 Jatakas and 99 
illustrations corresponding to them, accompanied, in each case, 
by his critical notes on some archaeological points, on the read- 
ing of the inscription or on the subject-matter of the story itself. 
Forty-five out of the fifty-five in all will be found translated in 
Prof. Rhys Davids* work, or in the Cambridge series of Prof. 
E. B. Cowell. The remaining ten, however, including that long 
tale, the Mahasotasoma (No. 537 in Fausboll's text), have been 
rendered into German by the author himself. 



In Eber's Festschrift Professor Lincke draws attention to the 
leading place ascribed to Cambyses as an evil genius in the 
stories of the Middle Ages. He considers that Cambyses was 
one of the greatest kings that ever ruled in the East, that he 
has been systematically maligned by the peoples whom he con- 
quered, and that the oflBcial records of his successors did not do 
him justice. That he Jbecame the object of the most spiteful 
accusations by the Egyptians is clear from Herodotus. 



All who are interested in Japan and the Japanese should read 
the Hansei Zasshi^ the first number of which was published in 
January. Each number contains original articles on the man- 
ners and customs, fine arts, literature and religion of the Japan- 
ese nation. It also gives comprehensive trustworthy information 
on the political, social, and religious topics of the time. This 
magazine is finely illustrated, and each number contains as the 
frontispiece a photo-engraving of the work of some famous Jap- 
anese artist. Annual subscription $1.50. Published at No. 10 
Nishikata-Machi, Hongo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. 



Contents of The Brahmavadin^ Vol. III., No. 2: Yajnavalkya 
and Maitreyi, or Love and Immortality ; A Lecture on the 
Vedanta, by Swami Vivekananda ; Aitareyopanishad, Sankara's 
Introduction ; Swami Abhedananda's View of Christ. 



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42 BIBLIA. 

An association bas been fonned in India called the '* Sanskrit 
Pustakonnati Sabha,*' the object of which is **the research, 
selection, collection, preservation, diffusion, and revival of 
Sanskrit literature to such an extent as may be within the power 
and means of the association/' The English Government and 
German and English Orientalists have already discovered some 
15,000 Sanskrit manuscripts during the past thirty years, but 
there are supposed to be many thousand others which it is hoped 
to collect and preserve in India, in a place of safety. A com- 
prehensive alphabetical catalogue will be made of all the manu- 
scripts extant in India, in public and private collections, and 
particulars will be given as to the author's name, brief summary 
of contents, and whether the manuscript is unknown {ap{trvd) / 
not attainable {alabhya); hidden {gupta); rare {durlabha); ob- 
tainable with diflSculty {prayatna sddhya) ; easily obtainable 
{siilabh) ; published {mudritd); procurable by purchase {pras- 
tutd); current {prachlita) ; necessary [for promoting the work] 
(dvashyakd). 

Other objects of the Association are the collection of works 
that throw light on Sanskrit literature, the translation of books 
and pamphlets, the translation of any information connected 
with the revival of Sanskrit literature into foreign languages 
and Indian vernaculars, the production of original words, and 
** the setting up of S3rmpathetic interest in foreign lands by 
correspondence. ' * 

It is hoped to secure the patronage of all persons at all inter- 
ested in the revival of Sanskrit literature, and to secure cooper- 
ation of all literary associations and libraries in India, Europe^ 
America and other countries. 

The originator and founder of this Association is Shri Swami 
Brahma Nath Sidhashram, whose address is Etawa, N. W. 
Provinces, India. Further information of this Association can 
be obtained of the Secretary, P. Pushkar Nath, Paridkote, 
India, to whom we are indebted for the above particidars. 



The February number of Progress^ the magazine issued in the 
interests of the ** University and World's Congress Extension," 
contains an article by Dr. W. Flinders Petrie, on the Eg^yptian 
Religion, in which he considers the Nature and Destiny of the 
Soul, Domestic Worship, Worship of Animals, The Osiride Re- 
ligion, The Cosmogonic Religion, and The Abstract Religion. 
Other articles in this number are ** Semitic Religion," by 



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BIBLIA. 43 

Prof. George S. Goodspeed ; ** Baby Ionian- Assyrian Religion,'* 
by Dr. B. D. Kerdmans; and ** Islamism," by Dr. Morris 
Jastrow, Jr. 

Professor Rhys Davids has finished his edition of the ** Yo- 
garacara Manual/* which will be immediately published by the 
Pali Text Society. The methods adopted by the Buddhists in 
carrying out their regulated system of self-training in psycho- 
physic exercises have never, as yet, been known in detail. It 
was known to scholars that they practised such exercises in 
order to produce a state in which the mind, fully alert, would 
be able to ignore, or rise above, the obstructions to thought 
arising from physical conditions. But what they did, or how 
they did it, was matter of conjecture. The unique manuscript 
from which this edition has been prepared is a manual, or note- 
book, for the use of students engaged in these exercises, and 
gives all the details of many of them. Professor Rhys Davids 
in the introduction gives a full account of these exercises and of 
the references to them in the sacred books of the Buddhists, and 
discusses the position which they held in the general system of 
Buddhist belief and practice. 



At Kom-el-Ahmar, opposite El Kab (south of Thebes), Mr. 
Quibell has been making very interesting discoveries on the site 
of the ancient temple of Nekhen. Among other objects he has 
disinterred fragments of a bronze figure of King Pepi I., of the 
sixth dynasty, which is more than life size, and of very fine 
workmanship. He has just been appointed a member of the 
commission which is engaged in cataloguing the antiquities of 
the Gizeh Museum. 



Professor Sayce is in his dahabiyah Istar on the Nile, and 
when last heard from in April, was at Assiut, the capital of 
Upper Egypt, some two hundred miles north of Cairo. 



The French School at Delphi has lately unearthed two slabs 
of limestone which bear an inscription which is of great interest, 
dating from the fourth century before Christ. This inscription, 
which consists of about two hundred lines, gives the price of 
work for building operations in Greece at the period named, 
and from it we learn that an architect was paid less than $150 
per annum. 



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44 BIBLIA. 

The tomb of Thothmes III. has been found in the Valley of 
the Tombs of the Kings at Thebes, above the tomb of Seti I. 
It was never finished, and in the inner chamber the hieroglyphics 
have been merely sketched in black, and never cut. The sar- 
cophagus of the king, moreover, is poor, being only a cofifer of 
sandstone, the exterior of which has been covered with stucco 
and painted to imitate granite. Two female mummies have 
been discovered in the tomb, which are supposed to be those of 
two of his queens. 

It was a theory of Miss Harriet Martineau, if we do not err, 
that the ancient Egyptians possessed almost ever3^ing which 
we claim as exclusively peculiar to our modem Western culture. 
It is now proved by Emil Brugsch-Bey that they had a comic 
literature. In the new number of the ** Zeitschrift fur Aegypt- 
ische Sprache und Alterthum " he gives an account of a fragment 
of a satirical papyrus, unique in its kind, which has lately been 
discovered in Tonnah, the ancient Tanis Superior. The artist 
has pictured, with extraordinary cleverness and humor, a topsy- 
turvy world, in which the cats and the rats exchange their char- 
acters and functions. In one picture a rat, dressed as a grand 
lady, is waited upon by a cat as lady's maid, who holds up a 
mirror to her mistress. In another, a rat appears as a young 
Egyptian dandy, whose grand ceremonial peruke is being dressed 
by an obsequious cat as barber. In a third, a cat figures as a 
nurse, tenderly carrying a rat in her arms. In a fourth, two 
jackals wait upon a cow ; one jackal carries two milk pails sus- 
pended from a yoke across the shoulders, the other empties a 
pail into a trough over which the cow is bending. The drawings 
are colored, and Dr. Brugsch is incKned to attribute the artist 
to the period of the 22nd dynasty. 

Thanks to the researches of Oriental scholars in Europe, the 
Western World is gradually being educated to appreciate the 
archaic literature of Oriental religions. The Sanskritists of the 
type of Buhler, Deussen, Oldenberg, Lanman, Bloomfield, and 
Max MiiUer are operating in the domain of Vedic and Vedantic 
metaphysics ; Jacobi and Lanman are publishing their researches 
in the field of Jain agnostic dialectic philosophy, and Garbe has 
done splendid service in his exposition of Sankhya philosophy. 
In the inexhaustible mine of Buddha's Dharma, a band of de- 
voted Pali scholars are at work in all civilized lands — Rhys 



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BIB LI A. 45 

Davids and his associates in England, Warren and his colleagues 
in America, FausboU in Denmark, Oldenberg and his friends in 
Russia, Neumann in Vienna. These scholare are doing their 
best in the way of expounding the ethics by translations and 
editing the texts. Very soon Sanskrit scholars will find out 
that their researches in the Brahmanical metaphysics will reach 
a culmination by the exhaustion of the contents they are utiliz- 
ing. So it is with other Oriental religions. In the inexhaustible 
mine of Buddha's doctrines there remains a rich supply of pure 
gold which has yet to be brought out for the use of the student 
of ethical religions. 

In an article in the Sunday School Times, entitled ** Babylonian 
or Egyptian Civilization: Which Earlier?" Prof. Hilprecht 
says: ** Between these two civilizations there is a deep gap, 
which at present cannot well be bridged over by strictly scien- 
tific methods. We have to wait for further restdts. So much 
only seems sure — that the second civilization cannot be assumed 
to have been gradually developed out of the first, as the differ- 
ence of race between the representatives of the first and second 
civilizations is unfavorable to such a theory. It must have been 
imported into Egypt from outside. Whence ? In his very im- 
portant and brilliant new work published by Leroux of Paris, 
Recherches sur Us Origines de VEgypte (II.), Ethnogtaphie Pri- 
historique et Tombeau Royal de Nigadah ($5), M. de Morgan 
draws ^e inevitable conclusion, corroborated by many single 
facts, that, in view of the extraordinary age of Babylonian civ- 
ilization, the only one the existence of which we have positive 
knowledge, outside of the Egyptian, at such an early period, 
the most probable solution of the problem must be that the 
Egyptian civilization had its origin in Babylonia." 



Prof. Sayce sends from Cairo, Egypt, a very interesting article 
which is published in the April Homiletic Review y entitled ** The 
Present Relation of Archaeology to the Higher Criticism." 
Commenting upon the discovery of the tomb of Menes, a king, 
** proved" by Professor Maspero to have been fabulous. Prof. 
Sayce shows that the truth of history cannot be determined by 
philological speculations and arbitrary assumptions, but that 
the archaeological evidence interpreted in accordance with the 
archaeological method can alone lead us to certainty. The ad- 
herents of the '* Higher Criticism " claim for themselves alone 



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46 BIBLIA. 

the title of critics, and will not allow it to anyone else. But the 
criticism they mean is speculative and visionary ; it is based on 
fancies and presuppositions, and not on facts. It attempts to 
apply philology to history, to the injury of both. Prof. Sayce 
thinks that between this literary criticism and archaeology there 
is and there can be no reconciliation. 

In this number Professor McCurdy of Toronto deals with the 
subject of ** Oriental Discoveries and Bible Chronology," and 
shows how the historical, prophetical and poetical books of the 
Old Testament receive illumination from Assyriological dis- 
coveries. 



The German Emperor has granted the necessary means for 
the publication of a new large dictionary of the ancient Egyptian 
language. A commission composed of the four professors, 
Ebers, Erman, Pietschmann, and Steindorff, representing the 
four royal academies and societies of science of Munich, Berlin, 
Gottingen and Leipsic, respectively, has been elected by these 
learned bodies as the editorial staff for this great scientific work. 
According to the plan prepared by this committee, and published 
in the journal of the German Oriental Society, the dictionary 
will contain all the words occurring in such texts as are written 
in hieroglyphic and hieratic writing. Demotic and Coptic texts 
will be utilized only if they serve to explain words written in 
hieroglyphics. 

We have received the second number of the Orientalische 
Litteratur-Zeitun^ . The contents are as follows : The German 
Oriental Society ; Prdsfek, Researches on the History of An- 
tiquity, i; Cambyses and the Tradition of Antiquity, byH. 
Winckler; Zimmem, Comparative Grammar of the Semitic 
I^ang^ages ; Elements of the Science of Sounds and Grammati- 
cal Forms, by H. Grimme ; Socin, or the Metres of several of 
Molifere*s Dramas, translated into Arabic, by Martin Hartmann; 
Bezold, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyounjik 
Museum, by Hugo Winckler. 



Contents of the American Journal of Archeology, Vol. I., No. 
3, May-June: Epigraphical Researches in Gortyna, by F. 
Halbherr; Some Cretan Sculptures in the Museum of the 
Syllogos of Candia, by F. Halbherr; Note on a Mycenaean Vase 



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BIBLIA. 47 

and on some Geometric Vases of the Syllogos of Candia, by P. 
Orsi ; Some Roman Busts in the Museum of the Syllogos of 
Candia, by L. Mariani ; Statue of an Asclepiad from Gortyna, 
by Iv. Mariani. 

Fasciculus i, Volume III., of the Sphinx has the following 
table of contents : Notes de lexicographic igyptienne, second 
article, by K. Piehl ; Aegyptiaca, Festschrift fiir Georg Ebers 
zum I, Marz, 1897, by Karl Piehl; Foucart's Histoire de Tordre 
lotiforme, by Ed. Naville ; Erman's Bruchstiicke koptischer 
Volksliteratur, by Karl Piehl; Griffith's Beni Hassan, Part 
III., by Karl Piehl; Sur le dieu nouveau, jusqu'ici inconnu ; 
Baedeker's Aegypten, by Karl Piehl ; Melanger, (Memoires de 
M. M. Moret, Le Page Renouf, Maspero, Chassinat, Wiede- 
mann, Daressy, Schweinfurth, KroU and Turajeflf) ; Notices by 
Karl Piehl ; Sir Le Page Renouf. 



Themistocles' grave has been discovered by a Greek named 
Dragastis on Cape Krakari. Its authenticity, however, is not 
beyond doubt, though the place where it was found fits in with 
the description of Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus. 



The leading articles in the Journal of the Bombay Branch of 
the Royal Asiatic SocUty^ Vol. XIX., No. LIU., are, ** Akbar 
and the Parsees"; ** Historical Survey of Indian Logic"; 
** Inscriptions on the * Three Gateways »»»;** The Aryans and 
the Non- Aryans " ; " Future of the Soul." 



THE PALB5TINB EXPLORATION FUND. 

THE visit of Dr. F. J. Bliss to this country has brought great 
satisfaction to all who have been within the reach of his 
voice. Unfortunately no leave of absence could be granted him 
of sufficient length to enable him to accept engagements to lec- 
ture beyond a very limited period ; but he did what he could. 
In his lectures at Cambridge and elsewhere he gave an explana- 
tion of the Jerusalem problem as it presented itself before his 
work began, and then showed what had been accomplished. 
Lantern slides representing the diagrams which have appeared 
in the Quarterly Statements took on fresh interest when he 
pointed out their meaning. He also drew somewhat on the 
plates of his forthcoming volume on the same subject. 



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4^ SIBLIA. 

Prom what lie has said, and from information connng front 
another source, I see that it was idle to hope for an extension of 
the firman to work at Jerusalem, and altogether better to turn 
to the tells and excavate a city mound like that of Lachish. 

As Dr. Bliss mentioned in his lectures the ^ace of the next 
excavation, I feel free to say that it is TeU-es-Safi, which is be- 
lieved to be the Gath of Goliath. Of this site Conder says in 
his ** Tent-Work*':— 

** We rode to the white clifif called Tell-es-Safi, the site of the 
crusading fortress of Blache Garde, which was buttt in A. D, 
1 144 as an outpost. Of the fortress nothing remains but the rock 
scarps, but the position is one oi immense natural strength, 
guarding the mouth of the Valley of Blah, and the situation is 
that in which Jerome describes the Philistine Gath. There is, 
I think, no place which has stronger claims than this site to be 
identified with Gath.*' (Page 276,) 

In another place Conder says of it : — 

''The magnificent natural site, standing above the broad 
valley and presenting on the north and west a white precipice of 
many hundred feet, must have made this place one of importance 
in all ages. In its mounds excavation might be productive of 
good results." 

This was his report in 1875, published in the Statement for 
July of that year. In the Statement for October, 1886, the Rev. 
Henry G. Tomkins has a very interesting article in which he 
traces the name to the giant Saph who is mentioned in 2 Samuel 
xxi. : 18, thus: — 

''And it came to pass after this that there was again war with 
the Philistines at Gob: then Sibbechai the Hushathite slew 
Saph which was of the sons of the giant.'' Here for Gob the 
Septuagint reads Gath, and thus identifies the chieftain with 
the modem name. 

Professor Flinders Petrie, in his notes of a journey made in 
1890, printed in the Statement of October of that year, says : — 

" I came to Tell-es-Safi (supposed to be Gath), which is a 
large mound on the top of a ridge of chalky limestone ; a village 
now covers one side of it. Here I found Amorite, or early Jew- 
ish, pottery up to nearly the top, and no Greek or Roman. A 
polite inhabitant showed me a place where they have uncovered 
an ancient wall of drafted blocks, which they were gradually 
carrying away for stone. From the method of the stone dressing 
I should suppose it to be Jewish." 



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BIBLIA, 



49 



These few references may show with what intense interest the 
excavation will be watched by Biblical scholars. Gath was a 
royal city of the Philistines. It is many times mentioned in the 
Old Testament, especially as the place of Goliath and as David's 
place of sojourn in the days of Achish. Perhaps no place in the 
land has more promise for the excavator, and Dr. Bliss is now 
well equipped by experience. 

Subscribers should take fresh courage, and so important a 
new undertaking should certainly increase our list. 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for United States. 

42 Qnimy Street^ Camiridgey Mass. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE EQYPT EXPLORATION FUND. THE 

ARCHiCOLOQlCAL SURVEY f^UND, AND THE 

QRAECO-ROMAN BRANCH* 

To ihe Ediior cf Bildia: 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from March 20 to April 20 are gratefully acknowledged : 
Kcv. Thos. B. Angell, . 
Mrs. Louise N. Anderson, , 
Mrs. Walter C. Baylies, 
Clarence H, Clark, 
Geo. W. Coleman, 
Thos. Cooper, 
Francis A. Cnnningham, 
Henry P. Cnrtis, . 
Gen. Chas. W. Darling, 
Mrs. Allan H. Dickson. 
Rev. J. Easter, Ph.D., . 
S. Wilson Fisher, . 
Prof. W. Henry Green, 
THOS. POWERS HARRIS, 
Prof. Henry W. Haynes, 
Mrs. Lydia B. Hibbard, 
Capt. E. O. Hurd, 
WM. G. JOHNSTON, . 
Enoch Lewis, 
Wm. G. Mather, . 

Prom March 20 to April 20, I have received very thankfully 
these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey Fund: 



f6.oo 


Allan L. McDermott, . 


I500 


5.tx> 


Thos. McKellar, Ph.D., 


10.00 


5^ 


Isaac Myer, . 


I.OO 


10.00 


New York State Library, , 


5.00 


500 


J. E. Parker, . 


. 5.00 


5'00 


Rev. Chas. Ray Palmer, 


6.00 


10.00 


Henry Phipps, Jr., 


. 10.00 


10.00 


Miss Elizabeth H. Pearson 


5.00 


5.00 


D. L. Pett^^w, . 


. 5.00 


5-00 


Rev.J.A. Seis,D.D., . 


10.00 


5.00 


Mrs, W. G. Swan, , 


. 10.00 


5.00 


Sidney C. Shepard, 


5<oo 


5.00 


Miss Elisabeth W. Stevenson 


I, 5.00 


15-00 


Miss Helen Thicker, . 


. 5-00 


5.00 


MRS. WM. THAW, • , 


25.00 


10.00 


Rt. Rev. 0. W. WhiUker, 


5.00 


5.00 


Prof. E.H.Williams, Jr., , 


10.00 


25.00 


P. Warren, . 


5.00 


10.00 


Wm. Maury Weed, 


5.00 


5.00 


Mrs. N. Lansing Zabriskie, 


. ro.oo 



Clarence H. Clark, . I5.00 

S. Wilson Fisher, , . . 5.00 
Mrs. J. CAMPBELL HARRIS, 25.00 
Prof. Henry W. Ha3mes, . 5.00 
Enoch Lewis, . . . 5.00 



Wm. G. Mather, . . I5.00 

Miss Elizabeth W. Stevenson, 5.00 

Prof. E. H. Williams, Jr., . 5.00 

Mrs. N. Lansing Zabriskie, . 5.00 



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so BIBLIA. 

From March 20 to April 20, the following^ subscriptions to 
the Graeco-Roman Branch are gratefully acknowledged : 

Mrs. Walter C. Baylies, , fc.oo Prof. M. B. Riddle, . fc.o© 

Clarence H. Clark, . . 5.00 Abner Rogers, . 5JOO 

Allan L. McDermott, . 5.00 

Francis C, Foster,. 

Honorary Treasurer, 
Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, S9 Temple Street, Boston. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

GUBSS^ AT THE RiDiyLB OP ExiSTBNCR, ANI> OTHER ESSAYS ON KIN- 
DRED Subjects. By Goi^dwin Smith, D.C.L* 

Professor Goldwin Smith was educated at Eton and Oxford, 
is a I/L.D. from Brown University, was professor of history in 
Cornell University, and a member of the senate of Toronto Uni- 
versity. Professor Smith has written a dozen or more books, 
with great clearness and force, and in a style incisive, dig^nified 
and scholarly. In the work before us the author has ruthlessly 
knocked away the props, and clears away ** the wreck of that 
upon which we can found our faith no more.'* Professor Smith 
proceeds upon the assumption that we cannot by any critical 
alembic extract materials for history out of fable. If the details 
of a story are fabulous, so is the whole. Referring to well-known 
and cherished traditions, Professor Smith says that allowance 
must be made to Oriental hyperbole and symbolism, and the 
mystic, however exalted, merely imposes on himself. To resign 
untenable arguments for a belief is not to resign belief, while a 
belief bound up with untenable arguments will share their fate. 
Professor Smith is a sincere hater of shams and a lover of truth, 
and he writes in a very candid manner and with rare acumen 
and scholarship. Cultivated readers with a well-founded belief 
will be interested in the final conclusions of a brilliant mind, 
reflecting upon the experience of a lifetime as to the ultimate 
questions of the universe. 

(New York: The Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Avenue, 
i2mo, 244 pages. Price, $1.25.) 



En Cappadocee, Notes de Voyage, is a pamphlet of eighty-one 
pages, illustrated with phototypes, describing a visit to Asia 
Minor in 1894, by Dr. A. Boissier, a Swiss Ass5rriologist. Those 



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BfBLIA. 5t 

who are interested in the Hittite question will be pleased with 
the author's description of the ruins near Boghaz-Koi. Dr. 
Boissier's journey was first communicated to the Geographic 
Society of Geneva, 



Thb Om) Tbstambkt Story Rbiatsd for Young Pbople, by W. H. 
Bbnnbtt, M.A, Thb New Tsstambmt Story, by W. P, Adbnby, 
M.A. 

Books of this character are very common and are apt to be 
watered down so as to be extremely mawkish. The books be- 
fore us are the best of the kind we have ever met with. The 
editors are well known as accurate scholars and men of excep- 
tional ability. The stories of the Old and New Testaments, so 
familiar to everyone, are here retold in plain language, but not 
too childish, and with considerable literary skill. The sequence 
of the Bible narratives is kept unbroken. They are excellent 
books to put in the hands of children, and adults will find them 
interesting reading, 

(New York: Macmillan & Co., 2 vols., i2mo, 199,404 ps^es. 
Price, 60 cents each.) 



Thb UNiQtrv Manuscript of thb Kashmirian Atharva-Vbda, thb 

SO-CALLED PAIPPALADA-CAKHA. 

In the entire domain of Indian manuscript tradition there is 
no single manuscript which claims so much interest as the 
unique birch-bark manuscript of the Kashmirian Atharva-Veda 
now in possession of the library of the University of Tiibiugen. 
The eminent Sanskrit scholar, the late Professor Rudolf von 
Roth, as early as the year 1856, was led by a remark of the trav- 
eller Baron von Htigel to the belief that a new version of the 
Atharva-Veda might be found in Kashmir. Baron von Hugel 
in his work, ** Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek,'* vol. ii, page 
364, remarked that the Brahmins of Kashmir belonged to the 
Atterwan, or as they said AtlCrman Veda, and upon the strength 
of this statement Professor von Roth induced the authorities of 
the British Government in India to institute a search in the in- 
accessible earthly paradise in the hope of finding a new version 
of the Atharva-Veda. His prophet surmise came true most 
brilliantly. In the year 1875 His Highness the late Maharaja 
Jammu and Kashmir, Ranbir Singh, had this manuscript sent 
to Sir William Muir, the then Lieutenant Governor of the 
Northwest Provinces, by whom it was in turn despatched to 



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52 BIBLIA. 

Professor von Roth. The latter, after publishing a stirring 
account of its discovery, character, and contents in his famous 
tract, *• Der Atharva-Veda in Kaschmir'' (Tiibingen, 1875), 
guarded it until his recent lamented death ; it has now passed 
into the possession of the University library of Tubingen, whose 
greatest and priceless treasure it forms. Repeated search and 
persistent inquiries have conclusively shown that no other orig- 
inal manuscript of this Veda is likely to turn up. 

The manuscript is written on birch-bark in the Kashmirian, 
the so^alled Sharada, character. It consists of 2S7 leaves 
(written on both sides) of about 20 by 25 centimetres in size. 
Professor Maurice Bloomfield, of the Johns Hopkins, has ob- 
tained the consent of the library authorities of Tubingen, and 
it is now proposed by the Johns Hopkins University to make 
the manuscript universally accessible by a photographic repro- 
duction, providing a reasonable number of advance subscriptions 
will guarantee at least a partial return for the very large outlay 
involved. The work will be carefully supervised by Professor 
Bloomfield, and it is proposed to issue no more than 200 num- 
bered copies. The volume will be sold at the price of $25.00 — 
a very low price considering the cost of the reproduction. The 
cooperation of Sanskrit scholars, learned societies, and libraries 
is especially requested. 

Subscriptions may be sent to Mr. N. Murray, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md., U. S. A. 



Among recent publications on Oriental subjects are the fol- 
lowing: — 

Joret, C. Les Plantes dans Tantiquit^ et au moyenige (his- 
toire, usages, et symbolisme). Part i : les Plantes dans TOrient 
Classique (Egypte, Chaldfie, Ass3nrie, Jud6e, Ph^nicie), pp. xx, 
504. Paris. 

R6villout, E. I^es Actions publiques et privies en droit 
^gyptien, 4to, pp. 162. Paris. 

Sax, B. lyC Prisme de Sennacherib dans Isaie, pp. 6. Paris. 

Seydel, R. Die Buddha I<egende und das Leben Jesu nach 
den Bvangelien, 8vo. Weimar. 

Uhlenbeck, C. C. A Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics, in Com- 
parison with the Indo-germanic Mother-Language, for Students 
of Germanic and Classical Philology, 8vo, pp. xii, 115. London. 

Meissner, B. Supplement zu den assyrichen Worterbuchem, 
4th, pp. 4, 105, 32. Leiden. 



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jjjw;^ jtJl^^^ 



;;^- 



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BIBLIA 

A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHJSOI^OOT, HTHNOI<OGT, UTERATURK, RBIJGION, HISTORY, 
8PIORAPHY, OBOORAPHT, I^ANGUAGBS, BTC. 

Voi,. XI. Boston, Mass., Junb, 1898. No. 3. 



EL KAB. 

A CAMP on the hillside, high above the plain, where the 
wind is picking up the dust, in lines, along the desert 
roads. 

The fellaheen come and go with noiseless feet, in the thick 
dust ; below, the plain fringed with cultivation spreads up to 
the mighty frontier fortress of El Kab. 

Half a dozen sick are waiting patiently in the shade for medi- 
cine, along the rocky ledge, in which are the death dwellings of 
the princely families who once lived, and loved, and feasted 
amongst the scenes we look at. 

The Nile sweeps away before us to the northwest, losing 
itself in misty haze by Basilea. Its course from the south, 
where we might see the Pylons of Bdfou, marked by the white 
sails of scores of trading guyassds.* 

Our daily work, so full of interest, is on these painted tomb 
chambers, which tunnel the rock from foot to summit — and hour 
after hour passes in their grateful shade, broken only by the 
curt announcement of the midday meal or the failing of light. 

The evening walk in the dusky plain, full of chattering fella- 
heen returning to their villages, the welcome bath, dinner and 
coffee close each day, and we are free to sit against the hot rock 
face and dream about the soul world around us. 

From the shadow of the early times, a thousand years before 
the Greeks called themselves a nation, comes Sebeknekht ; we 
can see him treading the rough desert paths in his strong san- 

* Trading Nile boats. 



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54 BIBLIA. 

dais, his long bow in hand, his head bare to the sun ; he is 
dressed in the thinnest of gauze skirts, from waist to knee. The 
lank greyhounds are heading oflf a troop of ostriches from the 
desert. The leading hound has just reached the throat of the 
leading bird. 

Sebeknekht's children and servants, his food, and the very 
shape of his drinking cups, are there before us, and music, girl- 
pipers and plenty of beer await him at home. He fades away 
into the troublous times of foreign invasion when the strange 
Hyksos, who knew not Ra, ravaged the whole country from 
their strongholds in the Delta. 

We see young Aahmes leaving the harbor on the bend before 
us, in the ship called ** Northern," on his way to the war which 
was to free Eg5T>t. He says, ** We laid siege to Avaris, and I 
fought on foot before the king. I was promoted to the ship 
Kha em Mennefer. We fought on the canals near Avaris," and 
so on, until from north and south the invaders were dislodged, 
gold and slaves and grants of land reward brave deeds, whilst 
Amasis and Thothmes are reestablishing the old native dynasty 
throughout Egypt. 

Whilst Aahmes is fighting on the frontier Renni is here as 
civil governor — a priestly man and fond of religion ; young and 
old priests pervade his tomb. Amenhetep I. is now king, and 
the subtle Semitic influence seems to linger on face and form. 
The workmen and laborers only still keep the snub-nosed profile 
of the early times. Renni and his stalwart daughters might be 
Syrian Arabs. 

Peace at home favors the elaborate religious ceremonies, de- 
rived from prosperous Thebes. We may well imagine Renni 
seeking the last new fashions and best workmen for his everlast- 
ing home. His chariot and pair of horses are amongst the first 
known in Egypt; his cornfields, his sturdy workmen, their daily 
talk upon their lips, his pleasure boat, are all here, but more 
detailed and of more importance are the ceremonies for his soul's 
health. The long processions and the sacred preparation of his 
mummy statue, the eternal gift of speech and taste, contrast 
with earlier belief in more material pleasure. That strange 
form squatting on the sledge, the ** Kenu," or Tikanou as Mas- 
pero calls it, is here depicted ; whether a sacrifice or emblem of 
some earlier belief we cannot tell. Surely Renni's faithful slave 
would not object to follow him through death to a pleasant 
immortality. 



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BIB LI A. 55 

Two Amenheteps have reigned at Thebes, and still the Ad- 
miral Aahmes remains at court or camp. We can fancy the 
fierce old fighter, now in extreme old age, longing to return to 
the family he has founded, and escape the ceremonial of the 
court at Thebes. He wishes to prepare his final resting-place, 
but this was not to be ; his grandson succeeds and takes his 
place ; Paheri his name. We see him counting his numerous 
herds, and watching with personal care ** all the work done in 
the fields." The chariot and pair tell of good roads. The un- 
armed servants show that there is little fear of sudden invasion 
by the hated desert tribes. Ample carpets, golden vessels and 
luxurious feasting tell of settled prosperity. We have even the 
jokes and puns of the guests. 

Paheri was no fighting man. He says, ** I did not receive 
bribes ; my own heart guided me on the way of those who are 
praised by the king. My pen made me very learned, it justified 
my words. It caused me to be distinguished, my good qualities 
advanced me. When I was placed on the scales I was found 
full weight." 

We can fancy the man from this, and we remember at the 
same time that, although he claims to have made the tomb in 
which the old admiral rested, his grandfather and the founder 
of the family, — ^the old man's soul was left to wander amongst 
unfinished hierogl3rphics and somewhat paltry scenes of feasting 
incomplete and uncolored, — a second-rate eternity for such a fine 
old fellow. 

Paheri has gone, and his family. Thothmes III. has con- 
quered Sjnia and his successors have passed away ; but El Kab 
is still prosperous, and the local goddess Nekhebt is honored by 
Amenhetep III. with a temple rebuilt in stone, as he says, ** in 
honor of his mother Nekhebt." Here we may still trace the 
ceremonial worship of the gods in the carvings on the walls, al- 
most as clear and bright today as they were 1400 years before 
our Irord. We see the king making his offerings in the sanctu- 
ary to the local god, and to the Bark of Ra, whilst Nekhebt 
and Nazjrt preside in honor over the temple, and Behuded, 
the spiritual form of Horus, watches and guards against all 
evil influences. 

We can see the wealth of gold and precious vessels the Syrian 
conquests had brought even to a provincial shrine, and we may 
imagine the golden doors and precious contents of this ruin in 
the desert. 



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56 BIB LI A. 

Time passes on ; the S3rrian and Eastern cult, which is enerv- 
ating the nation, overshadows the old religion, and we may 
fancy the subdued fury of the local priests when Amenhetep 
IV. 's order came to efface the very name and image of their 
goddess Nekhebt. The work was done, and the graceful little 
temple, mutilated and outraged, still bears witness to the intol- 
erance of dissent. In his jealous hatred of Amen Ra and all his 
cult the king did not even spare his father's name. 

The XXIIId. dynasty is drawing to a close, when firm gov- 
ernment and the orthodox religion obtain the upper hand. It 
is Seti I.*s boast that he renewed this temple ** in honor of his 
mother, Nekhebt.*' 

Rameses II. and six more kings of his name have reigned at 
Thebes, now the centre of all civil and religious life. The 
provincial grandees sought their eternal rest in the crowded 
slopes of the Western Hill at Thebes. Setau alone remains at 
El Kab to mark the changing fashions of dress and habit. 
Semitic in face he sits with his wife, both dressed in flowing 
robes — ** a clever scribe distinguished by his pen,'* the last of 
those who are here around us. The rest have disappeared in 
the troublous times which overtook a weakened and effeminate 
Egypt. 

Persians, Greeks and dwellers by the coast have left us their 
careless scribblings on the temple walls and amidst the decay of 
all pure Egyptian government we see the mighty walls of the 
great intrenched camp before us, swarming with Greek merce- 
naries, and we read on the temples they built the bastard in- 
scriptions of a corrupted religion. 

Such a story comes to us as we sit in the cool moonlight, and 
our own doings seem very small. Such comfort as we now have 
was the growth of experience. An eight-foot tent near the 
river by the big gemass tree was our home the first year. 
Joseph's boat, rudely fitted with stove and awning, had brought 
us from Luxor. Harold Roller, my companion, was quite twelve 
inches too long for the tent and the nights seemed always 
cold. I think we did much work, and Roller's photographs 
have proved invaluable ; but in a new life we did things several 
times over before they came right. Next year my dear friend 
Somers Clarke began his work with me, and we camped com- 
fortably on the tombs — our only difficulty the want of water, 
scarcely met by an old woman and donkey. 

A boat moored by the old harbor was our home next season, 



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BIBLIA. 57 

and then we built a house — a mud palace. This was inevitable ; 
no architect of distinction could resist the temptation with bricks 
at fifteen cents a thousand, and Somers Clarke was this, and has 
kept on building since ; many wandering Egyptologists have 
rejoiced thereat. 

Since the material for reproduction of the sculptured wall 
drawings was collected the underground history of the district 
has been explored these last two years. 

The Research account joined their forces to ours, and Mr. 
QuibeU took charge of extensive excavation. Statues, jewelry 
and utensils going back to the pre-historic times are accumulat- 
ing to fill up the intervals in the history told us by the tomb 
chambers — a story we can now trace from before the earliest 
historical dynasties to recent times — continuous in this one dis- 
trict for six thousand years to those who may be able to interpret 
all its lessons correctly. J. J. Tyi,or. 

1898. 



EVEN on a cursory examination into the store of new facts 
contained in M. de Morgan's Recherches surles Origines 
de VEgypUy Part II., one is struck by the light which the Eg3rp- 
tian inscriptions have to throw on the archaeology. Part II., 
like Part I., is brilliant, enlightening, and a valuable record of 
discovery, though M. de Morgan's criticism of other people's 
work may sometimes be rather wild. Thus in endeavoring to 
prove that flint work was practically abandoned after the Hid 
dynasty, he denies (page 8) that the manufacture and use of 
flint knives is represented in the wall scenes of the Xllth 
dynasty at Beni Hasan (^Beni Hasan^ Part III. ^ published by 
the Archaeological Survey of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
plates VII-X.) But forms,* colors and inscriptions are each 
and all clear proofs of the artist's intention to represent 
flint-working. M. de Morgan further says (page 9) that had 
Egyptian artists ever intended to represent the making or sharp- 
ening of flint instruments they would not have failed to show 
the falling flakes. Happily in one case they have done even 
this. In a butchering scene in the tomb of Imery, Vth dynasty, 
the reddish chips fly in showers from a reddish knife which is 
being sharpened by the same long greenish sharpener as that 

• Knife in Petrie'8 Illahum, plate XIII, 6, with binding complete. 



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5« BIBLIA. 

used by the operator in the Beni Hasan scene, while above is 
the inscription, ** Sharpening the Knife." {Lepsius, DenkmaUr 
II., 52.) The colors are noted by Borchardt. {Aeg. Zeits, 
1897, pages 105-6, from the original in Gizeh.) 

The Times of Nov. i announced the discovery by Borchardt 
of the name of Menes on an ivory plaque discovered by de Mor- 
gan in the royal tomb at Negada, and figured on page 167 of 
Part II. In spite of some difficulties the inscription seems to 
justify the German Eg)i)tologists* conclusion, which, if correct, 
affords striking confirmation of Petrie's theory that the Ham- 
mfimfit road was the path by which the dynastic civilization 
entered Egypt. It was opposite the entrance to this road — and 
not at Memphis or This, as might have been expected — ^that 
Menes, the founder of the monarchy, chose to be buried. 

In the November number of the Aegyptische Zeitschrift, Sethe, 
Erman and Spiegelberg deal with early names from the finds of 
Amflineau at Abydos and from other sources. Many of these 
inscriptions are figured in de Morgan's book by J6quier, who 
does not, however, appear to attempt an explanation of them. 
Sethe's identification of Merbap (sixth king of the 1st dynasty) 
seems unquestionable, but his conjectural reading of Semti as 
the name of the fifth king of the same dynasty, ** Sepati 
Hesepti,** needed confirmation. This it has almost immediately 
found, and in the most striking manner, from a very important 
papyrus (early XVIIIth dynasty) of the Book of the Dead, of 
which Dr. Budge has just printed many extracts. On page 145 
of the Text of Budge's Book of the Dead the name of this king is 
actually written Smti, with the desert determinative. J^quier 
has also done useful work in restoring the cylinder seals of the 
wine jars at Abydos from numerous examples. Many are royal, 
and one name he fixes with probability to the first king of the 
Ilnd dynasty. On page 244 we have M. J6quier's copy of the 
impression of a rather less archaic cylinder. It is to be read, 
** the mother of the royal children, Hepenmaat,** or, perhaps, 
** the mother who bore a king, Hepenmaat," with other titles. 
The existence of this lady was already known to us from the in- 
scribed tomb of Methen at Abusir {Lepsius, Denkmaler 11. 6) , 
one of the most ancient hitherto found. Probably she was the 
queen of Senef ru ; or perhaps she was the wife of his predecessor 
of the Hid dynasty and tiius the royal ancestor of the IVth. 
The mention of the ** White Walls " of Memphis on one of the 



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BIBLIA. 59 

oldest of these jar-^sealings is also interesting. Thus the royal 
X>ei:sonages of the first three dynasties of Egypt emerge one after 
another from the utter darkness which surrounded them less 
than a year ago, F. Ll. Griffith. 



TWO LETTERS FROM OXYRHYNCHUS. 

THE forthcoming volume of Oxyrhynchus Pap3rri, to be given 
to all subscribers of five dollars to the Graeco-Roman 
Branch, is now entirely in the printer's hands, and the greater 
part of it has been put into t3rpe. 

Apart from the literary fragments, which naturally arouse 
most interest, it will also contain a large number of official and 
private documents, illustrating in minute detail the life of the 
inhabitants of a provincial town in Egypt during the first six 
centuries of the Christian era. There are wills, leases, manu- 
missions of slaves, reports of judicial proceedings, invitations to 
dinner, a butcher's bill, &c,, &c. 

As a sample of the human interest conveyed by these long- 
lost documents, we quote two private letters, each of which is 
written on one side of a piece of papyrus about the size of a 
sheet of note-paper, with the name of the addressee on the back, 
and the day of the month alone given inside. 

The following is a letter of consolation, written sometime in 
the second century : 

** Irene to Taonnophris and Philo, good cheer! [I was as 
much grieved and shed as many tears over Eumoirus as I shed 
for Didymas, and I did everything that was fitting, and so did 
all my friends, Epaphroditus and Thermouthion and Philion 
and Apollonius and Plantas. But still there is nothing one can 
do in the face of such trouble. So I leave you to comfort your- 
selves.] Good-bye, 

**Athyr, i." 

The other letter is to a father from his young son, who begs 
that he will take him with him to Alexandria. It is written in 
a rude uncial hand (/. e. with capital letters), and both gram- 
mar and spelling leave a good deal to be desired. The date 
may be either the second or the third century. 

** Theon to his father Theon, greeting. It was a fine thing 
of you not to take me with you to the city. If you won't take 
me with you to Alexandria, I won't write you a letter or speak 
to you or say good-bye to you. And if you go to Alexandria, I 
won't take your hand or cheer you up again when you are in 



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6o BIBLIA 

pain. That is what will happen if you won't take me. Mother 
said to Archelaus : * It quite upsets him to be left behind (?).' 
It was good of you to send me presents ♦ ♦ ♦ on the 12th, 
the day you sailed. Send me a lyre, I implore you. If you 
don't, I won't eat, I won't drink. There now ! 

** I hope that you are well. 

•* Tubi, 16." JAS. S. Cotton. 

THB NBW EGYPTIAN DICTIONARY. 

THE following has been sent out by Professor Brman of 
Berlin : 

His Majesty the Emperor having been graciously pleased to 
grant, by rescript dated May loth, 1897, funds for publication 
of a DtcHonary of the Egyptian Language, the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Berlin, the Society of Sciences at Gottingen, the 
Royal Society of Sciences at Leipzig, and the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Munich, have appointed a Committee, consisting 
of the undersigned, for the conduct of this work. 

It is intended that the Dictionary of the Egyptian Language 
shall comprise all words preserved in texts written in hiero- 
glyphics (including hieratic) ; references to Demotic and Coptic 
texts will be introduced only when essential to the elucidation 
of words found in the hieroglyphics. 

The collection of material will proceed according to the 
method elaborated in compiling the *' Thesaurus Linguae Lat- 
inae," this arrangement affording the readiest means of bringing 
together all the possible references for every word. Obviously, 
in the final revision, only the most important of those references 
will be quoted. About eleven years is the estimate for the dura- 
tion of the work down to the beginning of the printing. 

It is essential to the carrying out of this great undertaking 
that those engaged upon it should work from the existing texts 
in their most complete and accurate form ; they should also be 
able to utilize such inscriptions and pap3rri as are still unpub- 
lished, and to revise the published texts when necessary. 

All this can be attained only if the necessary support is forth- 
coming from outside the circle of our fellow-laborers. 

Recognizing the necessity for this support, the International 
Congress of Orientalists, at their recent meeting in Paris, 
formally expressed the desire — 

** Que le service des Antiquitds d'Egypte, les Administrations 
de Musses et les Soci6t£s savantes facilitent I'ex^cution des 



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BIBLJA. 61 

cette grande entreprise, et communiquent aux savants charges 
de ce travail les documents dont ils auront besoin/' 

Conformably with this resolution the undersigned Committee 
herewith earnestly and with all deference request the various 
scientific societies and corporations, the Administration of 
Antiquities in Eg3rpt, trustees of museums, owners of private 
collections, and all fellow-specialists, to communicate copies, 
squeezes, and photographs of texts newly discovered or other- 
wise unknown, and to facilitate the revision of those already 
edited. The Committee distinctly undertake, for their own part 
and in the name of all their collaborators, to regard such com- 
munications as confidential, and neither to publish them nor 
make use of them except for the Dictionary. On the other hand, 
during the progress of the work they will gladly give informa- 
tion to fellow-specialists as to the occurrence of particular 
words. 

It is requested that all communications and inquiries referring 
to the Dictionary be addressed to Professor Ad. Erman (Ber- 
lin, C. Lustgarten, Konigl. Museen), whose name is among the 
undersigned. 

Berlin, December, iSgj. 
The Academic Committee for the Publication of the Dictionary 

of the Egyptian Language. 

Bbbrs. 
Brman. 

PlETSCHMANN. 

Steindorpp. 

By request of Mr. Rylands, Secretary of the Society of Biblical 
Archaology, Professor Brman has added the following explana- 
tion as to the method of compilation pursued for this colossal 
work : 

** By the system adopted every text is divided into portions 
consisting of 20-30 words, and copied once with autographic 
ink. Each of the portions is then printed on separate slips of 
paper, as many in number as the words contained in it. On 
each of the 20-30 slips thus obtained one of the words is under- 
lined with red ink, and the slip is then filed in the collecting 
cases as reference for the word in question. 

* * The labor of writing for lexicographical work is thus reduced 
to about the twentieth part of what is necessary on any other 
plan, and a more absolute completeness of material is insured 
than has been attained hitherto by any other method." 



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62 BIBLIA, 

The Editor of Bibi^ia has received the following letter, and 
he is very glad to be of assistance to the young student. 

BuBNA Vista, Coivo., April i8, 1898. 

Dear Sir — I am fourteen years old, and more than any other 
study I like to learn about Eg^5T)t under the Pharaohs. 

I was reading in the Denver Republican of yesterday that a 
despatch came from London, Saturday the i6th, sa3dng the 
mummies of Amenophis II., Amenophis III., Thotmes IV., 
Rameses IV., V. and VI. had been discovered at Thebes. That 
is all it said. 

Now, if it would not be asking too much of you, would you 
tell me where and by whom the discovery was made ? I hardly 
think the tombs were in the Biban el Moluk, as I thought that 
had been pretty thoroughly ransacked. Were there any fune- 
real papyri found, or vases, armlets and scarabaei ? 

In all the Egyptian histories I have the XXIst dynasty is 
either not given or is incomplete. I would also like you to give 
me the names of the kings in the XXIst dynasty beginning with 
Her Hor. And one more thing I would like to find out is what 
were the mummies found at Deir-el-Bahari in 1881 by Mariette? 
It is so hard to find out about this subject. 
Yours respectfully, 

SYI.VANUS GrISWOLD MoRLEY. 

1. As soon as we receive authentic information regarding the 
new discoveries at Thebes it will be published in Biblia. 
Newspaper reports are usually very far from being accurate. 

2. After the reign of the Rameses of the XXth dynasty came 
the self-made kings of the sacerdotal caste, and during the 
XXIst dynasty the empire was nearly disrupted. Egypt had 
lost her hold over Asia, and Asiatic influence was increasing 
along the Nile. Of the kings of this dynasty Her Hor had the 
greatest ability. He adorned Thebes with sculptures, and ob- 
tained military successes. 

We know but little of Egyptian history during this period, 
but wars, persecutions and banishments show us in some degree 
the condition of the country. We read in one inscription ** the 
100,000 banished ones." Piankhi, the son of Her Hor, was 
made high priest of Ammon, but it does not appear that he suc- 
ceeded to the throne, but the kingly office passed from Her Hor 
to his grandson, Painet'em I., who reigned twenty -five years. 
During his reign disturbances broke out in the Thebaid in favor 



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BIBLIA. 63 

of the Ramessides, He was followed by his son, Men-kheper- 
Ra, of whose reign but little is known. He was followed by 
Painet'em II., a grandson of Painet'em I. He was followed by 
the last king of the XXIst dynasty, Hor-pa-seb-en-sha. This 
terminated the line of priest-kings, who had held the throne for 
about a century and a quarter, and who did not play a very im- 
portant part in the history of Egypt. 

3. The mummies found at Deir-el-Bahari in 188 1 by Marette 
were as follows : 

XVIIth Djmasty — From about 1750 to 1703 B. C. 
I. King Sekennen-Ra Taaken. 2. Queen Ansera. 

XVIIIth Dynasty. 

3. King Ahmes Neb-pehti-Ra. 7. Qneen Henttomeh. 

4. Queen Ahmes Nofretari. 8. King Thothmes II. 

5. Qneen Merit-amen. 9. King Thothmes III. 

6. King Amenhotep I. 10. Qneen Sitka. 

XlXth Dynasty— From about 1462 to 1288 B. C. 
II. King Seti I. 12. King Rameses II. 

XXth Dynasty— From about 1288 to iiio B. C. 
Not Represented. 
XXIst Dynasty. 

13. Queen Notem-Maut. 17. Queen Makara. 

14. King Painet'em I. 18. Prince and High Priest Masaherti 

15. Queen Hathor-Hout-tani. 19. Queen Isimkheb. 

16. King Painet'em II. 20. Princess Nesikhousu. 
Besides these were several minor persons of royal or priestly 

descent, of both sexes and of all ages. Says Mariette : ** This 
collection of so many families, belonging to periods so widely 
apart, and found in one common receptacle, is accounted for by 
the known fact that organized gangs of tomb robbers have made 
such havoc with other tombs that, as a precaution, these were 
secretly removed to this retreat during the XXIst dynasty, 
with the hope that their royal dead would henceforth remain 
undisturbed . ' * 

Of more than ordinary interest is a book issued by a I^eipsic 
firm under the title of ** Tabubu," being a close translation by 
Leon Ritter of an Egyptian papyrus found in 1864 by the late 
Brugsch Bey in Thebes. The original is in demotian script, 
and some leaves of the manuscript were missing when first dis- 
covered. The story is not only very entertaining, even in the 
modem sense, but it is also peculiar in furnishing proof that the 
Faust problem was known to the Eg3T>tians several thousand 
years ago. 



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64 BIBLIA 

ARCHiCOLOQICAL N0TB5. 




Archibald Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D.* D.C.L. 

Archibald Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D., 
D.C.L. , was bom at Shirehampton, Eng- 
land, Sept. 25, 1846. He was educated 
at Grosvenor College, Bath, and Queen's 
College, Oxford, where he graduated 
and became fellow in 1869, and tutor in 
1870. He took orders but continued 
his college work, and in 1876 was made 
deputy-professor of comparative phil- 
ology. He is now professor of Assyri- 
ology at Oxford. As mentioned in the 
April BiBUA, Professor Sayce spends a 
Professor A. H. Sayce good part of the year in a dahabiyeh on 

(From The Sunday School Times.) ., «_.- j '^ • t. t. -^ t.- 

the Nile, and it is here he writes his 
books, surrounded by a large library. Professor Sayce 
took part in the English revision of the Old Testament, from 
1874 to 1884. Among his publications are the following : Prin- 
ciples of Comparative Philology, 1874 ; Astronomy and Astrol- 
ogy of the Babylonians, 1874; Monuments of the Hittites, 188 1 ; 
Cuneiform Inscriptions at Van, 1882 ; Ancient Empires of the 
East, 1884 ; Fresh Light from the Monuments, 1884 ; Introduc- 
tion to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, 1885 ; Ass5rria, its Princes, 
Priests and People, 1886 ; Lectures on the Origin and Growth of 
the Babylonian Religion, 1891 ; The Higher Criticism and the 
Monuments, 1894 ; The Egypt of the Hebrews, 1895. He is 
also the editor of the seventeen volumes of the ** Records of the 
Past." 

Lighting the Pyramids of Egypt with electricity and the in- 
stallation of a 25,000 horse-power plant to cost some $400,000, 
is a plan now under consideration by the British Government, 
and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company of 
Pittsburg, Pa., is reported as likely to receive the contract. 
As outlined, the plan includes the generation of electric power 
at the Assouan Palls, on the Nile, and its transmission a dis- 
tance of one hundred miles through the cotton-growing districts, 
where, it is believed, the cheap power will permit the building 
of cotton factories. It is planned to use the power to illuminate 
the interior corridors of the pyramids and also operate pumping 
machinery for irrigating large areas of desert along the Nile. 



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BIB LI A. 65 

Everjrone interested in the antiquities of Egypt will be sorry 
to learn that the khedive has formally ratified its contract for the 
construction of two great dams across the Nile, one at the cata- 
ract at Assouan and the other at Assiut. At Assouan the water 
will be impounded by a granite dam which will be built upon 
the granite reefs which form the cataract. Its crest will be about 
76 feet above the river bed at its deepest point, and the total 
length of the dam will be about 6000 feet. The difference in the 
water level in the wet and dry seasons will be about 45 feet. 
The consequence will be that the Island of Philae, with all of its 
ancient buildings, will be submerged for several months in the 
year. 

The Island and its surroundings, in their natural features 
alone, form a scene of remarkable beauty, in no small degree 
enhanced by the noble and picturesque building with which the 
island is crowned. Not only can nothing in Egypt be compared 
with it, but it may be doubted whether throughout the world a 
spot could be found where beauty, imparted by art as well as by 
nature, is so singularly combined witii objects of deep historic 
and scientific interest. In addition to the great temple of Isis, 
a splendid memorial of the Ptolemaic period, that is to say of 
Greek rule in Egypt, the island contains, or rather it should be 
said is covered with remains, of which some are of much earlier 
date. In like manner traces are to be found of the early Chris- 
tians, who appear to have made use of a portion of the temple 
for their religious services, and close by are to be found inscrip- 
tions showing that the rites of the ancient Eg)q)tian religion 
were still practised at Philae in the middle of the fifth century. 

The Committee of the Society for the Preservation of the 
Monuments of Ancient Egypt, says : ** To devastate the Island 
of Philae is nothing less than to rudely tear an important leaf 
out of the sadly mutilated volume upon which almost alone, 
scholars and students can rely in their laborious endeavors to 
trace the origin and early history of modern civilization." 

The Committee also says: **The threatened destruction of 
Philae would not be the only result of the proposed dam at 
Assouan, and the dismay with which it was heard of was ex- 
changed for absolute consternation when it came to be under- 
stood that the reservoir would extend to a distance of at least 
one hundred miles up the valley ; in other words, that the whole 
of Lower Nubia, its villages, its cultivated and uncultivated 
lands, and its archaeological remains were to be drowned.** 



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66 BIBLIA. 

Within the last quarter of a century there have been great 
results in the vast field of Christian archaeology. Important 
documents and notable inscriptions have been discovered, and 
much light has been thrown upon Christian art and symbolism. 
Contributions have been made by a group of notable men. First 
must be mentioned the late Commendatore De Rossi, whose 
monumental works ''Roma Soiteranea*' and '' InscripHones 
Christiana Urbis Roma^^ have been the basis of all following 
work in this direction. By his side must be mentioned, among 
the Italians, such men as Garucci and Gregorutti. Among the 
French, Roller and Le Blant stand first. Germany gives a 
notable list of eminent names — Piper, Kraus, Schultze, Nikolaus, 
Miiller, Hiibner, Wilpert and others. In England, W. M. 
Ramsay takes the lead. The English-speaking world is also 
under lasting debt to an American scholar, the late Dr. Charles 
W. Bennett of the Garrett Biblical Institute, for producing the 
best book in English on the subject — his ** Christian Archa- 
ologyy 

Lately great interest has been aroused in the entire subject, 
and many young scholars have come to the front. The first 
Congress of Christian Archaeologists was held in 1894 at Spalato 
in Dalmatia, on the site of Diocletian's palace. Such men as 
Kraus and Wilpert among Catholic scholars, and Miiller and 
Schultze among the Protestants, were the leaders. The next 
Congress assembles this year at Ravenna. 

The result of such a conference of Christian archaeologists is 
to insure a scientific study of all the early Christian monuments 
and to stimulate research in this direction. It goes without 
sajdng that the work within the past twenty-five years has done 
much to shed light upon some vexed problems in the life of the 
early Church, and also to increase the mass of evidence to the 
genuineness and authenticity of the New Testament Scriptures. 
The Christian world has now and then been profoundly stirred 
by the bringing to light some document or monument and the 
rapid preparation of the material for publication has soon g^ven 
to the Church the history of the find. Thus with increasing in- 
terest the attention of the Christian scholars is directed toward 
the early Christian centuries. 



At the recent meeting of the American Oriental Society in 
Hartford, Mr. Frederick Bliss gave an account of excavations 
in Syria. On the program there were forty -six papers, but some 



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BIBLIA. 67 

VJ^T^ read by title. Professor Lanman of Harvard read an in- 
teresting paper on the Poetry of India, illustrated by some 
renderings of Indian verse. Other papers were read by Profes- 
sor Haupt of Johns Hopkins on Tattooing among the Semites ; 
by Professor Bloomfield on Proposed Photographic Reproduc- 
tion of the Kashmirian Recension of the Atharva Veda ; by 
Rev. Henry Blodgett of Pekin on the Formal Worship of Heaven 
and Earth by the Emperor of China ; by Professor Jackson of 
Columbia on the Different Accounts of the Death of Zoroaster ; 
by Professor Jastrow on Adam and Eve in Babylonian Literature. 
Dr. Torrey of Andover read a paper on the Bethulia of the Book 
of Judith. He identified Bethulia with Shechem, and suggested 
that the book was the oldest surviving fragment of Samaritan 
literature. 

Professor Peter Jensen, of the University of Marburg, has an 
article in the Sunday School Times (May 7) on ** The Religion 
of the Hittites,'* in which he proves that the Armenians, ac- 
cording to their own traditions, regard themselves as of Hittite 
origin. In the Times last May, Professor Jensen claimed that 
the Hittite language is Indo-European, and probably related to 
the ancient Armenian. Though failing to gain general recog- 
nition in this claim, he was still supported by several scholars, 
among whom were Noldeke in Germany and Hilprecht in 
America, who have publicly acknowledged their conviction of 
the correctness of his position. For the last five years Professor 
Jensen has devoted his time almost exclusively to the decipher- 
ing of Hittite inscriptions — a task in which success has been 
regarded, by scholars generally, as practically impossible. In 
the present article Professor Jensen for the first time gives the 
world a picture of the fundamental conceptions of the Hittite 
religion, obtained not only from the pictures on Hittite monu- 
ments — ^mainly of a religious character — but from the contents 
of the inscriptions themselves. 



Professor Rudolf Hofmann, of the University of Leipsic, in 
his recent work, ** Galliaa auf dem Oelberg," contends that the 
Galilee mentioned in the closing chapters of the Gospels as the 
meeting-place for Christ and his disciples is not the Galilee of 
the earlier chapters of the Gospels, but was the most northern 
of the three peaks that made up the Mount of Olives, over which 
peak the common road from Galilee to Jerusalem passed, by 



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€S BIBLIA. 

which the pilgrims were accustomed to come when going to 
Jerusalem, and on which an inn or khan was found at which 
Galilean pilgrims were accustomed to make their headquarters, 
and for which reason it was also called *' Galilee.*' 

By this interpretation a number of the New Testament pas- 
sages are made much more dear and satisfactory. Among these 
are Luke 21 : 37, and John 8 : i, in connection with which it 
now becomes plain where Christ had spent the night when it is 
declared that in the evening He went to the Mount of Olives. 
He probably spent it at the headquarters of his fellow Galileans 
at the inn called ** Galilee.** This too explains the seemingly 
indefinite reference in Luke 22: 39, as also those in Matt. 21 : i, 
Luke 19 : 29, Mark 11 : i, and still more the account of the as- 
cension in Luke 21 : 50, and Mark 16 : 9. 



A. Fuhrer, Ph.D., Curator and Superintendent of the Luck- 
now Museum, is now very busy in making archaeological dis- 
coveries at Kapilavastu, with the help of the Nepal Government. 
He has already brought to light the fort which forms part of the 
citadel of King Suddhodhana in his ancient world-renowned 
capital. He will stay there doing useful work in the field as 
long as the Nepal Government can afford to pay for the expenses 
necessary for these excavations. His colleague, Professor Syl- 
vain Levi, of the College de France, is now in Calcutta. He 
will shortly leave for Khatmandu, Nepal, where he will assist 
Dr. Fuhrer. Dr. Fuhrer employs over two hundred villagers. 
These excavations promise very good results as regards the 
ancient history of Buddhism and the development of the art of 
writing beiore the time of Asoka. 

The extraordinary results of the Babylonian Expedition of 
the University of Pennsylvania, and of the French excavations 
in Tello, has led to the organization of an Oriental Research in 
Germany, called the Deutsche Orient-Geselhchaft, At the head 
of this movement are Prince Henry of Schonaich-Carolath, and 
the Prussian Minister of Public Instruction, and its object is to 
obtain financial support to make original excavations and re- 
searches in Babylonia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Western Asia in 
general, and possibly in Egypt. The finds are to be deposited 
in the Museum at Berlin or elsewhere in Germany. Hitherto 
German scholars have been chiefly dependent on the excavations 
and finds of the French, English and American expeditions for 
material for study. Among the scholars who have signed the 



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BIBLIA. €9 

appeal for the organization of this new society are Delitzsch, 
Hommel, Kittel, lA)tz, Noldeke, Socin, Wellhausen, and other 
University men. 

THB PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

AT the recent meeting of the Oriental Society Dr, Torrey of 
- Andover Seminary read a very interesting paper on 
Bethulia, treating its location as a problem which has never 
been solved. In the ** Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowl- 
edge,** about to be issued by the Christian Literature Company, 
it is said that Bethulia has never been identified with any exist- 
ing site. This subject may be pursued a little farther to 
advantage. 

Bethulia is prominently mentioned in the book of Judith. 
When Holofemes was sent against the Jews by the Assyrians, 
he came as far as he could and made his camp at Bethulia, 
where the Jews had blocked his way through the mountains. 
He came by way of Damascus (2 : 27) , and stopped in the vicin- 
ity of the plain of Ksdraelon (3 : 9), and had a parley with 
the representatives of Moabites, Ammorites and others (5 : 2). 
He then removed his camp toward Bethulia (7: i) **bythe 
fountain," and it is said that Dothan was near (7: 3). The 
Jews were in Bethulia (7 : 6), and he laid siege to it by taking 
possession of the fountain (7 : 17), and so brought the Jews to 
despair (7: 32), 

But the widow Judith made her plan and did her great deed. 
She went out of Bethulia (10: 6) and to the camp of Holofomes 
whom she slew (13 : 8), and then returned to Bethulia (13 : 10) 
and told what she had done. Under her direction the Jews 
sallied forth and put the Assyrians to flight ( 15 : 2) . She went 
with the people to Jerusalem for the thanksgiving, and returned 
to Bethulia (16: 21) and dwelt there and was buried there 
(16:23). 

It is plain that Bethulia was a strategic place in the hilly 
country south of Esdraelon, and it is not strange that Dr. Tor- 
rey should have attempted to identify it with Shechem because 
Shechem is near the highway southward and has abundant 
water. There are difficulties about this identification, however. 
We know of no such name as Bethulia being attached to it. It 
is a long way from Esdraelon. It has no such strategic situation 
as is implied, for it is overlooked and commanded by Mounts 
Kbal and Gerizim, while Bethulia appears to have been in the 



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TO BIBLIA. 

mountain passageway and to have been so situated that the 
Assyrians could not pass by it. 

If we do not accept Dr. Torrey's ingenious reasoning, are we 
shut up to the declaration that no identification is in view? By 
no means, and here the Palestine Exploration Fund's publica- 
tions might be consulted to advantage. As long ago as 187S 
Lieutenant Conder spoke of this subject in the Quarteriy State- 
ment (1878, page 18), and said : — 

'* The narrative of the Book of Judith requix^es that the place 
should be in the neighborhood of Dothan and within sight of 
the plain of Esdraelon. It has never, I think, been noticed that 
this applies to the neighboihood of the modem Methilia, east of 
the main road from Esdraelon to Shechem. Methilia approaches 
very closely to the name of Bethulia ; it is only about three and 
a quarter miles from Dothan, and the plain of Esdraelon is visi- 
ble from the pass south of the village." 

In the Quarterly Statement for 1881, page 194, Conder wrote: 

•• Visiting Methilia on our way to Shechem we found a small 
ruinous village on the slope of the hill. Beneath it are ancient 
wells, and above it is a rounded hill-top commanding a tolerably 
extensive view. A broad corn-vale extends northwest towards 
Dothan, a distance of only three miles. There is a low shed 
formed by rising ground between two hills, separating this val- 
ley from the Dothan plain ; and at the latter site is the spring 
beside which probably the Assyrian army is. supposed by the old 
Jewish novelist to have encamped. In imagination one might 
see the stately Judith walking through the down-trodden corn- 
fields and shady olive groves, while on the rugged hill-side 
above the men of the city ' looked after her until she was gone 
down the mountain, and till she had passed the valley, and they 
could see her no more.* " (10 : 19.) 

In their ** Hand-book of the Bible'* the brothers Conder speak 
plainly of this site and say that the change from B to M is easily 
made in Hebrew (as in the case of Jabne-Jamnia). The whole 
question is fully discussed, and several other places mentioned 
in Judith are identified. Page 289. 

It is not strange, therefore, that in ** Names and Places" this 
identification is given as one which *' appears to meet all the 
requirements ; " but it is somewhat strange that the most recent 
book of Palestine geography should state that no identification 
has taken place. Even the dictionary of Dr. William Smith 
covered the case more fully, though much older than the Survey 



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BIB LI A. 71 

oi the Palestine Fund. The subject is by no means fully covered 
by what has thus far been done, but much more has been done 
than many know, and the maps are properly placing Bethulia 
east of Dothan. 

The little volume *' Names and Places'' is a mulium inparvo 
because it tells us what is known about every place, showing 
with what degree of certainty it is identified, honestly stating 
what places are not identified, and referring us to the book in 
which the best description may be found. 

As a bookseller has lately written to ask if a commission 
would be allowed on the Quarterly Statement if he should gain a 
subscriber, I would state again that the Statement is rather a 
gift than a purchase. One who is interested in the work makes 
a subscription. We are happy to send him an account of the 
work each quarter, but his money goes mainly to pay for exca- 
vating. The subscriber of five dollars receives, when he begins, 
the book ** Thirty Years' Work" as a gift, so that he may know 
something of our past work, but this is a gift to him. All the 
work of honorary secretaries is a gift to the Fund, and the Fund 
gives them its heartfelt thanks. It is not a business, and so 
commissions are not paid. Nor do we wish for secretaries who 
are using the Fund's name to make a living by lecturing ; we 
want persons unselfishly interested in the excavations, and who 
will worthily represent what is really a religious as well as a 
scientific undertaking. Thsodorb F. Wright, 

Hon. Secretary for United States. 

4^ Quincy Street ^ Cambridge^ Mass. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THB BOYPT EXPLORATION FUND* THB 

ARCHiCOLOQICAL SURVBY FUND, AND THB 

ORABCO-ROMAN BRANCH. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from April 20 to May 20 are gratefully acknowledged : 
Rev. W. W. Adams, D.D., . |io.oo COL. HENRY LEE, . . I25.00 

MRS. ANDREW BIGELOW, 25.00 C. E. Lucky, .... 5.00 

C. W. Bingham, . . . 10.00 Long Island Historical Soc., .85 

JOHN BENTLEY, . 2500 MRS. SAMUEL MATHER, 50.00 

Mrs. Mary S. Bradford, 5,00 Mrs. Samuel L. Mather, 5.00 

Mrs. J. L. Brewster, . 5.00 Fred G. McKean, . . 10.00 

Mrs. Freeman J. Bumstead, 5.00 Mrs. James Means, . 5.00 

Mrs. Rufus W. Bunnell, 5.00 Edgar G. Miller, . . 10.00 

Pres't Franklin Carter, LL.D., 10.00 Ezekiel W. Mundy, . 5.00 



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7^ 



BIBLIA. 



Joseph H. Center, , . |io.oo 

R. Stuart Chase, . . . lo.oo 

Mrs. M. P. Cooper, . . i.oo 

Miss Maria I<. Corliss, . • 5.00 

S. D. COYKENDALL, . 25.00 

MRS. J. H. DEVEREUX, . 25.00 

A. E. Douglas, . . 5.00 

Miss E. Elizabeth Eavtmas, 5.00 

Mrs. J. W. Elliot, . . . 5.00 

Mrs. Luther Elting, . . 5,00 

Ralph H. Ensign, . . . 5.00 

S. P. Penn, .... 5.00 

Mrs. J. N. Piske, • . . 5.00 

Mrs. Geo. S. Fraser, . • 10.00 

Mrs. Helen A. Oilman, . 5.00 

Miss Elizabeth S. Cover, . 5.00 

MRS. CALEB S. GREEN, . 50.00 

Col. Jacob L. Green, . .5.00 

Miss Matilda Goddard, . 5.00 

Rev. Prancis A. Horton, D.D., 5.00 

Hon. Samuel Johnson, . . 10.00 

HON.REVERDY JOHNSON, 25.00 WOLCOTT, . . . 25.00 

MRS. E. D. KIMBALL, . 25,00 Henry L. Young, . . . 10.00 

Chas. R. King, M.D., . . 5.00 

From April 20 to May 20, I have received very thankfully 
these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey Fund : 



Chas. Eliot Norton,LL»D., . 
MRS. JOHN C. PHILLIPS, 
Mrs. Wm. H. Perkins, . 
Miss Sarah Porter, 
Mrs. T. G. Richardson, 
Hon. John C. Ropes, . 
Mrs. G. Howland Shaw, 
Hon. Chas. P. Sherman, 
RcT. R. S. Storrs, D.D., 
Hon. Henry W. Taft, 

C. M. TAINTOR, . 
Julius W. Tiemann, 
Rer. Peter Tinsley, 
Mrs. J. H. Thomdike, 
Mrs. Henry L. Van Nuys, . 
VASSAR COLLEGE, THE 

LIBRARY OF, . 

D. L. Webster, 

MISS GEORGIANA WIL- 
LARD, . . . . 

MRS. J. HUNTINGTON 
WOLCOTT, 

Henry L. Young, . 



25.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

10.00 

15.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

25.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

10.00 

45.00 
500 

25.00 



Mrs. Caleb S. Green, . 
MRS. SAMUEL MATHER. 
Mrs. Samuel L. Mather, 
C. M. Taintor, 
Julius W. Tiemann, 
Vassar College, The Library 

of, 

MISS GEORGIANA WIL- 

LARD, .... 



fe.oo 

25.00 

5.00 

5.00 

5.00 



Rev. W. W. Adams, D.D., . I5.00 
John Bentley, . . 5.00 

MRS. ANDREW BIGELOW, 25.00 
Pres»t Franklin Carter, LL.D. 5.00 
Mrs. Geo. H. Corliss, . . 5.00 
Joseph H. Center, . .5.00 

E. W. CLARK, . . . 25.00 
Mrs. J. H. Devereuz, . . 5.00 
Mrs. Luther Elting, . . 5.00 

From April 20 to May 20, the following subscriptions to 
the Graeco-Roman Branch are gratefully acknowledged : 



5.00 



50.00 



Mrs. Andrew Big^low, . 
Mrs. J. L. Brewster, 
MRS. J. H. DEVEREUX, 
Rev. John L. Ewell, D.D., 
Hon. Lynde Harrison, . 
Prof, M. W. Jacobus, . 
Wm. G. Johnston, 
Rev. Arthur Lawrence, 



fc.oo 
5.00 

25.00 
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C. E. Lucky, . 
Edgar G. Miller, . 
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Miss Sarah Porter, 
Mrs. T. G. Richardson, 
MISS GEORGIANA WIL- 
LARD, . . . . 



I5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
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25.00 



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Honorary Treasurer. 
Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, $9 Temple Street, Boston. 



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BIBLIA. 73 

BOOK RBVIBW5. 

Memphis and MvcBNig: An Bzamination op Egyptian Chronology, 
AND ITS Application to the Early History of Grbbcb. By Cbcil 
ToRR. (Cambridge: University Press.) 

The author of this book, though he would, perhaps, hardly 
style himself an Egyptologist, may at least be congratulated on 
the ease and familiarity with which he handles the cartouches 
of the kings, whatever may be said as to the foundations of his 
argument and to his conclusions. He discards the current sys- 
tems of chronology, and proceeds to obtain a series of minimum 
dates by simply adding together the lengths of the reigns of the 
kings so far as they are found recorded on the monuments. He 
thus, on the one hand, makes no allowance for any excess of 
estimate which may be due to the absence of record in regard to 
co-regencies ; nor, on the other hand, does he allow for any de- 
ficiency through the failure of dated monuments. Doubtless he 
considers that the defect more than counterbalances the excess, 
and that he is hence justified in always speaking of his dates as 
the latest possible. 

In the preface of his book this otherwise over-cautious author 
says that *'no doubt the whole succession of the kings will some 
day be determined, together with the lengths of all their reigns, 
so that every event on record will be assignable to a certain date 
B. C." This is surely too sanguine. In the whole of Egyptian 
history down to the XX Vlth dynasty there are not a dozen kings 
whose lengths of independent reign are known to a year, while 
the recorded kings are to be numbered by hundreds. Some 
progress is undoubtedly made every year by the discovery of 
additional dates, but in such a field of research it is the first 
gleanings which are the richest in results. Many of the obscurer 
rulers must always remain undated, except in the most general 
way. Our best hope undoubtedly lies in the possibility of the 
discovery of a fuller and better text of Manetho, and of papyri 
like the Turin Canon. If the statements of a better Manetho 
stand good when subject to rigorous examination based on in- 
creased knowledge of dates from monuments and papyri, and if 
that Manetho can be shown to have discounted the years of co- 
regency, then the main lines and limits of Egyptian chronology 
will be fixed. 

The minimum dates which Mr. Torr gives us are perhaps 
useful reminders of the imperfect state of our knowledge. It is 
at any rate interesting to see how far back a rather strict inter- 



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74 BIBLIA. 

pretation of the evidence will take us. But a more generous 
allowance would give a fairer view of the probable chronology ; 
and we are bound to presume that the probable chronology is, 
after all, Mr. Torr's aim. A great deal must necessarily be 
taken on trust in the matter, and it is not easy to know exactly 
where to draw the line beyond which nothing may be so taken. 
Since there is seldom any clear evidence as to the dates and 
duration of co-regencies, the exclusion from our calculations of 
all dates which cannot be absolutely proven would bring the 
XVIIIth dynasty down not to about 1270 B. C, but to about 
850 B. C, which is absurd. In order to follow his rtde, Mr. 
Torr has practically obliterated from his reckoning the numeri- 
cally endless reigns between the Xllth and XVIIIth dynasties. 
The period which these reigns covered it would be impossible to 
estimate, and no one dreams of giving them an average allow- 
ance of twelve years ; yet one feels that to allow anything less 
than 500 years for the lot is shabby : Mr. Torr grants them 60. 
As 150 kings for this period are already known they must have 
been pretty thick on the ground when sharing among them 
those threescore years without the ten. 

The chapter on the connection of Egypt with Greece errs also 
on the side of stinginess and unbelief, and the doubt thrown on 
the XVIIIth dynasty age of the Tell el Amama finds cannot 
appeal to any Egyptian archaeologist who has visited that site, 
the relics and ruins of which are all indubitably of the period of 
Akhenaten. To call the glass from this site ** Phoenician ** is a 
mistake : at any rate, Mr. Torr ought to allow that the objects 
in question were made in Egypt and at Tel el Amama, for there 
were the factories on the spot and furnished with everything 
needful for the production of this splendid ware, none of which 
has ever yet been found on a Phoenician site. 

But it is no bad thing for the eager student that some one 
should occasionally put the drag on his progress : it is steady- 
ing. Moreover, a discussion, such as this raised by Mr. Torr, 
certainly brings the whole subject to the notice of a larger pub- 
lic : the only thing to be deprecated would be the loss of temper 
on either side, for that would mean loss of power. 

F. Li.. Griffith. 

Contents of the Journal of the Buddhist Text and Anthropo- 
logical Society, Vol. V., Part 3 : ** On the Translation of the 
Soul from One Body to Another, * * by Sarat Chandra Das ; * * The 



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BIBLIA, 75 

Proposed Archaeological Survey of India," by Sarat Chandra 
Das; ** Buddhism and Ayurveda,** by Kaviraja Durga Narayana 
Sen Kavibhusana; **The Story of Praitihar3rya,*' by Prof. 
Bhusana Candra Das, M.A. ; ** The Madhyamika Aphorisms,** 
by Prof. Satica Candra Vidyabhusana, M.A. ; **Life of 
Chaitanya. * * 

The Book of the Master, by W. Marshall Adams, formerly 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, is announced by G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Mr. Adams, who was formerly a Roman Catholic, is one 
of the best authorities on pre-Christian Egyptian matters in 
England. At present he is engaged in cataloguing the papyri 
of the British Museum. He is adviser to the Egyptian Govern- 
ment on the literature of the Nile country. The Book of the 
Master is a learned yet practical and concise study of the ancient 
Book of the Dead. 

Contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaolo- 
gy. Vol. XX., Parts 3 and 4: Observations on the Negada 
Period, Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann; Notes on Jour le Jour (suite), 
Prof. G. Maspero ; A Bronze Uraeus of Unusual form, Walter 
L. Nash ; Note on the Coptic Spell, F. 1^^%^ ; Letter from 
Hammurabi to Sinidina, King of Larsa, Joseph Offord ; Note 
on Biblical Chronology, Admiral J. H. Selwyn ; A Hymn of 
Nebuchadnezzar, S. A. Strong ; Notes d' Assyriologie, Alfred 
Boissier. 

Thb Preparation for Christianity in thb Ancient. Wori^d. A 
Study of the History of Morai, Development, by R. M. Wen- 
LEY, Sc.D., Ph.D. 

Dr. Wenley is Professor of Philosophy in the University of 
Michigan, and the author of ** Socrates and Christ. A Study 
of the Philosophy of Religion," ** Contemporary Theology and 
Theism," and other works showing keen logic and a clear, con- 
cise and epigrammatic style. In the work before us Professor 
Wenley begins with the Periclean age of Greece, when man first 
* arrived at some consciousness of his own worth, and then con- 
siders Greek self-criticism, and salvation by wisdom, showing 
that while seeking to free men from the ills of the age, they but 
liberated them from one evil to place them under the dominion 
of another. From Hellenic to Jewish civilization. Professor 
Wenley brings us from strange to familiar ground, and he shows 
us that the mission of the Jews was to contribute to humanity 



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76 BIBLIA. 

an adequate conception of God ; and a vivid perception of the 
conditions under which alone pure religion can exist. This 
leads to the concluding chapters on the mightiest of historical 
occurrences — ^the advent of the Saviour. This little book is very 
ably and eloquently written. 

(New York and Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co., i2mo, 197 
pages. Price, 75 cents.) 



Thb Psalms and Lamentations. Editbd, with an Introduction 
and*notbs, by richard g. moulton, m.a. 

These new volumes of the ** Modem Reader's Bible " are a 
surprise and a delight. Although the Psalms have been long 
recognized as the perfection of lyric poetry, yet the perusal of 
these volumes leads the reader to think that he has come upon 
some new spiritual and intellectual treasures. As Professor 
Moulton shows, one of the chief interests of Hebrew among the 
world's great literatures is the uniqueness of its verse system, 
founded less on verbal rh3rthm than on parallelism of whole ex- 
pressions. This parallelism is a rhythmic movement of the 
thought, and Professor Moulton has exemplified its variations in 
the *• Wisdom," ** Traditional," and the ** Idyllic " poetry, and 
in these two volumes of the Psalms he has, by theory and prac- 
tical arrangement, shown the perpetual harmony between thought 
and external form, 

(New York : The Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Avenue, 
i8mo, 216, 247 pages. Price, 50 cents each volume.) 



Crsation Records Discovered in Egypt. (Studies in the Book of 
THE Dead.) By George St. Ci^ir, Member op the Society op 

BiBIflCAL ARCHJE0UK>Y, MEMBER OP THE AnTHROPOI<OGICAL INSTI- 
TUTE, AND Ten Years* Lecturer porthe Palestine Exploration 
Fund. Author op " Buried Cities and Bible Countries." 

We have received from the author proof-sheets of his new 
work on the intricate subject of Egyptian mythology. The 
tendency to create myths in the early periods of a people's ex- 
istence, for the purpose of presenting their religious beliefs, is 
found in every ancient nation. The oldest theology of all 
nations is in the form of m3rths, and they constitute the funda- 
mental ideas belonging to the moral and religious nature of man, 
as they have been embodied by the imaginative faculty. The 
myths of every ancient people illustrate the similarity in the 
workings of the untrained intelligence ; but to them they were 



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BIBLIA. 77 

not in3rths, but they beKeved in the literal truth of their similes 
and personifications, for there never was a nation which from 
the very beginning stood at a high level of mental culture, and 
this unknown beginning was the favorite play-ground of the 
myth-spirits. The mjrth-producing faculty exercised itself with 
exuberance only under the polytheistic form of religion, and in 
no mythology — Greek, Norse, Germanic or Hindoo — ^is there so 
much difficulty at getting at the truth as in the mythology of 
ancient Eg)q)t, for the Eg)T>tian religion reached its abstract 
or metaphjTsical stage only after the records of its origin were 
lost. 

The Egyptians never at any time attempted to systematize 
their conceptions of their innumerable divinities into a homo- 
geneous religion, and whenever an attempt has been made to 
formulate the Egyptian religion into a consistent system it has 
resulted in a failure. The more material is made accessible and 
the more thoroughly it is studied, the more obscure do all ques- 
tions relating not only to the religion and mythology, but also 
to the government, writing and racial descent become. 

The scientific study of mythology has of late years made great 
process, especially in Germany, where the rational interpreta- 
tion of mjrths has been studied according to the peculiar laws 
traceable in their own genius and growth. Heyne, Buttmann, 
Voss, Creuzer, Mtiller, Welcker, Gerhard and Preller have 
done pioneer work in this direction, and in Egyptian mythology 
excellent work has been done by Brugsch, Meyer and Wiede- 
mann in Germany, de Roug^ and Pierret in Prance, and Renouf 
in England. 

In the work before us Mr. St. Clair has taken the inductive 
method, and after fifteen years of systematic study he has arrived 
at his conclusions in a logical manner. Says Mr. St. Clair, 
** This is a work which has not hitherto been done, and has 
hardly been supposed to be possible. If I am right the study 
of M3rthology will henceforth be no uncertain inquiry, with more 
or less plausible guesses about fragmentary myths, but will pro- 
ceed upon sure principles of interpretation.*' 

Mr. St. Clair works upon the theory that the myths of Egypt 
were founded upon an astro-religious system, and that they tell 
a true story of astronomical progress^ calendar correction, and 
theological changes, before the time of our written histories. 
He considers that the key to the Egyptian myths is to be sought 
in the history of the Egyptian calendar. The constellations 



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78 BIBLIA. 

and their constancy commanded the admiration of men ; and the 
endeavor to make the calendar accord with the divine order was 
the chief of human duties. The myths were really allegories 
told by priests, and the priests were astronomers and guardians 
of the calendar and its feasts. Mr. St. Clair then proceeds to 
describe the Egyptian calendars, symbols, temples and their 
orientation, Ra, the sun-god, and the various other Egyptian 
gods, and their relation to the solar system, and he marshals a 
vast array of facts in support of his opinions. The stories ex- 
isting in ancient Egypt relating to the creation, origin of man- 
kind, deluge, Tower of Babel, etc., are explained by the author, 
but he writes on the supposition of the derivation from one 
source of the various legends, and the hope that investigation 
will show which version is nearest the original. 

Mr. St. Clair considers that the basis of the Egyptian religion 
was astronomy and the calendar ; the divine order in the heavens 
suggesting the rtile for the life of man. The astronomers being 
priests, the religion of mankind was lifted to a higher platform 
than that of mere animism. The central idea of theology in 
the Book of the Dead is that of Regularity, whether in permanence 
or change. Those things alone are divine which abide unceas- 
ingly, or which recur in accordance with undeviating tvle. The 
purpose of the chapters was to give might to the departed, and 
to enable him to make his way safely through the world beyond 
the grave, and enjoy the privileges of the new life. Mr. St. 
Clair sajrs that the chief features of the Egyptian religion re- 
mained unchanged from the earliest period down to the time 
when the Egyptians embraced Christianity. The doctrine of 
eternal life and the resurrection of the glorified or transformed 
body, based on the ancient story of the resurrection of Osiris, 
was the same at all periods. The life which the deceased leads 
is not a stationary life in the Underworld; but is said to be gen- 
erally that of him ** who entereth into the west of the sky and 
Cometh forth from the east thereof." The Book of the Dead, 
according to the title of its first chapter, contains ** words which 
bring about Resurrection and Glory." 

Mr. St. Clair marshals a large array of authorities, and he 
has undertaken to make the first efibrt at systematic reconstruc- 
tion of what has seemed to most writers a collection of allegories 
or myths which it was impossible to understand. 

(lyondon : David Nutt, 270 Strand, i2mo, 492 pages. Price, 
1056^.) 



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BIBLIA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

AltCHiEOU>GY, ETHNOUXJY, UTHRATURE, RRLlGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY. LAKGCAGES. ETC. 

Vot. XI. Boston, Mass., Jui<y, 1898. No. 4. 

THE OXYRHYNCHUS PAPYRI. 

THE first volume of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri ought to be 
ready for distribution to subscribers to the Graeco-Roman 
Branch in the course of the present month. As a matter of fact, 
the final proofs of the text were passed for press before the end 
of May ; but the process of printing the plates is necessarily 
slow, as each one of them has to be worked off by hand, in an 
edition of one thousand copies. The volume will consist, as 
promised, of about 300 pages of letter-press, of crown quarto 
size, together with eight collotype facsimiles. These illustra- 
tions have been chosen partly because of the importance of their 
subjects, and partly for palaeographical reasons. Among them 
we may mention : The first page of the Gaspel of St. Matthew, 
written early in the third century, which is fairly well-preserved 
and legible ; five stanzas of Sappho, and a fragment of hexame- 
ters in a dialect that proves them to be probably by Alcman, a 
poet of whom extremely little has survived ; two full columns of 
Thucydides, already published in the Archaeological Report of 
last year; portions of Homer, Plato and Demosthenes; and some 
Latin fragments, including a complete private letter addressed 
to a tribunus mUitum, which is written in a very curious second- 
century hand. 

The papyri printed in full number 158, thus classified by their 
discoverers and editors, Messrs. B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt: 
(i) Theological; (2) new classical fragments; (3) fragments of 
extant classical authors ; (4) Latin ; (5) documents of the first 
four centuries, or the Roman period ; and (6) documents of the 
sixth and seventh centuries, or the Byzantine period. In addi- 



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fo EIBLIA. 

tion, about iSfty more doctiments are briefly described, as not 
worth printing at length. The volume is completed with no 
less than eleven indices, dealing with such subjects as emperors^ 
dates, officials, weights and measuies, coins, symbols, personal 
and geographical names. In their preface the editors state that 
they have not yet been able to unpack more than one-fifth 
of the whole collection ; but they have reason for believing that 
the literary text» now published are a fair sample of what may 
be expected in future volumes, and that some exciting surprises 
are still in store for us. 

The literary texts must be left to speak for themselves. We 
dare not venture to anticipate tibe authorized appearance of the 
fines of Sappho, which have been happily turned into English 
verse ; and in other cases the value of the new ridings could 
hardly be shown without the use of Greek type. But we may 
say something now about the non-literary documents, which, 
after all, form the great bulk of the collection. We coniess that 
we have been surprised, not only by the variety of the contents, 
but also by their extraordinary human interest. Here we have 
revealed to us the entire life, official and domestic, of a provin- 
cial town during six centuries of Roman rule. Perhaps the first 
thing that strikes one is the advanced state of civilization. 
Fiscal and commercial transactions are recorded with minute 
accuracy. The management of landed property and its devolu- 
tion after death are carefully provided for. There is no allusion 
to civil disturbance, and hardly any even to petty crime. Order 
and justice seem to have prevailed during all this long period, 
as they do in British India at the present day. Another notable 
feature is the comparative absence of references to Christianity. 
Quite apart from the discovery of the ** I^gia," we know that 
Oxyrhjmchus was one of the earliest centres of Christianity in 
Egypt. A bishop of Oxyrhytichus signed the Selececian Creed 
of 359 1 and others preceded him in the see. Ruffinus, writing 
probably at the end of the fourth century, tells us that the place 
then had a population of 10,000 monks and 40,000 virgins, and 
adds : ** There is not a pagan or a heretic to be found there'.*' 
Certainly this is not the impression left after reading the con- 
temporary evidence. In a list of the streets of the town recorded 
in the year 295, we do indeed find mention of some buildings 
called ** ekklesia ; " but it is more than doubtful whether this 
word ought to be translated ** church." It is only when we 
arrive at the Byzantine period that we realize that the popula- 



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BIBLIA. %\ 

tion IS in truth Christian. Even here it is a shock to find a 
contract for the maintenance of a racing stable beginning with a 
religfious formula. Among the official documents are reports of 
legal proceedings, one of which oddly recalls the judgment of 
Solomon; petitions to civil functionaries for the redress of griev^ 
ances ; orders of arrest addressed to village policemen ; military 
accounts, with the receipts attached ; registrations of sales^ 
leases and wills. The private documents include a repudiation 
of a betrothal, a deed of suretyship, a contract with a horse- 
Irainer, a letter of condolence, an invitation to dinner, a list of 
property in pawn, a monthly butcher's bill, a table of weights 
and measures, and a schoolboy's exercise. 

All these documents are fairly complete, and can be readily 
understood from the translations which the editors have been 
careful to append to each. Occasional words and phrases still 
remain obscure; for, of course, it is impossible at the first 
attempt to determine with certainty the entire meaning of a new 
department of literature. We are astonished rather at what the 
editors have been able to accomplish in such a brief space of 
time, for scarcely a year has passed since the collection was 
brought to England. There it must remain for some time longer, 
until the whole has been properly examined. Not before then 
will the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund be able to 
set apart the portion that belongs to America in return for 
American subscriptions. Meanwhile they confidently appeal 
for further funds in order that they may send Messrs. Grenfell 
and Hunt (perhaps with an American coadjutor) on another 
papyrus-hunt in Egypt next winter. Jas. S. Cotton. 



PREFACE TO "A COLLECTION OF HIEROGLYPHS/* A CON- 
TRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF WRITING. 

THE publication of detailed hieroglyphs, etc., in Beni 
Hasan III. seems to have met a want, to judge by the 
welcome with which it has been received in the scientific press. 
The criticisms of Maspero (Rev. Crit. xliii, pp. 201 et seq ) 
and Borchardt i^A. Z. 1897, pp. 103 et seg.) have at once dis- 
played how little is positively known with regard to the origin 
of individual signs, and furnished new material and ideas for Uie 
study of them. Piehl (Sphinx II, pp. 33 et seg,) has also con- 
tributed some suggestions, and M. Loret, in a private letter, has 
communicated a number of interesting observations on those 
representing natural objects. At the last moment also appears 



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82 BIBLIA, 

a long and friendly notice by M. Foucart in the Rev. Arck, 
(Ser. Ill, 1898, Vol. xxii, pp. 20 et seq,) 

The following work is in continuation of the task begun i» 
Bent Hasan III : that of ascertaining and illustrating the his- 
tory and origin of the hieroglyphic characters. Much special 
study has meanwhile been devoted to the subject, and it is 
hoped that the present memoir, besides being more elaborate, 
will show a marked advance in the explanation of the signs upon 
the somewhat hasty descriptions in the preceding volume. 

The greater number of the colored facsimiles given herewith 
are from hieroglyphs of the Xllth dynasty, copied by Mr. H. 
Carter (a few by Mr. Blackden) in the tomb of Tehutihetep at 
El Bersheh. This tomb has been already published — in outline 
only — in El Bersheh /. There is also a considerable collection 
of XVIIIth dynasty signs from the temple of Deir-el-Bahari, 
beautifully copied by Miss R. F. E. Paget. The relief-sculpture 
and coloring of the inscriptions at Deir-el-Bahari are well known 
to be exceedingly fine. The signs selected are from parts of 
the temple already published by M. Naville, and the originals 
are in very good preservation. Lastly, Miss A. Pirie has most 
kindly presented to the Archaeological Survey, for use in the 
present volume, her facsimile drawings of a number of hiero- 
glyphs from the tomb of Paheri at El Kab. The tomb of Paheri 
was published in the Xlth Memoir of the Eg^pt Exploration 
Fund by Mr. J.J. Tylor and myself, as well as separately by 
Mr. Tylor in an Mition de luxe. It is of the same age as the 
temple of Deir-el-Bahari. 

In order to extend the inquiry over a wider field and so obtain 
more solid results, the text has not been confined to the new 
collection of hieroglyphs, but includes most of those published 
in Beni Hasan HI. and in the colored plates of Beni Hasan I. 

It will be observed that a special font of alphabetic hieroglyphs 
has been made for this volume. This has been done in order to 
obviate some of the standing difficulties in transliteration, a 
matter discussed below in the Preliminary Note. 

Neat and clear though they be, the fonts of general hiero- 
glyphic type now in use are ver>' unsatisfactory. They were 
modelled on late forms and often without understanding of the 
objects and actions which the signs were meant to represent. A 
few of the most misleading have here been corrected, but mate- 
rials are not yet available for a thorough revision. 

In parting from the pleasant task which has long occupied 



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BIBLIA. 83 

him, the author would crave indulgence for the manv imperfec- 
tions of his work. After much close application to it the time 
spent in definite research has often appeared almost wasted when 
its results were compared with those afterwards obtained casu- 
ally while pursuing other branches of Egyptology. Scarcely an 
hour now spent in looking over inscriptions fails to reveal new 
and often decisive evidence touching upon one or another of 
the innumerable points of discussion raised in the following 
pages. 

It is useless at present to hope to achieve anything like final- 
ity in the study. The whole field needs investigation and many 
thousands of good facsimiles are required to put the subject of 
the origin of the hieroglyphs on a firm basis. 

F. Ll. Griffith. 



THE NAMES OP JERUSALEM. 

THE following paper, read to the Oriental Society, is offered 
for the criticism of the readers of Bibua : — 

I. — ^JERUSALEM. 

An examination of treatises on the geography of the Bible 
will show that, while there is no doubt as to the location of the 
chief city of Palestine, its various names have given rise to 
general controversy which has settled nothing, so that the 
usual remark is that ** great uncertainty attaches to these 
names,'* as Sir George Grove, one of the founders of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund, says in Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible. In only one point is there agreement among existing 
treatises, and that is the belief that **Jebus'' was the oldest 
name of the city, and that ** Jerusalem ** was its successor. 
Barclay, in his ** City of the Great King,'' speaks of the name 
as used **proleptically " (page 44), and I know of no writer, 
except Professor Sayce in his recent volume on ** Patriarchal 
Palestine " — ^to be referred to later — ^who takes any other view 
than that ever>' appearance of the name Jerusalem in the Bible 
before the account of the capture of the city by David ( 2 Sam- 
uel 5th chapter) is by prolepsis. 

In consequence of this understanding that ** Jerusalem " is a 
Hebrew name, the successor of the name ** Jebus," we have 
many theories of its derivation, as a compound of ** Jebus " and 
** Salem," a combination of ** Salem "with words signifying 
** fear," or ** inheritance," or ** foundation," or a compound of 
**Jebus" and ** Solomon." All these efforts to analyze the 



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84 SIBLTA. 

word rest on a mistaken idea, as is now evident from the dis- 
covery and partial decipherment of the Tell-el-Amama tablets. 
We may not accept as final the translations given by Conder 
nor the inferences of Professor Sayce, whose feelings lead him 
to reason very rapidly, but no one hesitates to believe that the 
name Urusalim, which appears in the tablets several times, 
means the capital city of Palestine. It occurs on the tablets in 
Berlin, Nos. 103, 106 and 199. At the Oriental Congress of 1891 
Professor Max Miiller indorsed the interpretation of this name 
as meaning **city of peace" (Quarterly Statement Palestine 
Exploration Fund, 1891, page 264). Professor Sayce had 
already pointed out that the pre-Semitic eri of Chaldaea in the 
pronunciation of the Semites became uru, and referred to a 
Canaanite tablet found at Nineveh for his authority, and this 
has not been questioned to my knowledge. (See statement in 
Patriarchal Palestine, page 73.) 

As to the name of Melchizedek, or its equivalent, appearing 
on the tablets one may feel a doubt, but it does appear that the 
letters from Urusalim were appeals for aid against a threatening 
foe, from which an inference that the city was about to change 
owners may easily be made, and perhaps from those who were 
associated with Melchizedek it was about to pass to those who 
are called the Jebusites. (Sayce, pages 51, 71, 77, 79, 174, 
236.) 

Professor Sayce makes the interesting suggestion that Salim 
means the name of the god of peace (page 75), but it is enough 
for the present purpose to have the general conclusion that 
"city of peace" is the meaning. In this connection he says that 
on the records of Egypt the name is simply ** Salem " That is 
the name which appears in Genesis 14 : 8, and we cannot doubt 
now that it means Jerusalem. It is true that a Salim is men- 
tioned in John 3 : 23 as further north, but that is not a geograph- 
ically decisive passage, and in any case the existence of a village 
by that name near Shechem would no more disturb the proposed 
identification of Urusalim with the Salem of Genesis 14th than 
the fact of the existence of a Bethelem in Zebulon prevents us 
from identifying the Bethlehem of Micah 5 : 2 with the Bethle- 
hem in Judah. There is also mention of a Shalem as " a city 
of Shechem " in Genesis 33 : 18, but this the Revisers have in- 
terpreted by the phrase ** in peace ; " yet it may be the Salim of 
John 3 : 23. Again, Saul passed through the "land of Shalim" 
(i Samuel 9:4), an obscure district as yet, but not improbably 



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BIBLIA. 85 

the district of Jerusalem. By means of Psalm 76 : 2 we are led 
to regard Salem and Jerusalem as one, for we there read, '' In 
Judah is God known : His name is great in Israel. In Salem 
also is His tabernacle and His dwelling place in Zion.'' 

Having seen the antiquity of the name Umsalitn, ** city of 
peace," we are prepared to note that the Hebrews adopted it 
with some modifications, that the Greeks modified it again, and 
then the Romans, and so on and on, as is always done with 
proper names. To the Hebrews the name was Yerushalaim^ or 
Yerushalayim. The Chaldee is YerushaUm. It will be noticed 
that the Hebrew has the form of a dual, and under the old idea 
that the Hebrews invented the name controversy has arisen over 
this, but it is not a vital point, since we may think of the city 
as having a higher and lower part, if we choose, especially after 
its enlargement by David and Solomon. Salem in Genesis 14 : 
18 and Psalm 76 : 2 may have been lengthened from a singular 
to a plural form, as we have Ramath and Ramathaim, Adora 
and Adoraim, Beer and Beeroth, Dothan and Dothaim, Kirjath 
and Kiriathaim, and others. In the Greek we find Hierousalem 
in the Septuagint, and Hierosoluma, in several places in the 
New Testament, the latter having the form of a plural This 
to Josephus signified "the holy Solyma " (Wars 6: 10), and 
to Eupolemus **the holy place of Solomon" (Eusebius in 
** Evangelical Preparation," 9: 34). Various mystical inter- 
pretations of the name followed these analyses, but they are 
now seen to be imagfinary. It is more important to notice that 
the Arabian geographer Idrisi made the name ** Aurushlim," 
which looks like a direct descent from the old Urusalim, but I 
cannot do more than give a reference to Jaubert's translation, 

1 : 345. 
So much for the earliest and most enduring name. 

II.— JEBUS. 

This name is found, so far as I can learn, only in the Bible. 
The Jebusite is mentioned in Genesis 10: 16 as a son of Canaan. 
The Hebrew has Yebousi, generally rendered Jebusite, and in 
two instances Jebusi (Joshua 18 : 16, 28), by the King James 
version, always ** Jebusite " by the Revisers. The Jebusites are 
spoken of in Genesis 15 : 21, when Palestine is described by its 
inhabitants, among which they are always placed last as if 
having a smaller number and district than the others. 

The name Jebus must not be interpreted as if fully Hebrew, 
but it certainly reminds us of the Hebrew root, bus^ to ** tread 



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86 BIBLIA. 

down '* as a threshing floor, and so a ** dry rock,** as Stanley 
says (Sinai and Palestine, page 244), taking the interpretation 
of Gesenius and Fiirst and Ewald (Geshichte III : 155). 

This suggests to us that the name ** Jebus *' represents the 
most marked feature of the place. No man named Jebus is ever 
mentioned. Only the place and the inhabitants are mentioned. 
May we not conclude that they were simply the people of 
Canaanite origin who occupied Jerusalem, which they named 
in their own language ** Jebus," abandoning the old name 
which was of another religion than theirs ? 

The Hebrews knew the place to be Jerusalem, but they used 
the name which had become attached to it. They spoke of 
** Jebus which is Jerusalem'' (Joshua 18: 28), of **the Jebusites 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem '* (Joshua 15 : 63), and in Judges 
19 : ID, it is said that the Bethlehemite came over against 
** Jebus which is Jerusalem,'* but would not lodge there because 
it was ** the city of a stranger that is not of the children of 
Israel." In the two accounts of the capture of the city of David 
it is named in one (2 Samuel 5 : 6) ** Jerusalem," and in the 
other (i Chronicles 11:4) ** Jerusalem which is Jebus." After 
the capture we hear of the Jebusite king or sheik Araunah (2 
Samuel 24: 18) having outside of the city on Moriah his thresh- 
ing floor, which became the site of the temple, and we also learn 
that Solomon made the Jebusites bondservants (i Rings 9: 20), 
and they are mentioned as late as Bzra (9 : i) among the idola- 
ters of Palestine, and we find an obscure reference to them in 
Zechariah 9:9. 

We seem to be authorized to infer that ** Jebus " was not the 
archaic name of the city, but that it temporarily — ^that is, for 
some centuries before David — ^took the name through the de- 
struction of its ancient sacred prestige and its occupation by 
certain Canaanites who renamed it ** Jebus," the '*hard, dry 
place." 

III. — ZION. 

The fact that the name ** Jebus " disappears and the name 
** Zion " appears at the time of David's conquest seems not to 
have suggested to others the probability that they are two 
names of the same most marked feature of the same place, and 
that David changed the name without changing the idea. The 
Hebrews were in the way of changing names, which custom is 
especially mentioned in Numbers 32 ; 38, and so we have Luz 
becoming Bethel, Laish becoming Dan, Ephrath becoming 



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BIBLIA. By 

Bethlehem, Kerjath-Arba becoming Hebron, and thus Jebus 
becoming — not Jerusalem, for that is the older name — but Zion. 
This fact seems to have been missed by the geographers in their 
efforts to avoid the old, unprofitable controversies. One finds 
nothing in George Adam Smith or Henderson, and in the ex- 
cellent treatise of Professor Karl Riickert of Freiburg, Die Lage 
des Bergen Sion, we have only an account of how that name was 
applied to portions of the city. He rightly shows that Zion was 
first the highest rock, and then in the poetry and prophecy be- 
came a name of the whole city, but he does not account for the 
name ** Zion." We know that the ark was brought up **out of 
the city of David, which is Zion," to the temple (i Kings 8: i), 
and thus we see that, so far, the name remained as purely the 
successor of ** Jebus " and not as a name of either the temple 
mount in particular or the whole city. 

The name** Zion" is clearly from the root tsayon **to be 
sunny or dry," and is the natural successor of the Canaanite 
name. While the citadel was held by Canaanites it was 
** Jebus," when it was transferred to the Hebrews it became 
**Zion." Both are secondary names employed in full under- 
standing that the city was the Urusalim of an earlier time, and 
this name was kept more or less in use. The ** City of Peace " 
was for a time called Jebus and then for a time Zion. The city 
was also known later as — 

IV.— ARIEL, 

perhaps meaning the ** lion " or ** altar of God " (Isaiah 29 : i, 
2, 7), but this name must have taken but slight hold. 

Hadrian, seeking to efface the name and memory of the old 
city, called it — 

v. — AEUA CAPITOUNA, 

and we find this name in Eusebius and Jerome, but it did not 
endure. 

The modem Arabic names perpetuate the New Testament 
town *' the Holy City," and are— 

VI. — EI.-KHUDS ESH SHERIFF, 

** The holy and venerable," or — 

VII. — BEIT EI*-MAKDIS, 

** The holy house." 

We are indebted to the Tell-el-Amama discovery for a great 
simplification of this hitherto unsolved problem, and it seems to 
me that, while we may expect further light from similar sources. 



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98 BIBLIA. 

especially upon the dynasty of which the Melchizedek of Gene- 
sis 14th was the last, and upon all the circumstances of his day, 
yet that we know enough already to say that the Urusalim of 
the tablets and the Salem of the Scriptures and the Egyptian 
records g^ve us the earliest name of the city so far as ascertained 
and that it was not a name first given by the Israelites, that the 
name ** Jebus" came afterward and was followed by "Zion," 
both designating the citadel, and that other names followed as 
the city changed hands, but that the name which we know as 
** Jerusalem '' most thoroughly belongs to the place and is the 
most significant of all. Theodore F. Wright, 

Hon. Secretary for United States. 

BABYLONIAN EXPEDITIONS. 

PROFESSOR Hilprecht writes to the Sunday School Tttnes 
that there are at present three distinct Babylonian Expedi- 
tions in the course of formation. The American Expedition, 
under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, which 
has had such a signal success during its last campaign, is ex- 
pected to resume its work of excavating the lowest strata of the 
temple of Bel at Nippur in the fall. Professor Hilprecht has 
started for Constantinople to make the necessary arrangements 
with the Sultan and the Ottoman Government, already so favor- 
ably disposed towards the Philadelphia expedition. Volume IX 
of the great subscription work of this expedition has been issued. 
It was prepared by Professor Hilprecht and his pupil, A. T. 
Clay, and contains ** Business Documents of Murashu Sons of 
Nippur, dated in the reign of Artaxerxes I. (464-424 B. C.)'* 
One hundred and twenty cuneiform tablets, from the business 
archives of the wealthy firm of Murashu Sons are given on 
seventy-two autograph plates, accompanied by twenty half-tone 
plates illustrating the form and size of these tablets, the numer- 
ous seal impressions upon them, and Babylonian art and burial 
customs. An introduction from the pen of Professor Hilprecht 
discusses the palaeography and proper names of the inscriptions, 
and offers a transliteration and translation of representative 
tablets, with their philological interpretation. As these cunei- 
form texts form the first large collection of inscriptions from the 
time of Ezra and Nehemiah, they are of especial importance to 
students of the Bible, particularly as they make us acquainted 
with the life and local administration in the richest province of 
the Persian empire, furnish a large number of Jewish proper 



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BTBLIA. B9 

names known from the Old Testament, and prove that ** the 
river Kebar, in the land of the Chaldeans,'* by which Ezekiel 
saw his vision of the cherubim (compare Ezek. i : i, 3 ; 3 : 15; 
10 : 15), was a large canal not far from Nippur. The fact that 
the editor of the work brings forth new evidence for the correct- 
ness of the Jewish tradition that identifies Nippur with **Calneh 
in the land of Shinar," one of the large cities in the kingdom of 
Nimrod (Gen. 10: xo), will attract the attention of biblical 
scholars, even more than before, to the progress of this great 
American expedition. 

The German Exploring Expedition, under Professor Eduard 
Sachan, director of the Seminary for Oriental Languages in the 
University of Berlin, and R. Koldency (distinguished as an 
architect in connection with several German Oriental expedi- 
tions, notably that of 1886 and i887» excavating at the Baby- 
Ionian ruins of Surghul and El Hibba) , has finished its work of 
examining Babylonian and Assyrian ruins desirable for excava* 
tions. The return of the two scholars to Berlin is looked for 
shortly. Their report is expected to arouse enthusiasm enough 
to send a large German expedition to Southern Babylonia in the 
near future. 

News comes from Bagdad that the French Consul-General 
de Sarzec, who successfully explored large portions of the ruins 
of the early Sumerian city of Lagash, represented by the ruins 
of Tello, has resumed work at the same place. According to a 
Turkish newspaper of Constantinople his new excavations have 
been rewarded by the discovery of ** a bronze statue with a tab- 
let bearing an inscription.*' 



EARLY MANUSCRIPTS OP THE BIBLE. 

THERE has recently been published a valuable work by W. 
A, Copinger, LL.D., F.S.A., etc., entitled, ** The Bible 
and its Transmission. Being an Historical and Bibliographical 
View of the Hebrew and Greek Texts, and the Greek, Latin 
and Other Versions of the Bible (both Manuscript and Printed) 
Prior to the Reformation." Mr. Copinger alludes to some of 
the materials used by ancient scribes, and, after mentioning the 
statement of Pliny that the oldest writings were upon leaves of 
the palm tree and later upon the inner bark of trees, he repeats 
the conjecture of Simon and Dr. Adam Clarke that the earlier 
parts of the Scripture were written in this manner ; but he notes 
the hypothesis of Dr. Kennicott that the first manuscripts were 



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$0 BIBLIA. 

upon skins, and he finally assumes, on the most plausible theory, 
that the ancient autograph of the Pentateuch was written on 
linen. This material, as we know from its remarkable preser- 
vation in the tombs of the Egyptian kings, is of extraordinary 
durability. No linen manuscripts survive, however. Some- 
thing like two thousand copies of the Old Testament in Hebrew 
manuscripts have been found in various quarters of the globe, 
but, says Mr. Copinger, ** we have not a single copy known 
certainly to be a thousand years old." The disappearance of 
the ancient Hebrew manuscripts has never been satisfactorially 
accounted for, Mr. Copinger observes. He offers as the most 
probable solution the fact that the Jews were so particular in 
regard to the accuracy of the text that all defective copies of the 
Scriptures were, little by little, destroyed. He also recalls the 
practice of the Jews of destroying, from motives of reverence, 
all old and worn-out copies, describing the place called the 
** Gheniza '* in the synagogue, where all such copies were de- 
posited in order that they might be reverently disposed of, and 
not fall into profane hands. Speaking of the parchment rolls 
in which the Hebrew manuscripts are preserved, Mr. Copinger 
gives an interesting account of the manner of their production. 
He says : — 

** Minute directions are given as to the writing of these syna- 
gogue rolls. They were to be written with pure ink only, and 
on parchment prepared from the hide of a clean animal for this 
express purpose by an Israelite, and fastened together with 
strings made of the sinews of clean animals ; every skin must 
contain a certain number of columns of prescribed length and 
breadth, each containing a given number of lines and words ; 
no words might be written by heart or with points, nor unless 
they were first orally pronounced by the copyist ; the name of 
God was to be written only with the utmost reverence, and 
previous to writing it the scribe had to wash his pen. The want 
of a single letter, or the redundance of a single letter, according 
to some authors, vitiated the entire codex ; while others assert 
that it was permissible to correct three such errors in any one 
sheet ; if more were found, the copy had to be condemned as 
profane, or unfit for religious purposes. When a copy had been 
completed it had to be examined or corrected within thirty days 
after the writing had been finished, in order to determine 
whether it was to be approved or rejected. It does not appear 
exactly from these directions what corrections could well be 



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BIBLIA. 91 

made on the reading over, if the view of some authors be correct 
that a single wrong letter vitiated the manuscript.** 

The earliest manuscript of the Greek text of the New Testa- 
ment that is preserved to us is that known as the Codex Sinaiti- 
cus, written in the fourth century, and now lying in the Imperial 
Library at'St. Petersburg. This manuscript was manufactured 
from the skins of antelopes, a whole skin having been required 
for every two leaves. Mr. *Copinger notes that parchment of 
various tints was used for these ancient texts, and that the ink 
was also colored to produce certain decorative effects — a great 
change from the austere Hebrew practice. St. Chrysostom tells 
of Biblical manuscripts in which letters of silver and gold were 
employed. Less care was taken, also, in these manuscripts to 
secure absolute purity in the parchment. It was customary to 
erase the letters from ancient manuscripts and set forth the New 
Testament on the cleaned surface, the result being that modem 
scholarship has rescued from these palimpsests numbers of 
classical treasures which had been previously lost to our 
knowledge. 

Dr. Copinger's work is a folio of 340 pages, and is illustrated 
with twenty-eight facsimiles. 



EXPLORATION AND BIBLICAL CRITICISM. 

DURING the last fifty years the excavations in Assyria, 
Babylonia, Egypt and Palestine, and the explorations in 
Arabia have opened up an entirely new field. The ignorance 
and confusion which prevailed in the study of the historical por- 
tions of the Old Testament before the discovery of the Babylonio- 
Assyrian inscriptions was lamentable, but not to be avoided. 
Before this period there did not exist satisfactory lexicographical 
and historical material on the basis of which either the language 
or the text of the Old Testament could be scientifically studied. 
The Hebrew literature itself to which we have access is limited 
in extent, and yet covers a historical period vast in its extent. 
We are often at a loss as to the original pronunciation of the 
Hebrew. The original text of the Hebrew books in many cases 
is uncertain. All these and many other facts which might be 
suggested show that for an understanding of the Old Testament 
we must have help from outside sources. 

This help a kind Providence has now placed within our reach. 
But there must be men who will undertake severe labor in the 



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9* BIBLIA. 

different fields in which the help has been distributed. The 
materials which excavation and exploration have already pro- 
vided must be studied and the results applied. Moreover there 
are hundreds of important sites to be excavated. Some of the 
most important mounds of Assyria in the north and of Babylonia 
in the south have never been touched. Others have been exca- 
vated only in part. In Palestine very little has been done and 
in the Hittite country only two or three mounds have been laid 
bare. It may truly be said that only the smallest portion of the 
work has yet been finished. 

Outside the field of exploration there are many questions to 
be studied. These are of great interest in themselves, and at 
the same time of great importance to the study of the Bible. 
For example : Is the civilization of the Semite people really 
Semitic or is it foreign ? Whence came the many customs and 
institutions which have long been supposed to be peculiar to the 
Hebrews but which more recent study has shown to be common 
to many Semitic nations? What is the exact relationship 
which exists between the Hebrew accounts of the creation and 
the deluge and those of the Babylonians ? Were the Hebrew 
borrowed from the Babylonian, or the Babylonian from the 
Hebrew, or did both go back to an earlier and originally 
common source ? Was the Hammurabi dynasty Arabian ? Do 
the results obtained from a study of Glaser's Arabic inscriptions 
warrant the view of Sayce and Hommel **that the system of 
name formation which we find in the South Arabian inscriptions 
was already in existence at the beginning of the second millen- 
nium before Christ, and that the numerous personal names 
ascribed to patriarchal and Mosaic times were in general use at 
this period, and could not have been invented in or after the 
time of the kings — ^when a totally different system of nomencla- 
ture obtained — and thrown back into antiquity retrospectively ' * ? 
Shall we, with Sayce-Hommel, bring Abraham from Ur in 
southern Babylonia, or, with Budde-Kittel, from Ur in southern 
Armenia ? Shall we accept the Assyrian system of chronology, 
and, if so, how shall we harmonize it with the Hebrew ? Of 
what importance are the recently discovered Tel el Amama 
tablets for the study of the Old Testament ? 

There is also much work to be done on the historical inscrip- 
tions. Many of the religious texts have never been copied. The 
psalter of the Babylonians is much more extensive than that of 



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BIBLIA. 93 

the Hebrew. While the Hebrew has 150 Psalms, the cuneiform 
literature contains thousands. The Babylonian psalter is rich 
in penitential psalms, and some of these read remarkably like 
those of the Davidic collection. The astrological tablets and 
those containing the omens have scarcely been touched, although 
they occupy an important place in the Babylonian religious 
literature. The history of the Assy rio- Babylonian religion is 
still to be written. In the annals of the kings we learn of the 
court, of the waging of war, of the reception of tribute, of the 
building of palaces and cities, of the digging of canals and the 
construction of walls. In the contracts, on the other hand, we 
come in contact with the people and with the commercial life of 
the nation. We find the most elaborate system of contracts and 
receipts, bills of sale, notes, etc. In the letters we meet a dif- 
ferent phase of both court and common life. We have the letters 
of greeting from a subject or a member of the royal family to 
the king or queen-mother, or from the king to the subject. We 
have also diplomatic and military reports from generals and 
governors of provinces ; records of the transportation of horses 
for military purposes, astronomical reports, request for the ser- 
vice of a physician, with a diagnosis of the case ; reports from 
priests, physicians, park commissioners, gardeners — in short, a 
discussion of all the topics of the day. 

These are a few of the more significant lines of scientific 
Semitic investigation contributing to the knowledge of the Old 
Testament. The material is increasing every day. Scholars 
will arise in large numbers to study it and to apply the results 
of this study in the biblical sphere. The work cannot be done 
by everybody. Men must be found to devote their lives to the 
work. Where shall they be found ? Will the churches furnish 
them? Will Christian men come forward to give themselves to 
the fullest training in the philology, archaeology, history, chro- 
nology, and literature of the Semitic peoples and thus to fit 
themselves for the highest contributions to biblical science? 
Will the churches encourage them to do this ? or is it to be left 
to those who are not in sympathy with evangelical Christianity? 
Only scholars, and well-trained scholars, can adequately fulfil 
the requirement. Are we to give our sympathy and help to 
those who in the spirit of Christian self-sacrifice undertake such 
tasks? This is a vital question. May it be pondered by lead- 
ers among us. [Biblical Words. 



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94 BIBLIA, 

ARCHiCOLOQICAL NOTES. 

Asia Minor has recently been explored by Mr. W. M. Ram- 
say, who in his ** Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia " (London, 
1895), has published one hundred and fifty Christian inscrip- 
tions from the southwestern and west central districts of Phrygia. 
One of his discoveries was the Alexander stela and the Abercius 
stela on his first and second visits to Phrygia. The Abercius 
inscription was known to the Byzantine hagiologists, but had 
been considered generally as a piece of legendary poetry. The 
biography of Abercius relates that Aberciiis was Bishop of 
Hierapolis in Phrygia in the second half of the second century, 
and that during the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus 
he visited Rome, and on his return in his seventy -second year 
caused his epitaph to be engraved upon a slab. But the unsolv- 
able difficulty appeared that among the Bishops of Hierapolis at 
that time the name of Abercius does not appear. This doubt 
vanished perfectly in consequence of the discovery of Mr. Ram- 
say in 1882. He found a stela from the year 3000 of the 
Phrygian reckoning, 216 of the Christian reckoning. In his 
second journey he found the original inscription of Abercius 
built into the walls of a bath. Putting these two stela together 
and with the help of the manuscript copies the entire inscription 
is reproduced. 

It appears that the stone found in 1882 contained an inscrip- 
tion taken from the first and second parts of the Abercius in- 
scription, with the substitution of Alexander for Abercius, and 
is hence called the Alexander stela. The entire inscription 
makes up forty-four lines. In substance it relates that Abercius 
went to Rome to behold the splendor of the city ; that he passed 
through Syria, visited Nisibis, crossed the Euphrates, and 
everywhere faith was his gn^ide, and everywhere he fed upon 
the mystic **Ichthus,'* and everywhere he received brotherly 
greeting. 

De Rossi esteems this inscription one of the most important, 
one of the most remarkable monuments which Christian an- 
tiquity has given us. 

Contents of Revue d' Assyriologie et d* Arckiologie Orieiitale, 
Vol IV., No. 4: The Construction of the King Our- Nina, ac- 
cording to the Notes of M. de Sarzec, by Leon Heuzey ; The 
Form of a Treaty between Sirpourla and Gisban, by F. T. 
Dangin — one plate and numerous illustrations. 



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BIBLIA. ^5 

Contents of the Orientalische Litteratur Zeitung , Vol. I., No. 
3 : The Rejection of Scientific Results — Conferences ; Bezold, 
Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyounjik Collec- 
tion of the British Museum, by Hugo Winckler; De Morgan, 
Researches in the Origins of Egypt (II); Pre-historic Ethno- 
^^phyand the Royal Tomb of Negada, by W. Max Mtiller; 
JanseiL, The Geographical Diffusion of Islamism, with Account 
of the Various Rites, Sects, and Religious Brotherhoods in the 
Various Countries of the World, by Martin Hartmann ; Hoff- 
man, What do we Understand by Scientific Biblical Research ? 
by F. E. Peiser; Griffith, Wills in Ancient Egypt, by A. 
Wiedemann, 

Contents of Recueil de Travaux Relatifs d la Pkilologie et t 
VArchiologie EgypHennes et Assyriennes^ Vol. XX., Nos. i and 
3 : Criticism of a Criticism, by Emile Chassinat ; Comments on 
the Hymn of Triumph of Mereneptah, by W. Max Miiller; The 
Last Lines of the Stele Mentioning the Israelites, by E> Naville ; 
The Building Inscription of Amenophis III. and the Flinders 
Petrie Stele, by W. Spiegelberg ; Notes on Assyrian Epigraphy 
and Archaeology, by V, Scheil; Notes and Remarks, by G. 
Daressy ; Gleanings, by A, Pelleguni ; The Temple of Apet at 
Camac, by Aug. Baillet; Gleanings from the Land of Egypt, 
by A. H, Sayce. 

It has been supposed that the Buddhist cult has been extinct 
in Travancore for 8oo years at least, and there were no Buddha 
images to be found in that country. Rev. W. J. Richard, the 
C. M. S. missionary at Alleppey, writes that he has found, 
about thirty miles north of Quilon, a sitting figure of Buddha 
of heroic proportions, carved from granite. The statue is nearly 
covered by water, it being situated close to the canal. 

We have received the second edition of a pamphlet of thirty- 
six pages, entitled ** Egypt, Its Monuments, and Work of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund/* by Gen. Chas. W. Darling, A.M. 
This pamphlet contains, besides an account of the work of the 
Fund, three interesting poems on **The Obelisk," ** The Vocal 
Statue of Memnon," and **The Temple of Kamak.** These 
poems were no doubt inspired by the author*s visit to Egypt, 
and are replete with poetic grace and archaeological knowledge. 
General Darling is an enthusiastic worker in the interests of the 
Eg^ypt Exploration Fund. Copies of this pamphlet can be ob- 
tained from the author at Utica, N. Y. 



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^ SrSLIA. 

Contents of Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache und Alfer- 
iliumskunde. Vol. XXXV, No. 2 : An Egyptian Grave on the 
Sinai Peninstila; Remarks on the Cofims of the Middle Empire; 
The Servants* Statues from the Graves of the Old Empire (with 
4i8 illitstrations) ;: The Contents of the Half-Sphere according to 
a Fragment of Papyms of the Middle Empire, all by L. Bor- 
chardt ;: A New Satirical Papyrus, by E» Brug sch Bey ; Zu, the 
Ethiopian Hieroglyphic, by A. Erman;. Demotica, by J. J. 
Hess ; The Cheta-Chief in Cuneiform Inscriptions,, by J. A^ 
lCnt!idt2on ; On the Date of the Period in Egypt, called Neo- 
lithic, Libyan, and New Race,, by J. E. Quibell j The Discovery 
of Salt of Quma^ by G. Schweinfurth and L. Lewin, 



Contents of the Joumml of the Buddhist Text mnd Anthropo^ 
logical Society, V<rf. V., Part 4 : Folk Tales of Korean Children, 
by E. B. Landis, M.D. \ History of the Madhyamika Philoso- 
phy of Nagarjuna, by Prof. Satis Chandra Acharyya Vidya- 
bhusana, M.A. ; Parentage, Age, and Fatherland of Siddhartha, 
styled Gautama Buddha, by Dr. R. Sen ; Life of Chaitanya 
(continued). 

Volume VL of the Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets 
in the British Museum has recently been issued. Among other 
texts it contains a list of the names of the years by means of 
which contracts were dated, a fact that naturally reminds one 
of the Chinese cycles of years. Of the volumes issued during 
the past year VoL III. contains five texts recording the build- 
ing of previous temples in the Old Babylonian Empire and a 
number of contracts drawn up in the reigns of Gamil-sin and 
other kings of Ur. Vol. IV. also is devoted to commercial 
records from Babylonia, mostly written about 2300 B. C. to 
3000 B. C* In Vol. v., among other interesting documents, 
the editor, Mr. L. W. King, has supplied copies of a number of 
lists of archaic signs preserved in the Kouyunjik Collections of 
the Museum, which appear to have been made in a certain 
order, according to which other lists were grouped, and which 
consequently will be of special value to cuneiform scholars. 

Volume IX. of Prof. Hilprecht's Cuneiform Texts from Nip- 
/ttr has been issued from the University of Pennsylvania. It 
contains 120 commercial documents drawn up in the reign of 
the Persian king Artaxerxes I., several of which are translated 
and explained in a short commentary in the introduction to the 



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'work. There is also a full concordance of proper names of the 
time of Artaxerxes I^ which will considerably facilitate the 
study of these texts. 

This cellection makes n quarto volume <ii 90 pages and lias 
•92 plates, 

At a meeting last year of the philosophical division of tire 
Hoyal Prussian Academy of S<aenoes, a monograph by L. Bor- 
chardt, ** On the A^ of the Sphinx of Gizeh,*' was presented. 
The £^ge is determined, first, by the stripes oi coloring whicli 
are found — at least an statues — odt before flie sixth dynasty^ 
and do not become usual until the Middle Empire, and, second, 
l>y the ornamentation of the Tiead-dress. The arrangement of 
the steipes of the lead-dress ia groups of three occurs ^nly in 
the twelfth dynasty, perhaps onty under Amenemhat III. ; the 
statues o! the thirteenth dynasty already have head-dresses with 
«qual stripes. The Sphinx, then, is not earlier than the Middle 
Empire, f. ^., about 2000 B, C Between the paws stood origin^ 
ally a statue of a g:od, 

The celebrated epic poem known "as the ^^ GelgamisTi Epic,^' 
is the oldest known epic poem in the world, dating certainly 
before 2500 B. C, and it was then copied from still older legends* 
It consisted of twelve books, and was arranged upon an astro- 
nomical principle, flie subject matter of each of tlie books being 
made to correspond with one of tlie signs of the Zodiac. During 
the early Babylonian monarchy, from 2500 to 1500 B. C, there 
are constant allusions to these legends, and they no doubt 
formed a national poem for the Babylonians, similar in some re- 
spects to those of Homer among the Greeks. 

The first tablet containing the epic has not been found, and 
the top part of the second is missing. The discovery of the 
tablets containing this epic created a profound sensation for the 
reason that it included the Babylonian account of the Creation. 
When George Smith discovered and translated these tablets he 
provisionally translated the name of the hero of these legends 
**Izdubar/' and considered him as the Biblical Nimrod. Others 
have given the name as Gisdubar, but Mr. Pinches found that 
the name of the Chaldaean hero was pronounced ** Gilgamesh," 
at least by the later Babylonians, and Professor Sayce at once 
recognized the identity of this name with the Gilgamos of 
^lian, and thus arrived at some idea of the date assigned by 
the ancient historians upon the banks of the Euphrates to the 



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98 BIBLIA. 

hero of their legend ; for Sevechoos, who appeared in the work: 
of Berosiis as the first king after the Flood, and one of the 
mythical princes who preceded the Median dynasty. 

We would call the attention of the readers of Bibua to a re- 
cent investigation oi this celebrated epic from the pen of Father 
de Moor, reprinted from articles in the ** Mus€on** under the 
title, * * La geste de Gilgamts Canfrantfe avec la BiMe ei avec Us 
Documents Historiques Indightes.^^ In this work Father de 
Moor attempts the reconstruction of the various Babylonian 
dynasties, the first of which, or Cushite dynasty of Nimrod of 
Erech, is placed between 3310 and 3085 B. C. 



Although scarcely two years have elapsed since the publica- 
tion of Dr. Delitzsch's '* Assyrisches Handworterbuch,** it has 
been found necessary to write a Supplement to that work, and it 
has just been published in Leyden in a quarto of 105 pages. The 
editor is Dr. B. Meissner of Halle, who has made use of such 
books as Tallqvisfs Maqlus-serteSy Ztmmem^s Surpus-series^ 
King's Magic and Sorcery, Craig's Religious Texts, Harper's 
Letters and Bezold's Catalogue. The author has also used 
some unpublished syllabaries and other inscriptions in the 
British Museum, the texts of which he has autographed on 
thirty-two additional plates. This Supplement will be a useful 
addition to Delitzsch's or Muss-Amolt's Dictionaries. 



We learn from the Biblical World that Professor Petrie has 
recently completed a successful winter's work at Dendera in 
Upper Egypt. By the help of his assistants he was enabled to 
complete an unusual amount of investigation within the short 
period of three months. Mrs. Petrie wrote down all the survey 
work and drew all the plans ; Mr. Mace cleaned out tombs and 
worked the men; Mr. Davies did the copying and the Ptolemaic 
texts; Mr. Maclver measured the many hundred skulls and 
skeletons. The place is nearly a mile long and one-half mile 
wide, full of tombs ; but they searched every part and opened 
nearly one-half the area of the ground. The tombs date from 
the fourth dynasty down through the sixth to the eleventh, one 
tomb of the eighteenth, and a few of the twenty-fifth to the thir- 
tieth, with much Ptolemaic and Roman material. Under the 
sixth d3masty Petrie was able to trace a noble family through 
several generations running into the seventh ; a coffin of this 



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BIBLIA. 99 

family bore a religious text containing twelve to fifteen hundred 
signs. 

The architectural results are very good. The brick mastabas 
are nobly built, with great arches and vaulting that remind one 
of Roman brickwork, and they constitute a connected series of 
development of form in the sixth and seventh dynasties. They 
have furnished a large number of inscribed tomb tablets. 

At Hieraconpolis Mr. Quibell has brought to light much of 
importance from the early kings. 

There has recently been discovered in the palace of Tiberius, 
on the Palatine Hill in Rome, an inscription scratched on the 
wall, which is causing considerable controversy among the 
Roman archaeologists. The distinguished archaeologist, Prof. 
Orazio Marucchi, the director of the Egyptian Museum of the 
Vatican, has devoted himself for many years to the study of 
epigraphy, and now he has brought himself into great promi- 
nence owing to his discovery of this inscription, which is over a 
rude picture scratched on the wall of one of the passages made 
by Caligula to connect the Palace with the Forum. Prof. Mar- 
ucchi believes that the picture was drawn by a soldier who took 
a more or less active part in the Crucifixion on Mount Calvary. 
At the right and left are crosses, and soldiers mount ladders 
placed against them. Each person in the great tragedy is duly 
inscribed with his name, and ** Piletus" was undoubtedly in- 
tended for Pontius Pilate. The inscription of twelve or fifteen 
lines begins with the word ** Crestus ** which is already known 
as a rough form of the name of Christ. Prof. Marucchi deci- 
phers part of the inscription as follows : ** Crestos^ virgis OEstis 
decretus mori^ super palum vivus fixus esi^*^ which is to say, 
** Christ, after having been beaten with rods, having been con- 
demned to die, has been attached living to the cross.'* Prof. 
Marucchi will soon issue a pamphlet on the subject, with fac- 
similes of the graffito. 

The recently published number of the **Berichte'* of the 
Royal Academy of I^eipzig will contain an interesting contribu- 
tion by Professors Socin and Holzinger to the final restoration 
of the text of the celebrated Mesa Stone chiefly based on a new 
collation of that text with the original in the autumn of 1897. 
The authors show that the time has not yet come to publish a 
final edition of the inscription and that several of the readings 
proposed by Dr. Clermont-Ganneau must be eliminated from 
the text. 



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BIB LI A. 



THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

The following subscriptions have been gratefully received 
since the last report : — 
Adams, Rev. W. W., D.D., . 
Atterbury, Rev.W. W., D.D., 
Baldwin, W. D., Esq., . 
Barton, Prof. G. A., Ph.D., . 
Bickmore, Prof.A. S., Ph.D., 
Bigelow, Rev. Dana W., 
Borden, Mrs. J., . 
Brockway, Rev. A. A., . 
Buncher, Charles, Esq., 
Butler, Miss Virginia, . 
Cohen , Charles J . , Esq. , 
Cone, Mrs. Sarah B., . 
Davies, Prof. W. W., . 
Davis, Joshua W., Esq., 
Dike, Rev. S. P., D.D., 
DODGE, REV. D. STUART, 
Durrell, Rev. J. M., D.D., . 
Easter, Rev. John, Ph.D., . 
Parnam, Mrs. Henry, . 

Piske, Dr. J. F 

GODDARD, MRS. MARY T., 25.00 

Greene, E. K., Esq., . 

Halsey, Rev. A. W., . 

Hinke, Rev. Wm., 

Jewett, Rev. J. R., . . 2.50 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for United States. 
4,2 Quincy Street^ Cambridge^ Mass, 



I2.50 


Kennedy, Miss Louise, 


Iio.oo 


5.00 


Kerr, Rev. John T., 


2.50 


5.00 


Ladd, Rev. J. T., . 


2.50 


2.50 


MILLS, D.O., ESQ., . 


50.00 


5.00 


Morrow, Rev. James, D.D., 


2.50 


10.00 


Nichols, G. Leslie, Esq., 


5.00 


1.25 


Niles. Hon. William. . 


5.00 


2.50 


Pearson, Miss E. H., . 


5.00 


5.00 


Person, W. E., Esq., . 


2.50 


5.00 


Randolph, J. P., Esq., . 


2.50 


5.00 


Rendell, Prof. I. N., . 


5.00 


2.50 


Rhode Island College, . 


2.50 


2.50 


Ropes, Jas. Hardy, Esq., 


5.00 


5.00 


Sower, Christopher G., Esq., 


5.00 


5.00 


Stanton, Rev. J. P., 


5.00 


25.00 


Sugden, Eben, Esq., . 


5.00 


5.00 


Syracuse Library, 


5.00 


2.50 


Thayer, Prof. J. H., D.D., . 


5.00 


10.00 


Webster, Rev. W. G., . 


5.00 


5.00 


Whitin, Mrs. J. C, 


5.00 


25.00 


Winslow, Rev. W. C, D.D.. 


5.00 


5.00 


Wood, Prof. I. P., Ph.D., . 


2.50 


2.50 


Woodman, Rev. E. R., 


5.00 


2.50 


Worcester, Rev. John, . 


5.00 



THE 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 
ARCHiCOLOOICAL SURVEY FUND, AND THE 
QRAECO-ROMAN BRANCH. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from May 20 to June 20 are gratefully acknowledged : 



John B. Atkinson, 

Edward M. Brewer, 

E. R* Burpee, 

Rev. Joseph Carey, D.D., 

Rev. James Carter, D.D., 

Mrs. Joseph H. Choate, 

Mrs. L. L. Cobum, 

J. P. Cranford, 

REV. D. STUART DODGE, 



I5.00 Edmund Dwight, . . . I5.00 

5.00 Robert H. Gardiner, . . 5.00 

5.00 JOHN L. GARDNER, . . 25.00 

5.00 Miss Harriet Gray, . . lo.oo 

5.00 George A. Greene, . . 5.00 

5.00 David Harlowe, . . . 10.00 

5.00 MORRIS K. JESUP, . . 25.00 

5.00 REV. LEONARD W. KIP, . 25.00 

25.00 THORNTON K.LOTHROP, 25.00 



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BIB LI A. 



lOl 



Rev. Samuel May, D.D., . $5.00 

Miss Leila R. Martin, . 5.00 
George S. Morison, . .5.00 
MRS. FRANCES A. MOUL- 

TON, 25.00 

Prof. Edward North, LL.D., 5.00 

Miss Sarah H. Perkins, . 5.00 

Prof. Walter S. Perry, . . 5.00 

Miss Harriet H. Phillips, . 5.00 

Rev. Wm. Ross, . . . 5.00 

Mrs. Henry K. Sheldon, . 5.00 

J. H. Treat, .... 10.00 

Pres.Wm. P. Warren, LL.D., 5.00 

Rt. Rev. Edwin G. Weed, . 5.00 

J. E. Werth, . • . . 5.00 

Mrs. John C. Whitin, . . 10.00 

Mrs. Joseph T. White, . . 5.00 

Rev. John Worcester, D.D., 5.00 

Rev. W. L. Worcester, D.D., 5.00 

From May 20 to June 20, I 



Art Institute of Chicago, . I5.00 

Bangor Seminary Library, . 5.00 

Baptist Theological Seminary, 5.00 

Century Association, . . 5.00 

City Library Association, . 5.00 

Congregational Library, . 5.00 

Free Public Library,Newark, 5.00 
Harvard University, .5.00 
Lake Erie College Seminary 

Library, .... 5.00 

Library Co. of Philadelphia, 5.00 

Long Island Historical Soc*y, 5.00 

Minneapolis Athenseum, . 5.00 

New York Public Library, . 5.00 

Providence Athenseum, . 5.00 

Salem Public Library, . . 5.00 

Seabury Divinity School, . 5.00 

State Hist'l Soc., Wisconsin, 5.00 

Wellesley College Library, . 5.00 

have received very thankfully 



these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey Fund : 



Miss Lucy C. Alsop, 
Edward M. Brewer, 
J. P. Cranford, 
Rev. James Carter, D.D., 
Rev. D. Stuart Dodge, . 
Miss Harriet Gray, 
George A. Greene, 



I5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5-00 



GEORGE B. INCHES, 
Rev. Leonard W. Kip, . 
Miss Leila R. Martin, . 
Miss Harriet H. Phillips, 
Rt. Rev. Edwin G. Weed, 
Mrs. John C. Whitin, . 



fco.oo 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
20.00 



From May 20 to June 20, the following subscriptions to 
the Graeco- Roman Branch are gratefully acknowledged : 



I5.00 Mrs. J. M. W. Jones, . . I5.00 

5.00 Rev. Leonard W. Kip, . . 5.00 

5.00 Miss Leila R. Martin, . . 5.00 

5.00 Rev. Philip S. Moxom, D.D., 5.00 

5.00 MISS A. WALWORTH, . 25.00 

5.00 Mrs. Sarah E. Whitin, . . 5.00 

Francis C. Foster, 

Honorary Treasurer, 
Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, S9 Temple Street, Boston. 



Rev. James Carter, D.D 
J, P. Cranford, 
Mrs. M. C. Crocker, 
Stephen W. Driver, 
Mrs. R. P. Gaggin, 
Miss Harriet Gray, 



The Archaeological Survey Fund branch needs subscriptions 
in order to ensure progressive work next fall. Already five folio 
volumes have appeared and prove the value of this department 
of our Society under the superintendence of Mr. F. LI. Griffith, 
who also edits the Archaeological Report, that yearly brochure 
which summarizes the explorations in Egypt for the year and 
publications upon Egypt. He has made an earnest appeal to 



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I02 BIB LI A. 

this office, in order to resume labors in Egypt, saying, ** You 
will now see how much we are in need of money if we are to 
commence an active program." We should raise $500 before 
November, and I earnestly appeal for special subscriptions for 
this branch of our work which must sustain itself. 

Mr. George B. Inches has generously contributed $50, which 
I place at the beginning of the five hundred dollars. I hope 
others will follow his example ; but I remind every reader of 
BiBLiA that a five-dollar subscription finds its welcome, and 
that the volume will amply repay that contribution to so good a 
cause. Wm. C. Winslow, 

Honorary Secretary U, S, A, 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Abraham and his Agb. By Henry Georgb Tomkins, Latb Vicar 
OP Branscombb, etc., Mbmbbr op the Committee op the Pales- 
tine AND THE Egypt Exploration Funds, etc. 

One of the best books on the Life of Abraham has been Mr. 
Tomkins* work, published in 1878, and which has long been out 
of print. The many remarkable discoveries made in recent years 
in Bible lands have thrown so much new light upon the life of 
the patriarch that it has been found necessary to rewrite this 
book, and we are pleased that Mr. Tomkins has been spared to 
do it, for his intimate knowledge of modem discoveries, his 
familarity with original texts, his habit of minute research and 
his scholarly spirit, make him peculiarly adapted for work of 
this kind. 

There is no more interesting character in early history than 
that of Abraham, the patriarch honored by Jew, Christian, and 
Mohammedan as the divinely appointed founder of the true 
religion. Among Mohammedans he is known as El-IChulil 
**The Friend,'* i.e. of God; and it is thus he is commonly 
designated. He was the ** father of the faithful,** the progeni- 
tor of the chosen people, the great leader of the national migra- 
tion. He was the father of many nations. Jew and Gentile 
claim him as ancestor. By Israelites and Ishmaelites, as well as 
the countless tribes that fill Arabia from the Red Sea to the 
Persian Gulf, he is renowned and honored with steady 
devotion. The fact that to-day there is no more widely spread 
name, and none held in greater popular reverence, shows how 
important is the sphere he fills in the world's history. 

We would like to know much more than we do about the 



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BTBLIA. ro^ 

* * Friend of God, " but all our knowledge of him is to be found in 
Genesis from chapters eleven to twenty-six. Philo, Josephus, 
and other Jewish writers, add nothing reliable. 

During the sixty years that Abraham lived in Babylonia he 
must have become well acquainted with Babylonian power, 
customs and worship. As we learn from the tablets found at 
Tell el Amama, the Babylonians at that time were an educated 
people. LoAg before the time of Abraham Egypt had reached 
a high state of civilization. Canaan and Babylonia had their 
libraries, and their scribes who Itept the records on imperishable 
•clay. 

Mr. Tomkins has endeavored in giving an account of Abra- 
ham to sketch in the background of the historical picture in 
-which he is the central figure ; for the devious path of his pil- 
grimage here on earth led him * * from one kingdom to another ;" 
from his cradle-land in Mesopotamia, the mother country of all 
civilization, to that marvellous land of Egypt, where the light 
still shines on monuments which were old when Abraham came 
thither. As Mr. Tomkins says, ** his tent-pegs were every* 
where struck into ground already rich with the harvest of the 
past, and broadcast with the seed of all the world's future destiny.'* 
The history of the nations and people of the time of Abraham 
is intensely interesting especially in the light of modem dis- 
coveries. It is only in recent years that the land of Abraham's 
nativity is known by the name of the capital city, and the true 
site of which has been identified by the recent inscriptions found 
on the spot. Ur was a walled town many centuries old at the 
time of Abraham's birth, and was the great port for the com- 
merce of the Persian Gulf, the capital of Chaldea in the time of 
Ur-ba'u, whom Hilprecht's excavations at Nippur shows to 
have reigned about 2200 B.C. 

Mr. Tomkins devotes three chapters to the fatherland of 
Abraham, pre-Abrahamic history of Babylon, and the religious, 
political and social conditions, showing that Abraham grew up 
a man of rank surrounded by all the conditions and influences 
of civilized life, and in the centre of the world's interests and 
rivalries. An interesting chapter is given to Abraham's migra- 
tion to Kharron, and then five chapters describe the land of 
Canaan and Abraham's connection with it, as a wealthy sheik 
surrounded by a large following and immeasurable flocks. 
Recent discoveries have shown that there was much intercourse 
between Babylon and Canaan, and extending into Egypt, and 



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I04 B I B L I A. 

it is not surprising that Abraham having heard of the fertile 
lands of Egypt, should consult the comfort and safety of his 
people, and of his cattle, and should take them to that country. 

Mr. Tomkins devotes two chapters to the early and increas- 
ing connection between Western Asia and Egypt in their rela- 
tion to the history of Abraham, and to an account of Egypt as 
it was in the 12th dynasty, when Abraham and his family were 
possibly sojourning there. A chapter is devoted to the Hyksos, 
during whose dominion a large number of Egyptologists place 
Abraham's sojourn in Egypt. The best evidence so far relating 
to the Hyksos has come from ** the field of Zoan,'' for it is here 
that the monumental evidence has been discovered by the ex- 
plorations of Mariette and the scientific excavations of Petrie. 
We find that at the end of the 13th dynasty the Delta swarmed 
with foreigners, and the 14th dynasty was thrust out of all 
I<ower Egypt, and Memphis fell into the hands of the intruders. 
Mr. Tomkins gives careful attention to the data which at pres- 
ent enable us in some sort to estimate the character of these 
conquerors, and the efifect of this rule in modifying the condi- 
tion of the country and people. The approximate dates assigned 
to the beginning of the Hyksos domination by the best author- 
ities, and the date of Abraham's entrance into Canaan accord- 
ing to Bible chronology, make it extremely probable that 
Abraham was in Egypt during the occupation of that country 
by the Shepherd kings. 

Professor Goldziher, in his work on the ''Mythology Among 
the Hebrews y'' asserts that Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, 
and the whole group of patriarchal characters of the Bible in 
general, had no real existence, but are mythical creations be- 
longing to a system of very early development. Mr. Tomkins 
devotes the last chapter of his book to the vindication of the 
narratives in Genesis respecting Abraham, and shows that his- 
torical research is daily adding fresh confirmation to our trust 
in the sacred records, and that the life of Abraham is a vital 
part of that unique, coherent, and divine development which 
St. Paul calls ** the purpose of the ages." 

Mr. Tomkins draws largely from the works of Sayce, Hom- 
mel and Maspero, and the Babylonian work of Hilprecht and 
Haynes. The book is illustrated with ten pages of plates con- 
taining representations of fifty-one objects. 

(London : Eyre & Spottiswoode ; New York : E. & J. B. 
Young & Co. ,- i2mo., pp. xxii, 262. Price $2.50.) 



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BIBLIA 

A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XL Meriden, Conn., August, 1898. No. 5 



THE RECENT DISCOVERY OF ROYAL MUMMIES 
AT THEBES. 

THE discoveries made at Thebes, by M. Loret, successor 
to M. de Morgan as director-general of antiquities in 
Egypt, are of the highest importance. It is said that many 
years ago, when yet a student in the French Mission Archceo- 
logique bX Cairo, he suspected the existence of the tomb of 
Amenhetep IL in the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings at 
Thebes, where hitherto, the earliest identified had been that of 
Amenhetep III. Now, M. Loret has found there, not only the 
sepulchre of Amenhetep II., grandfather of Amenhetep III., 
but also that of Thothmes III., father of Amenhetep II., and 
perhaps the greatest conqueror and builder-king in Egyptian 
history. The fortunate explorer has communicated a prelim- 
inary account of these discoveries to the Egyptian Institute at 
Cairo. The tomb of Amenhetep II., found on March 8th, is 
cut in the rocky side of the valley, almost opposite to that of 
Rameses III. It contained so many royal mummies as almost 
to complete the tale of monarchs of the great Theban epoch, 
by filling the gaps in the sequence of kingly dead found in 
1881 at Deir-el-Bahri. In the tomb of Amenhetep II. were 
the bodies of himself, his son Thothmes IV, and his grandson, 
Amenhetep III., of Akhenaten, Sety II., Siptah, Setnekht (?), 
Rameses V, and of others too much injured to be as yet identi- 
fied. Coffin-lids and mummies had been much interchanged 
in ancient times. Thus the mummy of Amenhetep III. was 
covered with the lid belonging to the coffin of Sety II., and lay 
on the coffin of Rameses III.; but the mummy of Rameses III. 
was found at Deir-el-Bahri. 



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io6 BIB LI A, 

The mummy of Amenhetep II. lay in its own coffin, gar- 
landed with flowers. The coffin 'rested in a splendid sar- 
cophagus of alabaster, partly sunk in the floor of the sepulchral 
chamber. Without the chamber is a hall, the roof supported 
by columns and the walls decorated with a long solar text, as 
though a mighty yellow papyrus had been unrolled upon them. 

It is extremely remarkable and against all our expectations 
that the mummy of the great heretic Akhenten (Khuenaten) 
should be found associated with the mummies of orthodox 
kings. One would rather suppose that it would have been 
burnt by the restorers of Amen- worship when they so ruth- 
lessly eradicated his hersey and erased his name from the 
monuments. Queen Hatshepsut also fell under the ban of her 
successors, and her mummy has not been recovered. Nor has 
that of Merenptah. the supposed "Pharaoh of the Exodus." 
Were his bones left in the Red Sea ? With these two excep- 
tions we now have the complete series of the mummies of all 
the chief monarchs of the great Theban period of Egyptian 
history. 

The tomb of Amenhetep II. was crowded with statuettes, 
funerary furniture and mummies, but everything of value had 
been removed in ancient times; even the gilding of the coffins 
had been scraped off. But evidences of human sacrifice have 
remained undisturbed; the body of a bound victim testifes to 
the truth of the representations on the walls of certain Theban 
tombs which depict the strangling of such victims in the course 
of funeral ceremonies. 

The tomb of Thothmes III., discovered on February 12th, at 
a spot about 100 metres beyond that of Amenhetep II., was 
comparatively empty. His mummy was at Deir-el-Bahri, but 
two well-preserved mummies remained in one of the chambers 
of his tomb and may be those of wife and daughter. There 
was also some little furniture, and fine mythological paintings 
remain on the walls. F. Ll. Griffith. 



EXCAVATIONS AT DENDERAH. 

A LECTURE delivered by Professor Petrie, at University 
College, London, on May 19th, enables a recent reference 
in this journal to the results of his work at Denderah to be 
supplemented. Of these results it may at once be «aid that, 
while they have yielded no startling information, they enlarge 
a. 9orrect previous knowledge in so many directions, the total 



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BIBLIA. 107 

addition to science and to the equipment of museums, must 
be regarded as highly satisfactory. This is particularly the 
case in respect of sepulchral architecture. 

Now that the cemetery of Denderah, the ancient Tentyra or 
Ant, has been thoroughly worked through, it has yielded up its 
history in valuable, if scanty and uncertain payments. The 
gfraves, with only one important exception ( a fine stela of one 
Abu Suten, of late in the 3rd dynasty ), begin with the middle 
of the 6th dynasty, and this with apparent suddeness. The 
mastabas of the princess of Ant being among the earliest dated 
remains. These carry us probably to the 7th dynasty, but un- 
fortunately at this point, exact data fail, and though the graves 
may belong to intermediate times, nothing allows of fixity till 
we reach the nth dynasty, which is announced by the character 
of the inscriptions and burials, as well as by the cartouche of 
a Menhuhotep. Then a significant break occurs in the testi- 
mony. Not one of the names characteristic of the lath dynasty 
appears, and, except for a few occurrences, which may be termed 
accidental, the cemetery, and consequently the town of Den- 
derah, seems to have been well nigh abandoned for nearly two 
millenniums. In the period of the later Egyptian dynasties, 
burials again occur, some being those of persons of a certain 
rank, whose massive sandstone sarcophagi lay in large subter- 
ranean chambers. Two good stelae of this date are found. 
With the days of the Ptolemies, the importance of Denderah 
definitely revived. To this the graves witness as well as the 
temple, a large part of the nth dynasty cemetery having been 
reused for the excavation of hundreds of underground vaults, 
in which mummies were laid by tens and twenties under protec- 
tion of glaze amulets. To these later periods must be assigned 
in the main, the cult and preservation of sacred animals, as 
evidenced by the interments of sacred cows in the corridors of 
the mastabas and of smaller mummied animals in the cata- 
comb tunnels. 

The fortunes of Denderah must of course be mirrored in 
this history of its cemetery, but we seek in vain the fuller 
meaning of the prosperities and adversities with which it seems 
to have met. One important piece of evidence is gained from 
the appearance here of the same class of tombs from the 4th 
to the nth dynasties. The continuity in forms of burial points 
to the absence of great racial eruptions and changes. This 
with other contributory data, has led Professor Petrie to with-^.r 
from the provisional theory that his " New Race " represents a 



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io8 BIB LI A, 

^a^t Libyan invasion between the 7th and nth d3masties, and 
to see in it the prehistoric population of Egypt. 

The stones of the mastabas show us a series of five of the 
rulers of the town during the dynasty. Of these, Prince Mena 
is the earliest ; for a panel and the doors of his painted sarco- 
phagus show him to have lived under Pepy I, Merenra, and 
Pepy II. " Mena." The name is iniportant ; it had not hitherto 
been known except as that of the founder of the Egjrptain 
monarchy. This is the first occurence of the name of Mena 
and adds proof, scarcely needed since last year, of the tradi- 
tional first king of Egypt. The fine stela from his mastaba has 
been left in the Ghizeh museum. Prince Adu was apparently 
successor of Prince Mena, as the fragments of a fresco in his 
mastaba chamber name him keeper of the pyramids of Pepy I 
and II. The other two princes whose names and titles have 
been rescued from oblivion are Merra (also called Meraqer) 
and Beb. In his stone sarcophagus, the lid and interior of 
which are covered with religious texts in minute hieroglyphs, 
the latter has made us a bequest, which, for amount of unique 
material or earliness of recension, promise to compare with 
the important literary discoveries of Egypt. 

A feature of the mastabas of Denderah is the complete 
absence of those serdabs which are so characteristic of the 
cemeteries of Memphis. Consequently Ka statues were lack- 
ing, save for a sitting figure of Adu I, in limestone, found half 
way down the well, and two small though good, examples of 
nth dynasty work. One of the latter, representing one Atsa, 
was buried in the clay wall of the underground chamber. 

The first mastabas of Denderah are of brick and are orna- 
mented on the eastern face with a running inscription in stone 
and with vertical recessed grooves at intervals. These repre- 
sented false doors, since over each of them an inscribed stone 
drum and panel were originally fixed. The tomb of Merro had 
as many as thirty such recesses. In several cases the mastaba 
had on its north side a large courtyard, from which a turning 
stairway led to the top, where, according to Professor Petrie 
offerings were probably made, and possibly Ka statues were 
placed. In the mastaba of Adu I, an arched tunnel ran steeply 
down from this place to the sepulchral chamber underground 
which in this case was cruciform and lined with slabs roughly 
sculptured and painted. Where this tunnel met the spacious 
wall, it ended in an imposing and perfect brick archway of four 
courses. Both arch and lined vault are the earliest known. 



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BIBLIA. 109 

This strange construction which seems to imitate internal ar- 
rangement of the pyramids, occurs with variations in the 
tombs of the three succeeding princes. Although the sculptors* 
work which this cemetery has yielded is often poor and some- 
times execrable, exceptions occur. Some panels of Mena have 
hieroglyphs finely cut in the boldest possible relief, and there 
is work of the nth dynasty which has much merit, some of it 
even recalling the art of the Old Kingdom. Much of this later 
stone, strange to say, was found, broken or complete, amongst 
the material with which the tombstones were refilled. Besides 
the peculiar maze of brick catacombs, the cemetery contains a 
rock cut tomb of one Antef aqer, the f a9ade of which was made 
by cutting deep into the rising ground. It includes a long 
portico with nine square pillars of living rock, a gallery at 
right angles and three chambers at the still lower depth, 
thus suggesting the later tombs of the Kings at Thebes. 

Some strange caches of temple furniture fell to the profit of 
the explorers. One contained beautiful fluted vases of ham- 
mered bronze, known before only from pictures of the i8th 
dynasty and by similar examples from Troy. Another has 
verified the monuments by giving us a spouted libation vase 
of Rameses II, and an incense burner, the exact counterpart 
of that with which the King performs ritual on temple walls. 
Deposits of broken glaze and glass of New Kingdom date and 
Roman periods reveal a practise of carefully interring even 
the fragments of sacred utensils, when they were deemed past 
use. 

To be just to ancient civilization, piety, and impiety, it may be 
added that nearly all the graves had been plundered at least 
once. How soon after burial this might take place is shown 
by the mastaba of Adu I, where a subterranean tunnel had 
been driven unerringly from without, into the very side of the 
sarcophagus. 

N. DE G. Daviks. 

London. 



JENSEN'S HITTITE DECIPHERMENTS. 

ONE of the most puzzling questions of oriental archeology, 
has been " who were the Hittites ? " The Bible account 
distinguishes two groups of population to which it gives the 
designation Hittite. The first of these are the Hittites of the 
South, a branch of the Canaanites, belonging to that branch 
of the Hamitic stock which dwelt between Zidon and Gaza, 



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1 



no BIBLIA. 

and as far inland as Hamath. They are established in Pales- 
tine in the time of Abraham, who bought of the sons of Heth 
at Hebron, the cave in which he buried Sarah. Esau took two 
of his wives from the neighboring Hittites. The Hittites of 
the North were an important people, and their country is 
called in the Bible " the land /)f the Hittites." Solomon had 
commercial dealings with " all the Kings of the Hittites," and 
there was evidently a country large enough to send forth its 
armies to the help of foreign kings. The monuments of the 
Hittites are to be found all along the lines of the two military 
high-roads which run through Asia Minor from east to west, 
and centered in the district where the ruins of the Hittite city 
of Boghaz Keni and the palace of Eyuk may still be seen. 

Up to the present time we are ignorant of the language or 
languages which they spoke. It was certainly not Semitic, as 
the hundreds of names that have come to us do not yield a 
Semitic |tymology. Sayce has considered the language as not 
Indo-European, but conjectures, from the evidence of proper 
names, that the language of the Vannic cuneiform inscrip- 
tions is that to which it was nearest allied. Lenormant has 
also called attention to the resemblence of Hittite to the lan- 
guage of the Vannic inscriptions (proto-Armenian), of which 
Georgian is the best living example. EflForts have been made 
to find a key in the Mayan or Peruvian of America, and also 
in the Japanese. In 1871 Dr. J. A. Johnson considered this 
writing to have been invented by the Assyrians, the Egyptians 
or the Hebrews; and, in this direction, more lately Captain 
Conder has sought a connection between the Hittite hiero- 
glyphs and the most ancient hieroglyphs of Egypt. Dr. Wm. 
Hayes Ward, 1873, pointed out the Cypriote syllabary as show- 
ing the closest resemblance, and he also drew up a list of char- 
acters possessing formal correspondence in the two systems of 
writing. 

Yet, up to the present time, we must admit that thus far 
only a very few characters are plausibly identified, and no 
sentence has been read, nor even a proper name. Prof. Sayce 
says that he has tried every possible and impossible combina- 
tion that has come to his mind, and that, until we can discover 
a bilingual text of some length, we shall not be able to read 
any connected Hittite text phonetically; although, thanks to 
the employment of ideograms, it may be possible to get a good 
idea of the signification of an inscription. Menant, Ball, and 
Halevy have ascertained the meaning of the characters for " I " 



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BIBLIA, III 

and "am," i|i|ir occuring at the beginning of inscriptions, 
while Peiser recognized another sign frequently met with in 
Hittite texts as a '* divider." 

When in May, 1892, Peiser published his first attempt at de- 
ciphering Hittite inscriptions, Professor Jensen reviewed the 
book, and having exploded Peiser's theory, he published as the 
result of his own first study of the Hittite inscriptions, two 
articles in the Sunday School Times^ and an article contributed 
to Vol. 48 of the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen 
Gesellschaft^ in which he gave a general analysis of the con- 
tents of these inscriptions, and determined several phonetic 
values successfully. Prof. Sayce, however, says that " unfortun- 
ately, I cannot say that it is more successful than tl^ose that have 
preceded it." Prof. Sayce adds, "the fact is the insufiiciency 
of our materials, and the uncertainty of the reading of much 
that we possess, make the phonetic decipherment of the Hittite 
texts impossible That so keen-sighted and well- 
equipped a philologist as Prof. Jensen should have failed, is 
but a further proof of the hopelessness of the task." 

In the Sunday School Times of July 2, Prof. Hilprecht has an 
interesting article on Prof. Jensen's decipherments. He says 
that it will always remain to be regretted that the language 
employed in these fundamental essays of Prof. Jensen's was 
very heavy and partially obscure; that the rich material was 
not well sifted and disposed, and that the whole subject was 
presented in a rather unattractive and indigestible form. 
Prof. Hilprecht says that these deplorable defects do not just- 
ify the incomprehensible attitude of European and American 
scholars towards Jensen's work. Instead of an expected vigor- 
ous and critical discussion of the important problem, instead 
of a thorough study and dissection of all the results obtained 
by competent men, an almost death-like silence followed, most 
disappointing to the author, and seriously reflecting upon the 
Egyptologists, Assyriologists, and specialists of early Indo- 
European languages of our present age. In Europe, only 
Schwally, and particularly Reckendorf, who submitted Jen- 
sen's book to a critical examination in the German Journal of 
Assyriology, identified themselves openly with the new de- 
ciphering, while Noldeke and Justi stood faithfully by Jensen's 
side with their ripe scholarship and solid advice. 

In America, Prof. Hilprecht was the only one who took pains 
to really study the new theory, and who had the courage to 
declare in public his sure conviction of the correctness of Jen- 



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112 BIBLIA. 

sen's method and principal results, including his claim for a 
relation of the Hittite language with Old Armenian. Prof. 
Jensen has devoted three more years of arduous labor to elab- 
orating and applying the principles of his deciphering. New 
inscriptions were carefully studied and they attested to the 
validity of his system. In 1897, he published the result of his 
discoveries in a book of 255 pages, entitled, " Hittites and 
Armenians.'* Prof. Hilprecht gives a synopsis of the chapters 
of the work, and says that the book of Prof. Jensen's is a mas- 
terpiece of patient labor, thorough investigation and brilliant 
logical reasoning. The five full years which its author has 
needed in order to obtain the remarkable results here sub- 
mitted are well invested. Notwithstanding the many ques- 
tions still remaining to be answered, Jensen has restored to 
humanity the first pages of a long-lost chapter of early history. 
A stately building will gradually arise on the solid founda- 
tions which he has laid. Grotefend and Champollion at the 
beginning of this century forced the cuneiform inscriptions of 
Persia and the hieroglyhs of Egypt to give up their long- 
guarded secrets. Jensen's deciphering at the close of the 
same century, while less important in its final results, will be 
even more remarkable thap the discoveries of those two 
scholars for the ingenious manner in which it was accom- 
plished. 

Prof. Jensen is a young German Assyriologist, and is well- 
known as the able successor of Wellhausen in the chair of 
Semitic languages in the University of Marburg. The most 
startling theory that he has advanced is " The Hittite language 
is a Indo-European language, with especially close relations to 
the Armenian of to-day, or perhaps, more exactly, its ancestor." 
This theory is fully set forth in the fourth and longest chapter 
of Prof. Jensen's book, and he has stated clearly and fully the 
ascertained results of the grammar and lexicon of the Hittite 
inscriptions. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

THE accounts which have been given of the Haviran by 
Dr. Gottleib Schummacher are very interesting and im- 
portant. His book, "Across the Jordan," published in i886, 
showed him to be a well equipped traveller, able from his long 
residence in Haifa, to deal with the natives, and by his skill as 
a draughtsman to make sketches of ruins and inscriptions. 



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BIBLIA, 113 

From the first he has done his work thoroughly,inot satis- 
fied until he had given an accurate map of the district tra- 
versed. In 1889 his book of the " Jaulan " was published, and 
again we have a most satisfactory account, with map, intinerary, 
list of places, engravings and sketches. The same year ** Abila 
of the Decapolis " was issued in the same style, and this was 
followed in 1890 by " Northern Ajlun," and that in 1895 by 
" Pella." 

The final work of Dr. Schummacher thus far, " Southern 
Bashan," has made a first appearance in the Journal of the 
Oerman Palestine Society, where it fills some hundred and 
sixty pages. A very clear map is given, and there is every 
evidence that the journey was made as profitable as the previous 
ones to that side of the Jordan have been. All this has appar- 
ently been done at the traveller's own expense, and he has 
certainly spared no pains to make his trip as instructive as 
possible. It is to be hoped that he will also give his narrative 
in English, as he did with the " Jaulan," which first appeared 
in the German Journal. 

It be may said here that the commercial value of the recent 
journey is great, because it shows that there is a large wheat- 
growing district within easy reach of Damascus, and one 
which may decidedly promote the restoration of the;;iand to 
prosperity. The further fact that the ruins on that eastern side 
have been so much less disturbed than on the western renders 
them more valuable in the eyes of archaeologists. 

This reference of Dr. Schummacher's unselfish service 
brings me to speak of the great good done to our cause by the 
recent visit to this country of Dr. Bliss. He had only a brief time 
to stay, but he made the most of it, giving lectures at Cam- 
bridge, Hartford, New Haven, Amherst, New 'York, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago and elsewhere, and exciting a needed enthu- 
siasm. Unfortunately some delay in the production of his 
book on Jerusalem prevented his being accompanied by it, but 
the plain story of what he had done, presented with a few 
slides was sufficient, as is evident from the contributions re- 
ceived, to open the eyes of many people to the good work. No 
other lecturer can ever take the place of the explorer as he 
tells publicly and privately of his experiences, and no advertis- 
ment of the work is equal to the personal presence of the man 
of action ' showing by speech and bearing that he is well 
adapted to his work. Dr. Bliss has made many new friends 
who will follow his labors with substantial interest. 



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114 BIB LI A, 

A word of praise to the living, leads up to a tribute to the 
the dead. The French liner La Burgogne, carried down Rev. 
Walter G. Webster, a young Episcopal clergyman of Provi- 
dence, R. I., our honorary secretary for that State, and the only 
man whom I have been able to regard as a possible succes- 
sor if anything should oblige me to give up my position. I 
first knew Mr. Webster in 1892, when he had recently returned 
from a journey in Palestine. He was then a college graduate 
who had not determined upon a profession, and had studied 
Palestine very thoroughly. He cheerfully undertook a local 
secretaryship and was very faithful in it. Gradually the plan 
of a clerical life developed in his mind, but he was as always 
very modest about it and ready to be set aside as unfit if that 
must be. In this humility was his strength, and, having com- 
pleted his studies, he was made assistant at St. Stephen's 
church in Providence, and had been only recently ordained. 
He was going abroad for a needed rest, being not a strong 
man, when he was called hence. We need such spotless young 
men of high quality, who revere the office which they fill and 
so exalt it. This Palestine work draws people together as in a 
crusade, and I had been much benfietted by Walter Webster's 
honest scholarship and christian faithfulness. Would that 
the fund had more like him, for it needs them. 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for the United States. 
^ Quincy Street^ Cambridge^ Mass, 

P.S. — The firman for excavations at Gath, the home of 
Goliath, now known as Tell-es-Safi, has been granted and will 
be utilized at once, as preparations had been made in advance. 
As the expenses will be about fi^^ hundred dollars a month, 
it is hoped that subscribers will renew promptly and that new 
ones may be gained. 

T. F. W. 



EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND EXHIBITION. 

MR. Petrie's discoveries at Denderah this winter have 
been almost entirely of the early period of the Vlth 
and Vllth dynasties, and of the late Ptolemaic and Roman 
times. 

Amongst the finds of the early period, two quaint pot- 
tery jars attract the attention of all visitors. They repre- 
sent mourners, one weeping, the other tearing the hair. The 
expression and gestures of grief being remarkably rendered. 



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BIB LI A. 115 

The chief pieces of sculpture are the inscribed slabs. The 
hieroglyphs in some cases are carved in unusually high relief, 
in others they are incised. These slabs are from the tombs of 
the great princes of Denderah, Mena, Adu, and Merra, whose 
great mastabas are wonderful monuments of the architecture 
of that dark period. 

Statues and statuetts appear to have been unfashionable 
at Denderah, as only two were found, one of which is exhibited 
here. It is a small group of two seated figures, Mentuhotep> 
son of Bebta, and his wife Nefermesut, daughter of Hepy. 
The head of the man was broken oflF and lost in ancient times, 
but the woman's figure is quite perfect and is a good specimen 
of the fine workmanship and delicate finish of an Egyptian 
artist. 

The Ptolemaic and Roman remains are unusually inter- 
esting. The large find of blue-glaze amulets, coarse but 
effective, is very important in the history of amulets, as we are 
now able to trace their modifications and changes through 
almost the whole period of Egytian history, from the Vth 
dynasty down to the Roman times. 

The gorgeously colored glass — both mosaics and cylinders 
— are also Roman or late Ptolemaic. The cylinders, of red, 
blue, and turquois glass, are of peculiar interest as it is pos- 
sible they may have been lamps. No Egyptian lamps have 
been found hitherto, and the method of lighting subterranean 
chambers and passages still remins a mystery. 

Among the curiosities of Denderah was a cemetery of 
animals where thousands of little mumified bodies were buried. 
Dogs in particular were very numerous, so much so that in the 
latest times no other animals seem to have been buried there. 
The dogs are of all sizes, and were probably the up-standing 
smooth-haired dogs so common still in the East. 

Many small objects are shown in the exhibition, but space 
forbids the mention of more than a few. Several sets of the 
winged scarab and four genii of the dead are of the XXVIth 
dynasty, and show clearly the delicate, detailed workmanship 
of that period. The bronze objects are also of importance, 
and are of various periods. 

And last but not least is the fine collection of Roman 
coins, all in perfect condition. 



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ii6 BIB LI A. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Professor Georg Mortiz Ebers, the well-known Egyptologist, 
died at Tutzing, near Munich, Bavaria, August 8th. 

Georg Mortiz Ebers united in himself the qualities of a dis- 
tinguished Egyptologist and of a popular historical novelist. 
Professor Ebers was born in Berlin, Germany, March i, 1837. 
His father, a banker, died before the birth of his son, and the 
son received his early instruction from his mother, and subse- 
quently studied in Frobel's school at Keilhau. Later he at- 
tended the gymnasiums of Kottbus and Quedlinberg, and 
finally matriculated at the University of Gottingen as a student 
of law in 1856. But serious illness two years later obliged him 
to relinquish jurisprudence and take up the study of philology 
and classic and Oriental archaeolgy. In 1859, he attended the 
University of Berlin, where he devoted several years to the 
study of Egyptian languages and paleont ology. 7 

Completely recovered from his illness, he*now visited several 
of the larger European museums, where he revelled in the 
magnificent collections of antiquities. Returning to Germany 
in 1865, he became a lecturer at the University of Jena, a place 
which he retained until 1868, when we was appointed professor 
of the Egyptian languages and archaeology. In 1869 he made 
an extensive journey in Egjrpt, Nubia and Arabia, by way of 
Spain and Northern Africa, whence he returned to the father- 
land, after an absence of fourteen months, to accept the 
professorship of Egyptology at the University of Leipsic, a 
place he occupied till his retirement in 1889. Apart from his 
scientific services, his thesis on obtaining the doctorate " On 
the Twenty-sixth Egyptian Dynasty," and his larger work on 
" Egypt and the Book of Moses," and his " Scientific Journey 
to Egypt," i869-'79, were the cause of his promotion to that 
chair. 

The winter of i872-'73 again found him in Egj'pt, where he 
made several valuable discoveries, of which the scroll known 
as the Papyrus Ebers was the most important, and deserves 
especial mention. A complete description and interpretation 
of this celebrated papyrus appeared in two volumes in 187 a 
and made its discoverer famous. Although its contents relate 
to medical subjects, it is important on account of the insight it 
gives into the language of the ancient Egyptians. 

In 1877, Professor Ebers had a severe attack of paralysis, 
which prevented him from walking. To this illness the further 
development of his literary activity is mainly attributable, for 



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BIBLIA, 117 

since the state of his health incapacitated him from pursuing 
more serious studies, he sought and obtained a means of 
recreation and agreeable occupation in imaginative composi- 
tion. This was the origin of " Uarda ; a Romance of Ancient 
Egjrpt/'his second work of fiction, following "An Egyptian 
Princess," the former appearing in 1877, and the latter in i8|4. ^ 

His other novels include "Homo Sum" (1878), "The Sistefs" ' 
(1880), "The Emperor and the Burgomaster's Wife" (1881), 
"Only a Word" (1883), "Serapis" (1885), "Margery" (1889), 
" Per Aspera" (1892), "Cleopatra" (1894), "In the Fire of the 
Forge" (1895), " In the Blue Pike" (1896), " Barbara Blomberg" 
(1897), and "Arachne" (1898). 

But Ebers did not devote the latter years of his life alto- 
gether to the writing of romances. Among his later works 
on Oriental subjects were "Through Goshen to Sinai " (1872), 
"Egypt ; Descriptive, Historical and Picturesque" (1878), and 
"Palestine; Descriptive, Historical and Picturesque" (1881), 
written in collaboration with Guthe. He also published in 
1886, "Lorenz Alma-Tadema ; His Life and Work." In 1893, 
an English translation of his autobiography appeared, with 
the title, " Story of My Life." 



PETRA. 

Oh, thou once mighty ! on whose sculptured brow, 

There lies the desolation of a past, 
Wherein, oblivion around thee cast, 

Unknown, forgotten of the world wert thou. 
As in thy prime, so lovely art thou now, 

A rock-cut gem deep set in ramparts vast 
Of circling hills ; a radiance still thou hast, 

To which e'en time's relentless touch must bow. 

A city thou when Moses talked with God, 

And now, one vast and rock-strewn, silent plain, 

Whereon no man nor living thing may rest, 

Thy crumbling courts where beauty's feet have trod, 

Thy dustless tombs wherein thy kings have lain. 
Lit by the glory of the crimsoning west. 



Before the advent of the Aryan or Semitic races, philo- 
logists, like Lenormont, Oppert, Schmidt and others, held that 
there was a Turanian civilization which preceded the Semitic 
civilization of Babylon and Nineveh, and that the cuneiform 
letters were invented by this Turanian race, and that remnants 
of their literature have been preserved in what is called the 



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ii8 BTBLIA. 

Sumerian language. Hommel {Die Sumero — Akkaden^ ein 
altaisches Volk\ maintains that there is a strong affinity be- 
tween the Sumerian and the Altaic. Oppert maintains that 
the Sumerian was so vigorous that it was long the official lan- 
guage of the kings of Babylon and Nineveh, and that it may yet 
be found on many inscriptions, over against Assyrian text, in 
the manner of translation and commentary. Hincks gave the 
name Akkadian to this language, but Oppert takes Akkadian 
to be absolutely synonymous with Assyrian, both simply im- 
plying the Semitic speech of Nineveh and Babylon, the lan- 
guage of the third column of the Achaemenidean cuneiform 
inscriptions, and calls ttat the language of the race that pre- 
ceded the Semites a»<f ^ l^umerian. The champions of the 
Sumerian theory assume "that the language disappeared at a 
certain crisis, but that the so-called Turanian priests carefully 
preserved it in the practice of their religion. 

Some scholars have denied the existence of that language, 
which is markedly agglutinative, and of which several philol- 
ogists have written the grammar; it has been represented as 
an error in the deciphering, as a form, either archaic or sym- 
bolical, hieratic, so to speak, of ordinary Assyrian. One of the 
chief opponents of the Sumerian theory was M. Halevy (0^.f^r- 
vations Critiques sur les pretendus Touraniens de la Babylon) 
who endeavored to show that Sumerian has nothing in com- 
mon with the Uralo- Altaic family, from which its phonetic 
system differs widely, while its roots have neither the same 
form nor the same use. He shows that the pronouns have 
nothing in common, that the conjugation is constructed on 
essentially different conditions, and that the two vocabularies 
do not bear serious comparison. 

There has recently been published in Leipzig, a pamphlet of 
forty pages by F. H. Weissbad, entitled Zur Losung der 
Sumerischen Frage, which gives an excellent idea of the 
present state of the so-called Sumerian or Sumero-Akkadian 
question. The author gives an exhaustive history of the 
problem, adding his own views on the impossibility of denying 
the existence of a Sumerian language, which is still rejected by 
Dr. Halevy. He arrives at the conclusion that the name 
" Sumerian '* for that language, preposed by Dr. Oppert, is by 
far the best, and, at the end of his interesting investigations, 
refutes the various attempts that have been made to compare 
the Sumerian with other languages, such as Chinese, Turkish, 
or the Egyptian. 



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BIBLIA, 119 

At the recent annual meeting of the Archaeological School 
of America, Professor Wright, reporting for the Joint Commit- 
tee of the Council and of American School of Oriental Study 
and Research in Palestine, presented an interesting statement 
in writing from Professor J. Henry Thayer, who first proposed 
the establishment of the school. The council by vote ex- 
pressed its approval of the proposals of the Joint Committee, 
authorized the Executive Committee of the Council to effect 
the union of the proposed school with the institute upon con- 
ditions similar to those under which the schools at Athens and 
in Rome were affiliated with the institute, and agreed, if this 
union was effected, to guarantee to the school in Palestine aid 
to the amount of $500 for the year 1 899-1900. 



The proposal to renew the contract with owners of property 
in the vicinity of the great inscription at Gortyna in Crete, 
conferring rights of excavation, was not accepted. A sum not 
to excess $1,250 was voted for the publication of the excava- 
tions at the Argive Heraeum. 

The applications for places in Professor Dorpfeld's tour in 
Greece in the spring were so numerous that the members of 
the school were unable to obtain admission. In this emer- 
gency, Professor Norton consented to conduct the party 
through Greece. In the excavations at Corinth, the director 
has had this year in all about $3,300, including $1,060 raised 
by the institute last year. These excavations, which are not 
concluded, have brought to light extensive and interesting un- 
derground passages, apparently connected with the spring 
Pirene, and several objects of interest, among which is a lintel 
with the inscription "Synagogue of the Hebrews." Two- 
thirds of the imposing fa9ade have been laid bare. 



The committee voted that the letterpress of the Heraeum 
publication should be limited to two volumes, neither to ex- 
ceed 500 pages with not more than 125 plates. The letterpress 
and plates are to be manufactured in the United States under 
the editorial care and supervision of Professor Waldstein, but 
in the immediate charge of Dr. J. C. Hoppin and an advisory 
committee. The cost of this publication is not to exceed 
$5,000. 

The interesting article in this number of Biblia, by Mr. 
Griffith, describes the opening of the tomb of Amenhetep II, 



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120 BIB LI A, 

king of the eighteenth djmasty, who reigned some 1500 B. C. 
The mimamai^ of Amenhetep is intact, and with it are found the 
Mummjiuu of Thothmes IV, Amenhetep III, Setnekht, Sety II, 
who is supposed to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus, and 
Rameses IV, Rameses VI, and Rameses VIII, who reigned 
between 1500 and 1150 B. C. This is the first time that the 
body of an Egyptian king has been found retained in the tomb 
prepared for him. While the valuable objects had been thous- 
ands of years ago taken from the tomb, it is itself in perfect 
preservation ; the paintings are as fresh as if made yesterday, 
and the sarcophegi and chaplets of flowers in the best condition. 
One curious thing is that in the first chamber of the tomb was 
found the body of a man bound on a richly painted boat, his 
arms and feet tied with cords, a gag in his mouth, and wounds 
in his breast and head ; and in the next chamber three other 
bodies of people who had been violently killed. It it believed 
that these bodies represent human sacrifices offered at the time 
of a royal burial. 

Professor Max Miiller has borne testimony to the great loss 
which Sanskrit scholarship has suffered by the sad death of 
Dr. Johann George Buehler, who was drowned in the lake of 
Julich on Good Friday. Dr. Buehler was Profess9r at Sanskrit 
at the University of Vienna, a post which which he accepted 
after fifteen years spent in India as Professor at the Elphin- 
stone College, Bombay. He discovered an immense number 
of valuable manuscripts, coins, inscriptions of which educa- 
tional use was made by the Indian Government, and edited the 
Bombay series of Sanskrit Texts, and Digest of Hindoo Law, 
besides writing a Primer of Sanskrit and other educational 
works. He had a share also in the preparation of the " Sacred 
Books of the Easty* and his most recent work was " Grundriss 
Der Indo- Arise hen Philologie,'* a r^sunt^ oi all that is known «f- 
<»#-al1 thftt in Irwftwn of Indian literature, religion, archaeology, 
laws, coins, etc. Professor Max Mileller says : 

" There was hardly a subject connected with Indian philology 
on which he had not thrown new light. His chief interest was 
centered on historical questions, and on the historical develop- 
ment of the Indian alphabets as preserved on coins, inscrip- 
tions, and ancient manuscripts, he was at present, the highest 
authority. Much more was expected from his pen, for he died 
in the midst of his work." 



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BIBLIA, 



121 



Mr. Vincent Smith, C. S., and Dr. Vost, two leading Indian 
Buddhist scholars, are about to publish their recent discoveries 
in connection with the early history of Buddhism, and particu- 
larly of Gautama-Budda, founder of that faith. Mr. Smith 
and Dr. Vost have made important researches in India in 
connection with the birthplace and home of Buddha, and the 
Royal Asiatic Society will publish the details of their discov- 
eries. These have been made in the Nepaul terai, on the 
borders of Oudh. 



The English translation of the Mahabharata made by Pandit 
Kissari Mohan Ganguli, the Sanskrit scholar, occupied that 
learned man thirteen years, and he has had no reward for his 
for his labors and is now old. A petition asking the British 
Government for a pension for him has been signed by many of 
the most distinguished men in the kingdom. 



It is a well-known fact that astronomy has often proved to 
be a valuable help for the historical sciences. Many a date in 
ancient history has been settled by figuring out the time of a 
solar or lunar eclipse that may have been mentioned in con- 
nection with it. Recently this method has been applied to the 
chronology of the Assyrians. On a tablet preserved in the 
museum in Constantinople there is found a cuneiform inscrip- 
tion in which the statement is made that King Samassumukin, 
" in view of the fatally significant lunar eclipse, which occurred 
on the fifteenth of Shebat, was filled with fear and anxiety." 
Now, the German scholar, G. K. Ginzel, has computed all the 
solar and lunar eclipses back to that period ; and by making 
use of these computations, the Berlin Ass3rriologist, Dr. Leh- 
mann, has concluded that this eclipse took place on the seven- 
teenth of February, 664, B. C. 



Interesting examinations have recently been made on the 
composition of the bread of the ancient Egyptians, by Privy 
Councillor, Dr. Wittmark, in Berlin, in the Egyptian museum 
of that city, where bread of this kind has been preserved. 
This bread turns out to have been made of roughly ground 
barley flour ; and this is of some interest as it confirms the 
view advanced from other sides and for other reasons, namely, 
that the cultivation of barley antedated that of wheat. 



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122 BIBLIA. 

Too little attention has been paid to the Arameans of Damas- 
cus by Biblical students. They stand next to the Babylonians 
and Assyrians in their influence upon the history and the 
•eligion of Israel, in this respect far outweighing the Egyp- 
tians. They are distinguished among their own race as being 
the only Aramean community that ever founded a powerful 
monarchy, ^hey more than once brought Israel to the verge 
of destruction. They profoundly, even though indirectly, 
aflFected the course of Revelation itself, by furnishing the occa- 
sions and determining the character of much of the prophetic 
ministration. We should like to know what sort of people they 
were as individuals, if it were only because the Bible writers 
are so much interested in them. Our curiosity is partly satis- 
fied by the glimpses that we have of the life and character of 
one of their great generals and courtiers, " Naaman the Syrian." 
His story indeed is one of the most interesting and remarkable 
of all Eastern biographies. We wonder how it could happen 
that an alien and a hereditary foe of Israel could bring himself 
to beg or accept the services of a Hebrew. Still more do we 
wonder how the adherent of a rival religion could persuade 
himself that any possible good could come to him through the 
mediation of a prophet of the inexorable Jehovah. Such trust 
in a foreign deity was something quite exceptional in ancient 
Oriental history, though we have a very interisting account, 
from a time long preceeding that of Naaman, of an Egyptian 
princess who was sent all the way to Babylon to be treated for 
a dangerous disease. What specially interests us in Naaman 
in his courtesy, his gratitude, and his touching solicitude not 
to offend against the claims of his national religion while ren- 
dering homage to the God whose power had enlisted his 
adoration. We wonder whether he succeeded in maintaining 
the altar upon the ** two mules' burden of earth" from Jehovah's 
land !— Prof. J. F. McCurdy, Ph.D., LL. D., in The Homiletic 
Review for July. 

It has been known for some months past that the most start- 
ling discovery in Egypt within recent times was made last 
winter by Mr. Quibell. But the secret of all. its details has 
been jealously guarded. No one has been able to draw the 
discoverer out. A prominent Paris scholar succeeded in ob- 
taining a few photographs. French and German Egypto- 
logists succeeded in getting on the track of small bits of in- 
formation. The English authorities who were in possession of 



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BIB LI A, 123 

the chief material were not allowed to write on the subject. 
The first real report of the discovery has been prepared by 
Professor W. Max Mtiller, and it appears in the Sunday School 
Times of July 30. Dr. Miiller went to London to examine such 
squeezes and photographs as were available, then to Paris to 
interview the French Egyptologists, then to Germany on a 
similar mission. 

The place explored by Mr. Quibell, who works in the inter- 
est of the Egypt Research Account, is near el Kab in Upper 
^Srypt- Here he discovered an old temple and a wonderful 
monument in the shape of a hawk, more than two feet high, 
made of hammered gold laid over wood and bronze. The 
weight of the gold is over eighty English sovereigns, so that it 
represents the largest piece of gold ever found in Egypt. But 
the prehistoric antiquities found at this place are much more 
precious for science. Over one hundred sculptured "mace- 
heads," bowls, etc., were found in one trench ; another was 
filled more with statuettes. Says Dr. Mtiller : 

"I must mention that the inscriptions confirm the view 
which I have held from the beginning, that the first dynasty 
of Manetho and of the earlier historians was preceded by a con- 
siderable number of kings not less powerful or civilized than 
Menes. Some religious reasons may have induced the priests 
not to register these * dynasties of the ancestors * and to begin ' 
history with Menes.*' 

We shall look with great interest for the official publication 
of these discoveries. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education. By S. S. Laurie, 
A.M., LL.D. Professor OP the Institutes and History of Educa- 
tion IN THE University of Edinburgh. 

The most remarkable outcome of the work of exploration in 
the East, is the enormous amount of literature that has been 
brought to light among nations and people heretofore con- 
sidered barbarous. Exploration has restored to us the in- 
scribed monuments and records of great civilizations which 
preceded or existed concurrently with the Hebrew people. 
The Tell el-Amama tablets show us that prior to the time of 
Moses, in the fifteenth century before Christ, there was an ad- 
vanced civilization, and scribes from Babylonia taught the 
cuneiform writing to the people of Canaan and to the learned 
in Jerusalem. The work of the Palestine Exploration Fund at 



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12^ BIB LI A, 

Lacish, shows us that there was a powerful civilization and 
literature in the land before the Israelities came there. It is 
only within very recent years that we have been able to form 
an estimate of the culture and social life of the ancient people. 
In writing a history of education it is necessary to estimate the 
civilizing forces at work in different countries in order to form 
a clear conception of their social organization, and of the ideal 
of life and character to which they unconsciously attained. It 
is therefore necessary to study the best products of a people in 
literature, science and art, in order to interpret the course of 
training to which it would naturally endeavor to subject its 
youth to a more or less conscious ideal of national and civil 
life, of personal character, and political justice. 

This is the course taken by Professor Laurie in the work be- 
fore us, and if fully carried out would take several volumes. 
But the author says that his book is not a history, but is a his- 
torical survey, and that nothing essential to the understanding 
of pre-Christian edcation has been omitted. It is a difficult 
matter, within the compass of 400 pages, to give expression to 
the religious and ethical attributes of the various nations of 
antiquity, to life and its duties. Professor Laurie has written 
a very compact and interesting book, and has been very free 
to form his own conclusions from the evidence gathered from 
the best and latest authorities, the writers " often being by no 
means always in agreement with each other or themselves." 

Professor Laurie begins with the Hamitic races, and con- 
siders their political constitution, religion and ethics, literature 
and art, social conditions, women, instruction of the people, 
etc., and this method is followed with the Semitic race, the 
Uro-Altaic or Turanian, and the Aryan or Indo-European 
races, giving the leading religious and social characteristics of 
pre-Christian societies as they were actually found operative in 
the life of the people of each nation taken as a whole. In 
estimating the civilization of a people, the author has confined 
himself to the point of time at which they were approach- 
ing the highest expression of the national idea. We can 
heartily recommend this book to the readers of Biblia. It 
covers a ground not often touched upon by other writers. 

(London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 91 Fifth 
Ave., 8 v(|li, 436 pages. Price, 13.50). 



Contents of the Brahmavadiny Vol. Ill, No. 16. "The Attri- 
butes of God and Man's relation to them," by Swami Abheda- 



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BIBLIA. 125 

nanda ; "The People of Arabia," by Ananta; "Re-incamation," 
Vol. Ill, No. 15, "God and Braham," "The Ethical Ideas of 
Hindus,'* by Swami Saradananda; "Vedanta Missionary Work," 
Triplicans, Madaas. New York Oflfice, Walter Goodyear, 115 
Nassau Street. 



The Empires of the Bible, from the Confusion of Tongues to the 
Babylonian Captivity. By Alonzo Trevier Jones. 

This is not an original work, but the author has brought to- 
gether from the best obtainable sources, the leading facts in the 
history of the empires of the Bible, Babylonia, Egypt, Israel 
and Assyria. Mr. Jones has succeeded in bringing together a 
great deal of information from good authorities, and his work 
will prove a valuable commentory on the International Sunday 
School Lessons, and for all Bible students. 

(Battle Creek, Mich. Review and Herald Publishing Co., 
8 vo., pages 410. Price, I1.50). 



St. Luke and St. Paul. Edited with an Introduction and Notes, by 
Richard G. Moulton, M.A., Ph.D. 

These two volumes of the " Modern Reader's Bible," contain 
the Grospel of St, Luke, followed by the Acts of the Apostles, 
with the Pauline Epistles introduced at the several points of 
the history to which they are usually referred. Thus it makes 
more symmetrial the contents of the New Testament by the 
insertion of each epistle in its proper place in the historical 
narrative. The revised version is followed in these dainty 
volumes. 

Says Prof. Moulton : " The matter included within the cov- 
ers of these two small volumes has turned the world upside 
down, laid the foundations of modem religion and civilization, 
and struck a unity through all history. In the present simple 
arrangement it is possible for a reader of ordinary intelligence, 
almost at a sitting, to traverse the literature from beginning to 
end, and so to bring his individual mind, unhampered by ex- 
traneous comment, into fresh and immediate contact with the 
most dynamic persons, incidents, and thoughts that history has 
produced." 

(New York; The Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Avenue, 
1 vols., i6mo.» ai6, 135 pages. Price, 50 cents each). 



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126 BIB LI A, 

Hbre and There in the Greek New Testament. By Prop. L. S. Pot- 
win, Adelbert College, Western Reserve University. 

A good portion of this book is made up of scholarly articles 
contributed to the Andover Review, the Journal of BibluSj^ 
Literature, and the Bibliotheca Sacra, This book is an excel- 
lent supplement to the commentaries, and it often throws a 
new light upon difl&cult passages. The titles of some of the 
chapters are: "The New Testament use of Agapao and 
Phileo^' " A Point of Grammar in * Gloria in Excelsis,' " " Words 
followed from the Latin," ** Words followed from the Hebrew 
and Aramaic," ** Words not found in Classical Writers," and 
" Does the Preface to Luke's Gospel belong also to the Acts." 
Professor Potwin considers the New Testament as literature in 
the widest sense, bound by its laws, and entitled to all its liber- 
ties, and is therefore to be interpreted on common-sense liter- 
ary principles. 

(Chicago and New York: The Fleming H. Re veil Co., 
lamo., aao pages. Price, $i.co). 



The Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palestina-Vereins, Vol. XX., 
Part 2-3, includes a long and remarkable monograph of Dr. G. 
Schumacher upon the southern part of the land of Basan, with 
a detailed map, and numerous illustrations. This description, 
being both geographical and historical, is of the greatest inter- 
est. 



Professor Sayce is now engaged upon two works, the one en- 
titled. Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations, will be pub- 
lished by Messrs. Service & Paton, and the other. The Life and 
Customs of the Babylonians and Assyrians, will form one of a* 
series of handbooks to be issued by Messrs. Scribner's Sons. 



In speaking of Nebuchadrezzar's palace, Josephus, who lived 
in the first century, A. D., has a short memorandum to the 
effect that " the palace was built in fifteen days," a statement 
which appeared so palpable an exaggeration, as it was one of 
the finest buildings of the time, and was built of exceptionally 
handsome, neatly moulded and stamped bricks, that not much 
attention was ever paid to the words of Josephus. What, then, 
was the amazement of the archaeologists, when on a cylinder of 



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BIB LI A, 127 

Nebuchadrezzar, now in London, they read these words : In 
fifteen days I completed the splendid work. Even supposing 
all the materials to have been brought together, all the art 
work to have been done beforehand, and only placed and put 
together in this space of time, what a command of human labor 
does not such a statement represent ! 



Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall & Co., of London, announce " The 
Mummy's Dream." A novel written and illustrated by H. B. 
Proctor. An Egyptian story of the Exodus, taken from the 
monuments, and agreeing with recent Egyptological research." 

This book undertakes to prove "that there was a religion 
there before the Israelitish Exodus, and that it was in many 
respects as beautiful with holy living, with charity, and toler- 
ation towards the unfortunate and unenlightened as anything 
modem civilization can boast." 



There has recently been brought to light a number of apo- 
caljrpses and romances from the early church. These are 
given to us chiefly through the editors of the Cambridge, 
" Texts and Studies " and all from manuscripts ranging from 
the eighth to the fifteenth centuries. They are largely apo- 
calyptic writings and early Christian romances. 

Among those recently discovered additions to early Christian 
literature are the vision of Paul, the apocalypse of the Virgin, 
the apocalypse of Sedrach, the testament of Abraham, the acts 
of Xanthippe and Polyzena and the narrative of Zosimus. We 
shall in all probability recover still more of this literature, 
which must have been extensive. 

It is from these apocalypses that we have those pictorial 
representations of heaven and hell which have had so wide an 
influence. Only one who read the apocalypse of Peter or the 
apocalypse of the Virgin could have painted such a picture as 
Orcagna's "Triumph of Death," or could sculpture such a scene 
as Adam Kraft's "Last Judgement" on the Church of the 
Virgin at Nuremberg. 



Contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical ARCHiCOLOGY, 

Vol. XX., Part 5. 

The Oracle of Nahum, by Dr. Paul Ruben. Ushabti-box of 

Nes-pa-chred, a priest of Mentu, by Walter L. Nash. The 

Kuthaean Legend of the Creation, by Prof. A. H. Sayce. 



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128 BIBLIA. 

Roman Inscriptions Relating to Hadrian's Jewish War, by 
Joseph Oflford. Contributions on Dictionnaire Hieroglyphique, 
by Dr. Kari Piehl. Mots Egyptians dans la Bible, by Prof. J. 
Lieblein. 

Dr. Ruben puts an entirely new construction upon some pas- 
sages in the Oracle of Nahum. He considers that the verses, 
i, 12, unto ii, 14 form a literary unity, and he discards with 
Wellhausen, some lines of quite a different character (i, i3,ii» 
i> 3)- Wellhausen, Gunkel, Jeremias, Billerbeck, Nowok, and 
others have done their best to elucidate the meaning of obscure 
words and prophecies. Some hold that the prophet wrote in 
Assyria, and appeal is made to the Assyrian coloring of the 
imagery, and to the language. But Volck thinks that the As- 
syrian coloring is nothing more than we would naturally ex- 
pect from a vivid imagination. Dr. Ruben attempts to explain 
the linguistic peculiarities of the prophecy, and shows some of 
the evident corruptions of the text. The result is a translation 
of the Oracle which gives an entirely new idea of the meaning. 
The following is a specimen of Dr. Ruben's translation : 

1. 1 2. Thus saith the Lord: I shall cause to flow mighty 

waters. 

Quickly shall they stream and run and the sound of thy 

name shall no longer resound. 
14. And the Lord has given a commandment concerning 

thee that no more of thy issue shall be sown. 

Out of the house of thy Gods will I cut off the graven 

image and the molten image I will make thy grave. 
ii.2. For he, who is to cause thy inundation, has come up 

before thy battlements,mount the guard, watch the way 

make thy loins strong,' fortify thy power mightV- 

4. Overbearing are his warriors with more than human 
pride the valiant ones make sport with man a terror are 
the chariots in the hour of their preparation. 

5. And the horses rattle in the streets, the chariots rage, 
and jostle one against another in the broad way, they 
seem like torches, like the lightnings they run. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE. 

The publication office of Biblia has been removed to Meri- 
den, Conn., where it had previously been published for ten 



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BIB LI A, 129 

years. The continually increasing growth o£ the magazine re- 
quired more room and larger facilities for printing and bind- 
ing, and the numerous business details incident to a serial pub- 
lication were much more than Mrs. Buckman could possibly 
attend to, and still attend to her very laborious work as secre- 
tary of the Egypt Exploration Fund. It has already seriously 
impaired her health. It has also been found to be a great in- 
convenience to have the editor one hundred miles from the 
office of publication, as it is difficult to have the proof properly 
read, and there was always the danger of the miscarriage of 
copy. 

The publishers of Biblia (who also publish the Connecticut 
Quarterly)^ have one of the best equipped printing establish- 
ments in New England, and they can give more time and at- 
tention to the details of publication. 

Mrs. Buckman will still retain her interest in Biblia, and will 
act as associate editor. She will also receive subscriptions, 
when it is more convenient than to send to the home Office. 



Professor Hilprecht of the University of Pennsylvania, will 
begin excavations in Babylonia at an early date, he having ob- 
tained a firman from the Ottoman government. The work will 
be concentrated upon the platform of Sargon as the lowest 
strata in the temple of Bel, which jrielded such extraordinary 
results during the previous campaign, 1893-96. 



M. de Sarzac*s excavations at Tello, in southern Babylonia, 
have suddenly come to an end, but will undoubtedly be con- 
tinued later on, when the weather is cooler. The German Ex- 
ploring Expedition under Sachau and Koldewey, sent out dur- 
ing the winter of 1897-98, has returned to Berlin. A full report 
of the result of their examination of certain important Baby- 
lonian and Assyrian ruins is in the course of publication. 



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130 



BIBLIA. 



Subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund, the 

ArchaeoIoKical Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch.' 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund» 
from June 20 to July ao, are gratefully acknowledged : 

Mrs. James B. Ames, . $5.00 

E. W. Baraes, 5.00 

Prof. Willis J. Beecher. 5.00 

Walter L. Bogert, . 5.00 

Miss Frances W, Blackwell, 5.00 
E. R. Burpee, . 5.00 

Philip G. Brown. . 5.00 

Rev. A, St John Chambre, 5.00 
D. S. Chatfield, . . 5.00 

Mrs. Odle Close, (iamemoriam) 5.00 

5.00 
50.00 

5.00 

5.00 

1. 00 

5.00 
25.00 

5.00 
10.00 



Mrs. Emmette Goldman, 

THEO. M. DAVIS. . 

Waters S. Davis, 

Mrs. Snsan D. Ely, . 

George Forrest, . 

Henry M. Foster, 

FRANCIS C. FOSTER, 

Mrs. M. A. Gage, 

Mrs. Asa Gray, . 

C. F.jGunther. . . . 5.00 

Pro. J. R. Jewett, Ph.D.. . 5.00 

MISS LOUISE KENNEDY. 25.00 

T. O. Loveland, M. D., 5.00 

Rev. Alexande, McKenzie,D.D. 5.00 

Mrs. Mary R. Mixter, 5.00 

G. LESLIE NICHOLS, . 67.00 

A. J. Parsons, .10.00 



J. M. Pereles, . . 10.00 

Chas. Piatt, ... 5,00 

Mrs. Chas B. Potter, . 5.00 

Thos. Fitch Rowland, . 10.00 

Thos. H. Russell, 5.00 

Prof. G. S. F. Savage. 5.00 

Miss Olivia E. Phelps Stokes, 5.00 

T. W. Thomdike, 500 

N. S. S. Tompkins, . 5.00 

Mrs. Jas. S. Watson, . 5.00 

Mrs. L. H. Wellman. 5.00 

Rev. Richard P. Williams, 5.00 
American Geographical Society, 5.00 



Buffalo Public Library, 
Case Memorial Library, 
Free Public Library, 

Evanston. 111., 
Haverhill Public Library, . 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
Milwaukee Public Library, 
New Bedford Public Library, 
Northampton Public Library, 
Osterhout Free Library, 
Rutger's College Library, . 
Southern Baptist Public Library, 5.00 
The Newberry Library, 5- 00 

Y. M. C. A., New York City. 500 



5.00 

5.00 

5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 



From June 20 to July 20, I have received very thankfully 
these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey Fund : 



Mrs. James B. Ames, 5.00 

E. W. Barnes, 5.00 

Prof. Willis J. Beecher. 5.00 

Walter L. Bogert, . 5-00 



Waters S. Davis. . 5.00 

G. LESLIE NICHOLS, . 25.00 

Thos. Fitch Rowland, laoo 

Thos. H. Russell, 5- 00 



From June 20 to July 20, the following subscriptions to the 

Graeco-Roman Branch, are gratefully acknowledged ; 

Rev. Joseph Carey, D.D., 
Miss Frances H. Close, 
Waters S. Davies, 
R. D. Douglas. . 
Miss Georgiana G. Eaton, 
Mrs. Asa 6ray, . 

Francis C. Foster, 

Honorary Treasurer. 

Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund^ jp Temple Street^ Boston. 



5.00 


Hon. Wm. NUes. 


5.00 


5-00 


Mrs. Chas. B. Potter. . 


5.00 


5'00 


Miss OUvia E. Phelps Stokes. 


5.00 


10.00 


Mrs. L. H. Wellman. . 


5.00 


5.00 


Hon. Horace White, . 


10.00 


5.00 







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GEORG MORITZ EBKRS 



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BIBI^IA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHytOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., SeptexMber, 1898. No. 6. 



THE SPHINX-THE PROBLEM SOLVED. 

WE think the solution of this interesting problem in rela- 
tion to this ancient Egyptian human — headed lion has 
been reached. It has been a standing wonder to the ages 
that have passed since its erection. It is a gigantic human 
head, blanched with age, its face disfigured and broken by 
fanatics, as if rising from the bowels of the earth, and slowly 
ascending from the regions below. It requires no great stretch 
of imagination to conjure up the most strange fancies, and 
assume that it may represent the ancient Nephilim or Gib- 
borim, or the giants of the ancient mythology, who are fabled 
to have sprung from the earth- re-nowned rebels before the 
flood who perished. 

But the Sphinx is not an idle creation and the offspring of 
mere useless fancy. No better type of intellect and knowledge 
exists than the head of a man, or of strength than the body of 
a lion. Their meaning and sublime significance are written 
upon them when understood. And it is the object of this es- 
say to explain the structure, import and date of this magnifi- 
cent wonder of the ancient world. 

The Sphinx was doubtless a creation of the scientific priests 
of On or Heliopolis, forming a part of the astronomical system 
which then prevailed, and which has also been embodied in 
the Great Pyramid. We have both direct and indirect proof 
that the Sphinx and Pyramid belong to the same era. A mon- 
umental stone in the Bulak Museum at Cairo has preserved an 
order of Khufu to keep this huge symbolic monster in good re- 
pair, which would seem to indicate that it was under his special 
care as chief hierophant, Sem or prophet, in the Temple of the 



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132 BIBLIA, 

Sun at Heliopolis, and had his residence there. For this tem- 
ple was the chief centre of Ra worship all over Egypt. 

Note the symbolic and astronomical aspects of the Sphinx. 
The lion was called ari^ which is another form of the sun-god 
name Ra, The entire body of the sun or lion is buried and 
sunk below the horizon in solid rock to represent the constella- 
tion Leo, which is sunk below the horizon at the moment when 
the sun is at the solstice sinking below the equatorial zone. 
Whilst the head of Aquarius, at the same moment, is at the 
winter solstice, ascending therefrom above the equator. The 
epoch represented is that of the evening or autumnal begin- 
ning of the primeval year, with the sun in Aquarius at the 
winter solstice. 

If you examine a celestial map or chart of the heavens you 
will discover how the Sphinx has been constructed and formed 
out of Leo and Aquarius. For at the moment when the sun is 
at the solstitial colure of mid-winter, and during its winter 
passage the ecliptic is then seen in the southern half of the 
heavens and below the equator ; therefore, the whole half of 
the sun's circuit is below it, including the whole body of Leo 
or the lion, which is then at its lowest point below the equato- 
rial zone and at its greatest elevation. This would be the ex- 
act combination which forms this ancient stone monument — 
the head of Aquarius above the body of Leo, with the entire 
body of Leo sunk below the horizon. Hence the necessity of 
placing the head of Aquarius on the body of the lion Leo, and 
the entire body of Leo sunk below the general level of the 
earth's surface in a deep amphitheatre, with nothing but the 
head of Aquarius above the general level of the rocky surface 
or of the horizon. 

Why should the Sphinx be called Harmachis ? Because that 
name (Har-em-akhu) Harmachis is the youthful rising sun 
called " Horus in the Horizon." It represents Aquarius in the 
symbolic Sphinx rising above the horizon at the winter sols- 
tice. In a tablet of Thothmes IV., bearing an inscription re- 
cording a dream of this king, it tells us that Ra-Harmachis, 
which the Sphinx represents, promised him long life and pros- 
perity if he would clear the Sphinx from the desert sand that 
had buried it up to the neck. The king complied with the re- 
quest, and this tablet records the legend. At one time is was 
generally supposed to be a monument of Thothmes IV., but we 
now know it was in existence when Khufu gave orders to keep 
this colossal image in repair. From this legend it seems a di- 



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BIBLIA. 133 

rect inference that the Sphinx was regarded as a representa- 
tive of Harmachis. In short, that it is an embodiment of the 
combined positions of the sun at the summer and winter sols- 
tices at the moment when it is emerging from its mid-winter's 
position, with Leo descending below the horizon and Aquarius 
ascending. 

To complete this astronomical representation it was abso- 
lutely necessary to place the Sphinx in the midst of a large 
amphitheatre, hollowed out of the solid rock below the general 
surface, and thus sink the entire^body of the Sphinx below the 
horizon and general level, so that nothing but the head and 
neck would appear. For the head and neck of Aquarius on 
our celestial maps is just above the equatorial zone at the win- 
ter solstice. The plaleau was hollowed out like an immense 
basin or amphitheatre, in the middle of which the natural rock 
was left as a central core so as to be sculptured into the mam- 
moth stone monument forming -the Sphinx. A sloping descent 
of 135 feet of steps was cut in^ock 40 feet wide as a gradual 
approach to the platform area. This magnificent astronomical 
s3rmbol is 64 feet high, as we now find it, with a platform be- 
neath. 

As the Sphinx represents the two solstices, summer and win- 
ter, it will indicate the declination of the ecliptic at the time of 
its erection, and from that we can compute the date of its erec- 
tion. Its depth below the horizon will be the measure of de- 
clination at the rate of one inch for one minute of arc, and the 
result will be as accurate as if we were using a celestial globe 
or any other instrumentality. The amount of declination is 
12° 54' 48"— 774.8 minutes of arc. So that the body of the 
Sphinx, or so much of it as represents the body of the lion, 
will be below the horizon or general level of the rock by close 
measurement, 12^ 54' 48',— 774.8 minutes of arc— 7 74.8 inches— 
64.57 feet in depth, resting on a rock platform. Numerous 
measurements by diflEerent skilled scientists and explorers have 
found this to be the height of this stone monument. The rea- 
son for excavating this mammoth image out of solid rock be- 
low the surface in the middle of a great basin or amphitheatre 
is now no longer a mystery. The majority of measurements 
give its height at 62 feet without the cap or head-dress. But 
recently Colonel Roum, an American, discovered the long-lost 
cap, painted red, and adorned with the three lotus columns 
and serpent. With the cap in its place the height is 64.57 feet, 
as given above. 



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134 BIB LI A. 

We think the Sphinx is an essential adjunct to the Pyramid, 
and erected simultaneously or during the same period as the 
Pyramid. The astronomical evidence and features are abso- 
lutely identical. Full details will be given at some future time 
in a work devoted to this subject exclusively. But we will give 
one instance out of many by way of illustration. The descend- 
ing angle at the entrance of the Great Pyramid is 26^ 33' 54".! 
at the mouth os the tunnel. Prof. Petrie, in his " Pjrramids 
and Temples of Gizeh," makes the angle 26° 31' 21". The lati- 
tude is 29° 58' 51". So the declination of the Sun at the date 
of erection, when it attained the attitude of the angle of the 
Entrance Passage 26° 33' 54".!, would be as follows : 

2^° 33' 54.1" • 9-6505147 Altitude. 

^P^'sS'si" 9.6987182 Latitude. 



2C 



12° 54' 48".o26i 9.3492329 Declination. 

This declination reduced to minutes of arc would be 774.8= 
774.8 inches of space, or 64.57 feet, as given above, for the 
heighth of the Sphinx. This identity in declination of arc be- 
tween the Sphinx and Pyramid would idicate an identity of 
origin and date of erection. The priestly scientists of On or 
Heliopolis erected both, but we have not space in this article 
to furnish the evidence which demonstrates that fact. The date 
when the Sun had this declination its azimuth would be 
75° 5^' 1 7". 7075* its right ascension 30'' 57' 2i".9373, longitude 
33° 17' 35"- 2 198, and obliquity of the ecliptic 24^ i' 26".4552. 
These results are all built into the very structure of the Pyra- 
mid and of the Sphinx, and are clearly expressed and made 
self-evident by the trenches east of the Pyramid, and refer to 
an instant of time when the sun is due east. Its altitude being 
that of the Eetrance Passage angle at the mouth of the pas- 
sage, 26° 33' 54".i. 

These elements can never occur but once in this combina- 
tion, and at no other date than 2782 B. C. At that time, and at 
no other, was the obliquity of the ecliptic 24*^ i' 26^.455 2. And 
as this value and angle is built into the very structure of the 
Pyramid and Sphinx the date of their origin is now beyond 
question, for the elements of structure will admit of no other 
date. 

This combination of a man's face and head, with the body of 
a lion, was a favorite combination in after years as an expres- 
sive symbol. It appears on the inner walls of Solomon's Tem- 



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BIBLIA. 135 

pie. We are told they were covered with cherubim and palm 
trees, and that each cherub had two faces looking in opposite 
directions. " Each cherub had two faces, so that the face of a 
man looked on one side and the face of young lion looked on 
the other side. It was so made through all the house round 
about." — Ezek. (41 : 19). Each cherub was a complete symbol 
of the summer and winter solstices. 

It is generally supposed to have been a likeness of the ruling 
king and wore the beard of a kiiig. It may have been a like- 
ness of the ruling king, perhaps Khuf u himself, but I am in- 
clined to believe that it had the turned up beard of a god, with 
the crown and head-dress of royalty. The battered face of the 
Sphinx lies inside a rocky amphitheatre 64 feet above its base 
and platform, which the drifting desert s^nds are continually 
filling up and bur)dng the couchant lion part of the body out of 
sight. Captain Caviglia, in 181 7, and recently Prof. Maspero, 
disinterred it. It evidently belonged to the sun divinities. It 
has sometimes been supposed to be a union of the body of a 
lion with a virgin's head, representing the zodiacal signs Leo 
and Virgo. But this is a mistake. It represents a union of the 
summer and winter solstices at the date when the former had 
only 13°. 76 to pass over before leaving Leo, and when it was 
near the royal star Regulus, with the winter solstice near the 
star Fomalhaut in Aquaria. 

This combination of a man's head with the couchant body of 
a lion was a matter of astronomical necessity, not of choice or 
fancy, and the excavation of an enormous basin in solid rock, 
so as to have the Sphinx in the middle, with the couchant body 
of the lion sunk 64 feet below the horizon, was also an astro- 
nomical necessity to place on record the amount of declination 
and obliquity of the ecliptic at the date of erection. Here are 
the elements built into the very structure of the Pyramid and 
Sphinx : 

a6° 33' 54".i 9.6505147 sine Altitude. 

29° 58' 51" 9.6987182 sine Latitude. 

12° 54' 48".o26i . . . 9.3492339 sine Declination. 
30° 57' 2i".9373 . . . 9. 71 1 2850 sine R. Ascension. 
12*^ 54' 48'^o26I . . . 9.3603578 tang. Declination. 

24° i' 26".455i . . . 10.3509271 cotang Obliquity. 
30° 57' 2i".9373 . . . 8.7780196 tang. R. Ascension. 
24° i' 26".455i . . . 9.9606491 sine Obliquity. 

33° 17' 35". 2198 . . 10.1826295 cotang. Longitude. 

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136 BIB LI A. 

These elements are built in the structure of both Pyramid 
and Sphinx ; they are beyond question not liable to error from 
conjecture or mere inference, because they are the result of 
actual measurements and cannot belong to any other date than 
2782 B. C. This is the Sothic year in Egyptian Chronology, 
and the structure of the Pyramid and Sphinx seems to have 
been erected to place that event on record in mammoth sym- 
bols of enduring fame. Their birth-date and horoscope is 
written upon and within them. Admit the elements of struct- 
ure and the date of their erection can be astronomically deter- 
mined beyond either doubt or dispute. 

Hollidaysburg, Penn. S. Beswick, C. E. 



THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 

PARADISE is spoken of as *' a garden eastward in Eden/ 
and nearly all maps of the world found in mediaeval MSS. 
give it a place in the extreme east. The Ganges in those maps 
empties itself into the ocean, about the place where our mod- 
ern map-makers place the most northerly of the Japanese 
islands, and opposite the mouth of the Ganges is the island of 
" Paradisus. " But notwithstanding this definite location, there 
seems to have been a suspicion that the garden might be myth- 
ical, for a MS. in the British Museum declares that " Paradise 
is neither in heaven nor on earth." (*St. Patrick's Purgatory : 
By Thomas Wright, London, J. Russell Smith, 1844, pp. 25): 
"It hangeth between heaven and earth wonderfully, as the 
ruler of all things made it. And it is perfectly level in both 
length and breadth. There is neither hollow nor hill, nor is 
there frost or snow, hail or rain ; but there is fons vitce that is 
the well of life." If Paradise was not thus in mid-air it was, at 
all events, impossible to find it on the earth. Dr. William 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, published in 1863, said : It 
would be difl&cult, in the whole history of opinion, to find any 
subject which has so invited and at the same time so com- 
pletely baffled conjecture as the Garden of Eden. The three 
continents of the old world have been subjected to the most 
rigorous search ; from China to the Canary isles, from the 
Mountains of the Moon to the coasts of the Baltic, no locality 
which in the slightest degree corresponded to the description 
of the first abode of the human race has been left unexamined. 
The great rivers of Europe, Asia and Africa have in turn done 
service as the Pison and Gihon of Scripture, and there remains 



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BIBLIA, 137 

nothing but the new world wherein the next adventurous 
theorist may bewilder himself in the mazes of this most diffi- 
cult question. 

A New World theorist has since argued that Paradise was at 
the north pole, supporting his ingenious contention by many a 
learned chapter. (*Warren: Paradise Found): Sir. J. W. 
Dawson, on the other hand, favours the Delta of the Euphra- 
tes, by the Persian Gulf. According to the Bible geographer, 
says Dawson, the primitive seat of man was in the south of the 
Babylonian plain, in an irrigated district of great fertility, and 
having in its vicinity mountain tracts abounding in such min- 
eral products as were of use to primeval man. Again, he thinks 
there is a curious biblical connection between this district and 
the earliest history of post-diluvian man. The ark of Noah, 
we are told, grounded on the mountains of Ararat, and imme- 
diately after the deluge the survivors moved southward and 
westward and settled themselves in the plain of Shinar. This 
would be natural if to them Shinar or its vicinity was the site 
of Eden. (*Modern Science in Bible Lands : By Sir J. William 
Dawson, London, Hodder & Stoughton, chap, iv.) The latest 
identification of the site of Eden, however, is offered in Pear- 
son's Magazine for February, 1898, in which Mr. Herbert C. 
Fyfe explains the supposed discovery of Mr. H. W. Seton- 
karr, the well-known traveller and big game hunter. It is in 
Somaliland, in East Africa, that Mr. Seton-Karr fancies he has 
discovered a region which tallies with the description of the 
Garden of Eden in Genesis, both as regards its physical con- 
formation and its gold-bearing character. About a hundred 
miles from the coast, in a southwesterly direction from Ber- 
bera, he reached a long, low hill, the western face of which 
forms the right bank of the Issutugan. " When he had reached 
the summit of the hill and thus commanded a view of the 
country on every side he saw that it was surrounded by four 
rivers, the names of which he subsequently discovered to be 
the Bolgasham, the Dago, the Issutugan and the Dararweina." 
It appeared to him also that the climate and the physical con- 
ditions of the country were such as the supposition required. 
Mr. Seton-Karr submitted the hill to a geological examination, 
and to his intense satisfaction he discovered some flint imple- 
ments which might have been made by primitive man. Eng- 
lish experts, indeed, regard them as the most ancient yet dis- 
covered. Mr. Fyfe says they are ancient enough, in fact, to 
include amongst them those which Adam used when 'he 



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138 BIB LI A, 

delved* to turn the bounteous earth to his use. ... In 
fact, Mr. Seton-Karr had found the veritable cradle of the first 
man, and here, on the very same spot, the primitive imple- 
ments with which, in such a favoured region, he had met his 
few and simple needs. 

When there is such a disposition to accept literally the 
legend of Paradise and to locate the Garden of Eden geograph- 
ically, it may be as well to look again at some of those old 
writers who were driven to confess that an earthly paradise 
could never be found. Two centuries ago Dr. Thomas Bumet 
stated the difi&culty as follows : Some think the place of Par- 
adise may be determined by the four rivers that are named as 
belonging to it and the countries they passed through, but the 
names of those rivers are to me uncertain and two of them alto- 
gether unintelligible. Where are there four rivers that come 
from one head as these are said to have done, either at the en- 
trance or issue of the Garden ? . . . We see with what ill 
success our modem authors have ranged over the earth to find 
a fit spot of ground to plant Paradise in. Some would set it on 
the top of a high mountain, that it might have good air and 
fair weather ; others would seat it in a plain or in a river- 
island, that they might have water enough. It is like seeking 
a perfect beauty in a mortal body — there are so many things 
required to it, as to complexion, features, proportions and air 
that they never meet altogether in one person. . . . Neither 
doth Scripture determine with any certainty either hemisphere 
for the place of it ; for when it is said to be the Garden of Eden 
'tis no more than the * garden of pleasure ' or delight, as the 
word signifies. (*Bumet's Theory of the Earth, Book II., 
Chap VII.) 

The ingenious John Wilkins also. Bishop of Chester, about 
the same time, in his speculations concerning " another habit- 
able world in the moon," tells us that some writers, deriving 
their opinion in all likelihood from Plato, located Paradise in 
or near the moon. " Some would have it to be situated in 
such a place as could not be discovered, which caused the pen- 
man of Esdras to make it a harder thing to know the outgoings 
of Paradise than to weigh the weight of fire or measure the 
blasts of wind or call back a day that is past. But notwith- 
standing this, there be some others who think it is on the top 
of some high mountain under the line, and these interpreted 
the torrid zone to be the flaming sword whereby Paradise was 
guarded. (*A Discovery of a New World, etc., by John Wil- 
kins, London, 1684.) 



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BIB LI A. 139 

Paradise was said to be rendered inaccessible by a wall of 
fire surrounding it and reaching to heaven. In a narrative of 
the fourteenth century three monks of Mesopotamia came 
within twenty miles of Paradise, " the place where heaven and 
earth join together in the east." That seems to mean that 
when they reached the extremity of their eastern journey and 
thought fit to turn back, they were told that the place of Para, 
disc was still twenty miles further on. Columbus thought to 
find it, but of course he failed. The pious Mohammedan finds 
the Garden of Eden in Ceylon, and shows us there Adam's 
peak, with Adam's footprint in the rock ; but here we are evi- 
dently in the region of fancy and myth. 

The passage in Esdras, which Bum^t alludes to, is as fol- 
lows : Esdras wants to know whence the wicked heart cometh, 
and the angel Uriel says, I will tell you if you can tell me one 
of these three things : Weigh me the weight of the fire, or 
measure me the blast of the wind, or call me again the day 
that is past. Esdras cannot do it. Then Uriel puts further 
riddles : If I should ask thee how great dwellings arc in 
the midst of the sea, or how many springs are above the firma- 
ment, or which are the outgoings of Paradise, peradventure 
thou wouldst say to me, ** I never went down into the deep, 
nor as yet into hell, neither did I ever climb up into heaven." 
It appears then that even so long ago as the days of Esdras 
Paradise could not be found on earth. And, perhaps, after all 
the modems will have to come nearer to the view of St. Aug 
ustine, who defends Genesis against the Manichaeans and pro- 
ceeds to lay down the principal that, besides the literal mean- 
ing, there was a spiritual meaning which was veiled in the 
form of allegory. George St. Clair. 



THE LAND OF PtNT. 

Part III of M. Naville's royal folio ehition of Deir el Bahari, 
which is now in the press and will probably be issued to sub- 
scribers to the Egypt Exploration Fund for 1896-97, deals with 
the Land of Punt, a subject of much interest to geographers. 

One of the undertakings of Queen Hatshepsu, upon which 
she most prided herself, was the maritime expedition she sent 
to the Land of Punt to open up commercial intercourse be- 
tween Egypt and Inner Africa. The incidents of this expedi- 
tion are depicted in a series of coloured sculptures on the south- 
em wall of the middle colonnade of the Great Temple at Deir 



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140 BIBLIA. 

el Bahari, facing the representation of the miraculous birth of 
the queen. The Punt sculptures were discovered by Mariette 
in 1858. But M. Naville, in the course of his systematic explo- 
ration of the Temple, has been able to add a good a deal to 
what Mariette excavated with undue haste, and his elaborate 
and sumptuous publication for the first time renders all the 
materials available for Egyptologists. 

The name of " Punt " is found in mythological inscriptions 
from a remote antiquity, frequently as synonymous with 
Neterts, "the divine land." M. Naville draws attention to the 
fact that it is generally written without the sign indicating a 
foreign country, and he inclines to think that it may possibly 
have been the original home of the Egyptian race before they 
occupied the lower valley of the Nile. But where was the 
Land of Punt ? Mariette identified it with Somali land, others 
have extended it to both sides of the Red Sea. M. Naville 
claims to have proved that the Land of Punt, to which Queen 
Hatshepsu sent her expedition, was somewhere on the African 
coast of the Red Sea, probably between Souakin and Masso- 
wah, and certainly north of the Straits of Bab el Mandeb. He 
believes it to have been an emporium of local trade, where the 
frankincense of Arabia and the various products of Inner 
Africa were brought to be bartered for Egyptian commodities. 

The sculptures representing the Land of Punt are divided 
into two rows by a line of water, in which fishes and tortoises 
are swimming. In one row we see the inhabitants of the coun- 
try, in the other row the arrival of the Egyptians. The inhab- 
itants consist of two clearly marked races, the Puntites proper, 
whose colour, physiognomy and garb show them to be of the 
Hamitic stock, and akin to the Egyptians themselves, and ne- 
groes, black and brown. Both races seems to be living to- 
gether in amity in wicker-work huts, built on poles, with lad- 
ders giving access to them, no doubt as a protection against 
wild beasts. The huts stand under the shade of palms and 
other trees, in which birds had built their nests and laid eggs* 
Some of these are ebony trees, others apparently are frankin- 
cense-bearing. The fauna is entirely African. There are cat- 
tle of two breeds ; with short horns, such as is found in Somali- 
land at the present time, and with long and twisted horns,, 
which is now confined to South Africa. The other African ani- 
mals represented include the giraflEe, the leopard, the monkey 
and the ape and possibly the rhinoceros. M. Naville comments 
on the fact that the rhinoceros has never yet been identified 



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BIB LI A, 141 

with certainty on Egyptian sculpture, but he believes that the 
horn of the rhinoceros is to be found here among the products 
of Punt. White dogs with long hanging ears are represented 
as keeping watch over the huts of their masters, and also as 
being put on board the Egyptian ships. Finally we have the 
return of the ships to Thebes, where the Puntites and negroes 
arc seen laying the products of their country already men- 
tioned at the feet of Queen Hatshepsu. Altogether we have 
here a unique illustration of prehistoric commerce, depicted by 
a faithful contemporary artist. J. S. Cotton. 



FOREIGN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS IN 
GREECE. 

Daniel Quinn, Ph. D., has written an interesting account of 
Education in Greece for United States Commissioner of Edu- 
cation William T. Harris, LL. D., from which we take the fol- 
lowing account of the foreign archaeological schools in Athens. 
There are now four such schools in Athens. The French and 
German schools are supported by their respective govern- 
ments; the British school receives partial support from the 
government ; the American school is supported entirely by the 
Archaeological Institute of America and by private contribu- 
tions. These schools are simply groups of young investiga- 
tors under the guidance of older specialists. 

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL. 

This school is under control of the Archaeological Institute 
of America, by whom it was founded. Through the co-opera- 
tion of nine of the first colleges of this country, each of which 
promised to contribute ^250 annually for ten years, the school 
at Athens was established, and in the autumn of 1882 Mr. W. 
W. Groodwin, professor of Greek at Harvard University, went 
to Athens as the first director of the new school. 

The founders of the school did not limit its scope to archae- 
ology, foreseeing that, although most of the best work done 
would be in archaeology, yet many a young college graduate 
might profit much by a year's philological or historical train- 
ing there in the very centre of old Hellenic life. 

After a few years of existence the school became prosperous 
enough to warrant the erection of a house adapted to the needs 
of the school. The Greek government, with characteristic 
generosity, donated the grounds, and in 1888 the fine new build- 
ing was ready for occupation. 



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142 BIB LI A. 

Since that time American archaeological or classical students 
and scholars visiting Athens have found at the foot of the 
southeast slope of Lykabettos an institution that they may 
take just pride in. They find there an excellent library, 
adapted especially for the study of the art, topography, epi- 
graphy, language and literature of Ancient Greece. They find a 
small knot of young enthusiastic men, who find highest delight 
in delving, now by book and now by spade, into the marvelous 
life of that people which has been the civilizefS of the world. 

The school sends out two sets of publications — the Annual 
Reports and the Papers of the American School of Classical 
Studies, The A merican fournal of Archceology and of the Fine 
Arts also publishes much of the work of the school. 

The management of the school was, during the first six years 
of its existence, in the hands of a director sent out annually 
from one of the co-operating colleges. Now, however, the di 
rector is appointed for a period of five years. The present di- 
rector, Prof. Rufus B. Richardson, whose term of five years 
would have expired this year, has been reappointed. Thus 
the school falls under the direction of a man who, by continu- 
ous residence in Greece and by unbroken application to scien- 
tific work there, will bring about the best results that are pos- 
sible. Beside the director there are two other ofl5cers, a pro- 
fessor of literature and a secretary. These are appointed annu- 
ally. The Americans have made important excavations at 
Sikyon, Thorikos, Akaria in Attika, at the Heraeon, near Ar- 
gos, at Etreria in Evboea, and elsewhere. 

THE BRITISH SCHOOL. 

This school was founded in 1886. It has been supported by 
the universities of Cambridge and Oxford and the Society for 
the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. The government now con- 
tributes something toward the maintenance of the school. Its 
chief organ is the fournal of Hellenic Studies, 

The school is under the direction of a committee, which 
meets in London, consisting of Hellenists and art lovers. In 
Athens the management is in the hands of a director. The 
library of the school is a very good one. Successful excava- 
tions have been carried on by the school at different places in 
Greece and also in the island of Kypros. 

THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 

The German Archaeological Institute was modeled after its 
elder sister, the institute at Rome. In 1874 the Roman school, 



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BIB LI A. 143 

then known as the Royal Prussian Archaeological Institute 
was changed into the Imperial German Archaelogical Institute, 
and in this same year a branch school was established at Ath- 
ens. The branch, however, grew so rapidly in importance that 
in 1887 it was raised to equal rank with the institute at Rome, 
and since that year is known as the Athenische Abtheilung 
des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. 

The institute is located in a fine edifice built by Schliemann 
expressly for the purpose. It is under the management of two 
secretaries. These are now Prof. Wilhelm Dorpfeld and Dr. 
Paul Wolters. Five stipendiaries are kept in the institute at 
Athens. To be eligible as stipendiary one must have already 
received the doctorate. 

The library of the institute, an excellent one for archaeologi- 
cal work, took its beginning from the books collected by 
Arthur von Velsen, who died in Athens in 1861 as secretary of 
the Prussian ambassy. 

The magnificent work of the institute is evident in its publi- 
cation, the Mittheilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen ArchcBolog- 
ischen Instituts, Athenische Abtheilung, The publication was 
begun in 1876 and appears as a quarterly. The language of 
the publication is mostly German. Occasionally, however, an 
article contributed by some one or other nationality appears in 
the writer's own vernacular, e. g., Greek or English. 

THE FRENCH INSTITUTE. 

The French school was founded in 1876 under the title of the 
Ecole Frangaise d'Athenes. Since 1876 it is known as the In- 
stitut de Correspondance Hell^nique. The school devotes it- 
self chiefly to archaeological studies. It has carried on excava- 
tions with eminent success at various places — e. g., at Delos. 
At present the French school is conducting excavations at 
Delphi. The work is being done with characteristic thorough- 
ness. Here it is that the fragments of hymns to Apollo, with 
ancient musical notation, were discovered. In 1890 the French 
government appropriated 500,000 francs for the inaugurating 
and carrying on of these excavations. 

The school is under the guidance of a director appointed by 
the government. He directs the work of the school as a whole, 
and also gives advice and assistance to the individual mem- 
bers. The members are six in number. No one is eligible for 
membership unless he be a professor extraordinary in the acad- 
emy. Each member remains at Athens for a term of three 



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144 BIBLIA, 

years. Some of the best French Hellenists, philologians as 
well as archaeologists have been members of this, school. 

Up to the year 1887 the work of the school and its results 
were made known through diflEerent periodicals, especially the 
Revue Arch^ologique. But since that year the school has pub- 
lished a monthly periodical of its own, the Bulletin de Corres- 
pondence HeWnique, To this publication there has been added 
since 1881 the Bibliotktque des J^coles d*Ath^nes etde Rome, 

GREEK ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

In addition to the above foreign schools there is a Greek 
archaeological society which was founded in 1837 through the 
zeal and determination of Kyjiakos S. Pittakes and Alexander 
Rizos Rangabes. With limited means at its disposal this 
society has accomplished wonders. Excavations have been 
scientifically and successfully carried on at many different 
places, notably at Athens (on the AkropoHs), Elevsis, Epidav- 
ros, Tanagra, Mykenae, Lykosoura, Sparta and Rhamnous. 

Since its foundation the society has published the Archaio- 
logike Ephemeris as its organ. The society twice almost ceased 
to exist on account of lack of funds, and accordingly the pub- 
lication of the journal was twice interrupted. It is now pub- 
lished quarterly in splendid style and scientific accuracy. Be- 
side the Ephemeris the society also publishes its Praktika from 
time to time, in which the reports of the various officials of the 
society make known the progress of the work done under their 
special charge. 



GRORG MORITZ EBERS. 

We are indebted to the Literary Digest for the fine portrait 
of the late Prof. Ebers in this number of Biblia. The Literary 
Digest says editorially : 

To breathe life into the dry bones of Egyptology by writing 
novels with ancient Egyptian characters is an accomplishment 
more admired than imitated. Few novelists care to be archae- 
ologists, and still fewer archaeologists could be novelists if they 
tried. Georg Moritz Ebers, whose death was announced a few 
days ago, was at once a novelist of recognized merit and an 
Egyptologist of very high rank. He is compared with Sir 
Walter Scott and with Felix Dahn. The latter, a German uni- 
versity professor, like Ebers, also possesses the rare combina- 
tion of imaginative power and love of research, and is doing 
for ancient Germany what Ebers has done for ancient Egypt. 



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BIB LI A, 145 

The story of his first book, " An Egjrptian Princess ** (**Eiiie 
aegyptische Koenigstochter "), which still remains his most 
popular book> is related as follows by The Saturday Review^ 
London : 

•* Determined, with the peculiarly characteristic German ten- 
dency toward special branches of knowledge, to devote himself 
to the study of Egyptology, Dr. Ebers had the good fortune 
as a young man to be placed under the guidance of the great 
Lepsius. His course of study, mapped out to him by the lat- 
ter with the broadest latitude as regards kindred sciences, led 
to the agc^eg^ation of an immense number of valuable facts 
connected with Asiatic history, especially as regards the twen- 
ty-sixth dynasty of the Pharaohs of Egypt and the fall of the 
kingdom through the Persian invasion under Cambyses. Dr. 
Ebers felt that this rich materiel was well adapted for the con- 
struction of a history of that critical period, and straightway 
applied himself to the task. Rut as he progressed in the work 
it was borne in upon him more and more that the subject was 
far more suitable for epic or dramatic treatment that was to 
stand the critical test of historical exactitude. Instead of a dry 
chronicle he therefore wrote the romance which made his 
fame, and carried the bulky MS. in considerable trepidation 
to his master Lepsius. It was received with scientific scorn, 
and the fear expressed that Dr. Ebers would seriously compro- 
mise his academic rehutation by such a piece of folly. But af- 
ter reading the book Lepsius changed his opinion. He pro- 
nounced it to be a learned work worthy of being published, 
and of absorbing interest ; but he thought it too erudite for the 
general reader and advised a careful reconstruction. Ebers 
had the good sense to perceive the truth of the criticism, and 
the story was thoroughly revised before it was issued in its 
present form." 

The main events of Eber's life may be told as follows : 
He was born March i, 1837, in Berlin, his father, a banker, 
dying before his birth. He had the remarkable good fortune 
to live in the same house with the brothers Grimm, the great 
grammarians and masters of German folk-lore, and the bent of 
his mind may have been partly due to their influence. In 1856 
young Ebers matriculated at Gottingen, but an attack of par- 
alysis soon compelled him to leave. In 1859 he had recovered 
sufficiently to attend the University of Berlin, where he de- 
voted himself to Eg)rptian languages and archaeology. His 
course at Berlin and subsequent researches in the great Euro- 
pean museums brought him into such prominence that in 1865 
he was made a lecturer at the University of Jena, and three 
years later was given the chair of Egyptian languages and 
archaeology. In 1869-70 he made extensive researches in 



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146 BIBLIA. 

Egypt and other North African countries, and in the latter 
year his talents were recognized by the University of Leipsic, 
which made him professor of Egyptology. In 1872-73 he again 
visited Egypt, but in 1876 his explorations and active univer- 
sity work were interrupted by a second attack of paralysis. 
His retirement from active life gave him more opportunity for 
literary composition, however, and he became a prolific writer. 
He resigned his professorship on account of his ill-health in 
1889. Paralysis held him a prisoner till his death at his villa, 
near Munich, on August 8. 

Ebers wrote in all sixteen historical novels, many learned 
treatises, fairy tales, biographies, two great works of refer- 
ence on Egypt and Palestine and some verse. His principal 
novels, with their dates, are as follows : 

"An Egyptian Princess," 1864; "Uarda, a Romance of An- 
cient Egypt," 1877 ; "Homo Sum," 1878 ; "The Sisters," 1880 ; 
as taught in the Egyptian religion. The necessity of virtue, 
"The Emperor," " The Burgomaster's Wife," 1881 ; "Only a 
Word," 1883: "Serapis," 1885; "Cleopatra," 1894; "In the 
Fire of the Forge," 1895 ; "In the Blue Pike," 1896; "Barbara 
Blomba-g," 1897 ; "Arachne," 1898. 

His principal works other than of fiction are as follows : 

"Through Goshen to Sinai," 1872; "Egypt, Descriptive, 
Historical and Picturesque," 1878; "Palestine, Descriptive, 
Historical and Picturesque," 1881 ; "Lorenz Alma-Tadema, 
his Life and work," 1886 ; •* Story of My Life," 1893. 

Ebers also discovered a papyrus, one of the best in exist- 
ence, which is thus described by the Springfield Republican : 

" He added greatly to his reputation as a scholar by his dis- 
covery of the Ebers papyrus, the second in extent and the first 
in preservation of all the Egyptian handwritings known to us. 
This manuscript of the i6th century B. C. is described by him- 
self in his treatise (published in 1873) as a * Hieratic Manual of 
Egyptian Medicine,' and is, in fact, a complete system of medi- 
cal practice in that distant day, while it casts a remarkable 
light on the language and culture of the ancient Egyptians. 
Dr. Ebers also discovered the important biographical inscrip- 
tion of the * Amen em Neb,* which, by the way, is brought ef- 
fectively into one of his historical novels.*' 

His last work, " Arachne," is just now being reviewed in the 
American and English critical journals. 



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BIBLIA, 147 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

The Hope of Immortality. By Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, Head 
Master of Harrow. 

In all the leading nations of the earth the doctrine of im- 
mortality is a tradition handed down from immemorable an- 
tiquity. It is a doctrine taught in the sacred books of all re- 
ligions, and which are regarded as infallible revelations from 
God. The basis of all religion in ancient and modern times is 
the future destiny of the soul, but independent of all theories. 
Immortality of the soul is a doctrine standing by itself. It is a 
belief so universal that it appears like the spontaneous result 
of an instinct. 

The conception of immortality was the great factor in the re- 
ligion of the ancient Egyptians, and also the conception of law 
and responsibility. There was much poetic beauty and ethical 
power in the doctrines and symbols exemplifying the doctrine, 
as taught in the Egyptian religion. The necessity of virtue, 
the certainty of retribution and a glorious immortality. In the 
religious systems of the Accadians, and after them the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, the hope of immortality asserts itself, 
and as we trace the history of their religion we find the idea of 
the future life was gradually purified and spiritualized. Among 
the Zoroastrians the belief is a future life, an existence after 
death, which is to bring the renewal or punishment earned by 
every soul during its earthly career, was one of its fundamen- 
tal doctrines. The Gathas and the Vendidad of the Avestan 
religion presents to the faithful, with clear and well estab- 
lished details, the trial and judgment that every soul is to en- 
counter. The theology of the Vedic hymns, ranging over a 
period of a thousand years, express the hope of personal exist- 
ence after death of immortality. 

But the place where we might have expected that this be- 
lief would have been the strongest, in the Old Testament, it is 
completely ignored. The soul's immortality was not declared, 
it was not denied ; it was simply left out of sight, and no trace 
can be found regarding the belief of the Hebrews on the sub- 
ject. But as the Mosaic law was an inevitable reaction against 
the creed and ritual of Egypt when the Hebrews left the coun- 
try after years of oppression, they left the beliefs and symbols 
of the Egyptian religious system behind their backs. Mr. 
Welldon, however, finds many proofs that the Hebrews had 
distinct conceptions of a spiritual and retributory immortality, 
and that the sacred aild sublime hope which pervades the later 



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148 BIB LI A. 

canonical books finds its consummation in the closing chapter 
of Daniel's prophesy (xii: 13). 

Mr. Welldon touches lightly upon the history of the belief of 
immortality, but considers very fully the value and external 
and internal evidences of the belief and its Christian amplifi- 
cation. The external evidences lie severally in the constitu- 
tion of the universe, in the nature of man and in the being of 
God. From each of these three principles converging lights are 
shed upon the destiny of the soul. The internal evidences of 
immortality are its immateriality, its indissolubility, its spon- 
taneous energy and its affinity to the Divine Nature. 

This book does not pretend to be an exhaustive treatise, but 
it is written in a popular rather than a scientific manner, and 
in a simple, straightforward style, and it is a logical and clearly 
written contribution to theological thought upon one of the 
greatest of subjects. 

(New York : The Macmillan Co., No. 66 Fifth avenue ; i2mo., 
pp. 350. Price ii.50.) 

A valuable compendium of Oriental history has recently 
been published by Prof. Hummel of Munich, in the series pub- 
lished by Goeschen in Stuttgart. It is entitled ** Geschichte des 
alten Morgenlandes," and contains an excellent resume of the 
recent finds in Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Palestine, etc., to- 
gether with a discussion of the light they have shed on Orien- 
tal history. 

The Trustees of the British Museum have recently issued 
the second volume of the catalogue of the Greek papyri in 
their possession. It will contain descriptions of all the papyri 
acquired in the years 1891-95, with the complete texts of nearly 
300 documents, accompanied by introductions and notes. These 
documents are wholly of a non-literary character, and include 
official and private papers of very valuable kinds, the literary 
texts having been already published elsewhere. The editor, 
as in the case of the first volume (published in 1893), is Mr. F. 
G. Kenyon. An atlas of facsimiles, containing 123 plates of 
dated papyri, will be published at the same time. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

The contents of the Quarterly Statement for July were un- 
usually interesting, but by far the most important was the an- 
nouncement that with permission of the Sultan the new exca- 



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BIB LI A, 149 

vations would begin at once. This will lead to a careful study 
of all that relates to Gath and to Goliath and the giants gen- 
erally. Those men of Anak, who so awed the spies and made 
them seem in comparison as "grasshoppers/* have never been 
adequately studied. There can be no doubt of their existence, 
and the talk of sun-myths in connection with them is now put 
aside as absurd. What may be found no one can foretell, but 
it would not be strange if some traces of their great weapons 
were discovered. We should probably think of Goliath as a 
late survivor of his race, a remnant, as it were, and we are jus- 
tified in thinking that the Valley of Rephaim (giants) was so 
named before David's day. Indeed, the northern boundary of 
Judah is said in Joshua (xv: 8) to have passed by the end of the 
•'Valley of the Giants." 

In regard to this boundary of Judah a writer in the Quarter- 
lyy dealing with the question of Nehemiah's ride, takes the 
ground that the boundary of Judah divided the city of Jerusa- 
lem in the middle. He believes that when we read in Joshua 
that line ran up the valley of Hinnom, the valley which is 
meant is the Tyropoeon. He reaches this conclusion by as- 
suming that a part of Jerusalem belonged to Judah and a part 
to Benjamin, and this he infers from the statement that Judah 
took possession of that city or sought to do so, according to 
Joshua (xv: 63) and Judges I. (8, 21). Thus many conclusions 
rest on this idea that a part of Jerusalem was of Judah, and 
that is made the fundamental idea of its topography, of the 
location of the Valley of Hinnom and of that of the " Valley 
Gate," and so forth. 

To my mind the fact that Jehu or Jerusalem is mentioned 
as a city of Benjamin and is not mentioned as a city of Judah 
is conclusive. Then I put Hinnom where every Biblical de- 
scription puts it, south and west of the city, and through it, I 
think, the boundary ran. This leaves everything clear except 
the statement as to Judah fighting against the city, and as to 
this I would make the suggestion that that tribe seems to have 
made war for all the southern district, so that it apparently 
fought for the portion assigned to Simon. Thus it may be 
thought of as making a general southern campaign, which in- 
cluded Jerusalem. Moreover, a part of the tribe who dwelt in 
the neighborhood of the present leper hospital would be in im- 
mediate contact with the Jehuites, and this would be still more 
so if, as is likely, they tilled the soil in the rich valley of Hin- 
nom. 



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I50 BIBLIA, 

The mention of the giants suggests Consul Gilman's admir- 
able tale, " Hassan, a Fellah." With the thoroughness of Sir 
Walter Scott Mr. Gilman had constructed a romance which is 
from beginning to end a picture of Palestine as it is, and of the 
lives lived by its people, especially by the fellaheen. He knows 
it well and tells us all about it in a most instructive way. 
Hassan is a young giant, a true son of the Anakim, and his 
home is in the Wady Bettir. His loved one belongs to Malba. 
They walk in the Valley of Roses. They go into the neighbor- 
ing Jerusalem and see all that is there. The Turkish officials, 
the Jews, rich and poor, the wise woman, the vindictive old 
men, the sheep, the flowers, the fountains, the harvests, the 
conscription, the blood feud, the lepers, the horses — all and 
many more are here, making the most vivid description that 
has ever been given. It was a work which needed to be done. 
It could be better done by means of a tale, and this Mr. Gil- 
man, four years consul in Jerusalem, has skillfully done. To 
those who have been in the land this book is invaluable. It is 
issued by Little, Brown & Co. of Boston, and has some six hun- 
dred pages. 

The account by Dr. Bliss of his work at Jerusalem is nearly 
ready. It will tell the whole story and have some seventy 
plans and illustrations. I cannot now announce the price, be- 
cause the charges for customs and freight are not known, but 
will do so at the earliest possible time. An accident to the 
publisher has delayed the volume, which is eagerly awaited. 
By the time it has been received and digested reports will be 
coming from Oath. Will not subscribers remit promptly and 
will they not ei;ideavor to enlarge the list ? 

A revised list of local secretaries is nearly ready. 

Theodore F. Wright, 

Hon. Sec. for U. S. 

42 Quincy St., Cambridge, Mass. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Dr. E. J. Goodspeed, who has been appointed assistant in 
biblical and patristic Greek in the University of Chicago, has, 
in the last number of the American Journal of Philology^ a 
paper upon a bit of papyrus containing a mathematical figure 
and demonstration. 

Dr. Karl Lehman of the University of Berlin, and Dr. Belck, 
also of Germany, are on a scientific tour through the north- 



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BIBLIA, 151 

eastern provinces of the Turkish Empire in Asia Minor. An 
examination of certain tombs and a search for new Vannic in- 
scriptions and a collation of others already known form part 
of their work during the summer months. 



Dr. G. Schumacher has an interesting article in the last num- 
ber of the Zeitschrift des deutschen Palaestina- Vereins on the 
Southern Hauran, accompanied with illustrations and an excel- 
lent map. He states that the Jewish colonies established there 
by Baron Rothschilds have planted 371,000 fruit trees. The 
present inhabitants of the region number 15,600 souls. A tel- 
egraph already reaches the most important Turkish ports, and 
a railroad is in process of construction. Dr. Schumacher gives 
also a description of the remarkable ruins of the country. 



" The Southern Bashan. Investigated and^Described for the 
First Time," is the title of a very valuable article by Dr. G. 
Schumacher, and which fills two entire numbers of the Zeits- 
chrift of the German Palestine Society, Vol. XX., Nos. 2 and 3, 
pp. 67-327. The subject is covered from all sides with schol- 
arly exactness of detail, and accompanied by seventy-seven 
illustrations and an excellent map. The several chapters treat 
of the history, the geography and topography, the government, 
the fauna and flora, the inhabitants, archaeology, etc., of the 
Hauran. 



Prof. Petrie complains that the museum at Gizeh has taken 
even more than its legal half of his recent finds at Denderah, 
so that no adequate portion of his discoveries has reached Eng- 
land. Among these finds there were an enormous mass of 
new religious texts and many mummified sacred animals (ibises, 
snakes, cats, goats, ichneumons, monkeys, especially dogs and 
cows), were found, although many of their burial places had 
been consumed by conflagration. Interesting pieces of ruined 
temple furniture (ornamented with glass mosaics) were found, 
and two treasures of temple vessels in bronze, etc., and which 
had been buried, which are very valuable for the history of 
Egyptian art. 

Dr. R. W. Richardson, the director of the American Archae- 
ological School at Athens, thinks there is little doubt that they 
have discovered the famous fountain of Corinth, and also the 
temple of Apollo, mentioned by Pausanius as the first object of 



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152 BIB LI A, 

interest on the right of one going from the Agora on the road 
toward Sikyon. Says Dr. Richardson : " We are now bending 
our energies to the laying bare of the facade of this fountain, 
not to the exclusion of other work ; and though we have over 
twenty feet depth of earth to deal with, we hope to accomplish 
it before the first of June. If not, and if the money holds out, 
we shall fight it out if it takes all summer." 

A New York State branch of the Egyptian Exploration Fxmd 
has been recently organized as an auxiliary of the English 
society, whose name it bears. Spencer Trask is president of 
the branch ; the Rev. Dr. Adolphus F. Schauffler, vice-presi- 
dent ; Andrew Mills, treasurer ; the Rev. Dr. Charles R. Gil- 
lett, secretary, and the executive committee is composed of the 
Rev. Dr. Eugene A; Hoffman, Charles Dudley Warner -end 
Caryl Coleman. The work of the Fund is threefold, including 
exploration, archaeological survey and the recovery of buried 
papyrus documents. The annual membership dues of the 
branch, whose home is at No. 700 Park avenue, are I5. 



Mr. Hormuzd Rassam places Ur, the original home of Abra- 
ham, in Northern Mesopotamia, some one hundred and fifty 
miles northeast from Aleppo. Says Mr. Rassam : " Theorists 
may say that Abraham came from Babylonia in Southern 
Mesopotamia, but I am a believer in St. Stephen, the martjn*, 
and he said that Abraham came from Aram-Nahraim in North- 
em Mesopotamia and not from Babylonia. Theories I do not 
care about. You must remember that in the cuneiform writ- 
ing there is no alphabet but merely phonetic sounds. I could 
give you ten names in Asiatic Turkey that are almost the same 
as in Europe and America, e, g,^ there is no reason because 
there is Alessandria in Italy that it should be the Alexandria 
of Egypt even if the letters were written the same. Supposing 
it was really Ur that has been found in the cuneiform writing, 
how do we know that Abraham was there ? There might be 
twenty Urs. If we trust to theories we might as well give up 
the Bible. I am very sorry that in some newly issued Bibles 
they have put * Ur of the Chaldees ' in Southern Mesopotamia. 
Other learned writers agree with me that it is about where I 
have found it. Abraham, the son of Nahor, was bom there, 
and went thence to the land of Canaan." 



The numerous papyri unearthed some time ago by Messrs. 
Grenfel and Hunt from the ancient city of Oxyrhyncus, Egypt, 



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BIBLIA. 153 

are being gradually deciphered. One of them, a letter from a 
boy, evidently a petted darling, to his father, sounds strangely 
modem, though it is at least 1,600 years old : 

" Theon to his father Theon, greeting. It was a fine thing 
of you not to take me with you to the city ! If you won't take 
me with you to Alexandria I won't write you a letter or speak 
to you, or say goodby to you ; and if you go to Alexandria I 
won't take your hand nor ever greet you again. That is what 
will happen if you won't take me. Mother said to Archelaus, 
* It quite upsets him to be left behind (?) ' It was good of you 
to send me presents ... on the 1 2th, the day you sailed. 
Send me a lyre, I implore you. If you don't I won't eat, I 
won't drink ; there now ! " 



Prof. Hilprecht writes to the Sunday School Times that about 
seventyjclay tablets have been recently discovered by Arabs 
in the ruins of Birs Nimrud, the ancient Borsippa and sister 
city of Babylon, on the western side of the Euphrates, gener- 
ally but erroneously regarded as representing the site of the 
biblical Tower of Babel. These are the first literary docu- 
ments obtained from this high towering mound, from which 
Sir Henry Rawlinson many years ago rescued Nebuchadrez- 
zar's inscribed barrel cylinder. The tablets are on their way to 
Constantinople, where, immediately after their arrival, they 
will be examined by Prof. Hilprecht, acting as curator of the 
Babylonian section of the Imperial Ottoman Museum. 

The bazaar of Yildiz Kiosk, in Constantinople, arranged for 
the benefit of the wounded and for the widows and orphans of 
Turkish soldiers killed in the last Graeco-Turkish war, and un- 
der the patronage of the Sultan, has received many extremely 
valuable and beautiful gifts from all provinces of the empire 
and from Egypt. Among them are a small number of Baby- 
lonian, Egyptian and Phenician antiquities. Before their pub- 
lic exhibition they were submitted by the Minister of Agricul- 
ture, chief of the commission of the bazaar, to Prof. Hilprecht 
for examination. Several pieces were declared forgeries by 
the latter, prominent among them a large relief in marble sup- 
posed to represent King Nebuchadrezzar. Some of the Baby- 
lonian seals and seal cylinders contributed are of fine work- 
manship and rare beauty, mostly belonging to the Persian 
period. 

Mr. D. G. Hogarth, the director of the British School of 
Archaeology at Athens, is editing a collection of essays byVari- 



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154 BIB LI A, 

ous hands designed to summarize the contributions made to 
knowledge by archaeology in this century. His object is, more 
particularly, to show how far the views of the leading recog- 
nized authorities have been confirmed or modified. Dr. S. R. 
Driver, Regiu's professor of Hebrew at Oxford, takes the Old 
Testament ; Mr. F. LI. Griffith, formerly of the British Mu- 
seum, takes Egyptology and Assyriology in their relation to pro- 
fane history ; Mr. Hogarth himself deals with Greece, prehis- 
toric and classical ; Mr. F. Haverfield, of Christ Church, will 
write of Rome and Latin literature and archaeology, and the 
Rev. A. C. Headlam, of All Souls, will treat of the New Testa- 
ment and Christian antiquities. The work will probably be 
ready by the coming winter, and will be published by Mr. John 
Murray of London. Mr. Hogarth has also in hand a volume 
for a geographical series to be edited by Mr. H. J. Mackinder 
and published by Mr. Heinemann. M. Elis6e Reclus takes the 
Western Mediterranean ; Mr. Hogarth is writing of the east- 
ern, with all the surrounding lands from the Balkans to the 
Soudan, and also Greece to Persia. The rest of the world has 
been apportioned to various well known writers, English and 
foreign. The volume will not appear for about a year. Mr. 
Hogarth's archaeological reports, especially on the Melian dis- 
coveries of this last spring, keep him busily employed, but as 
an undertaking of the future he has in view a history of the 
Macedonian Conquest of Asia, treated as one episode in the 
eternal East versus West struggle, and he hopes also to collect 
in another volume further reflections on the Debatable Land 
in that struggle and the races which have peopled it, supple- 
menting with the light of more mature experience his " Wan- 
dering Scholar in the Levant." 



It has long been an unsettled problem regarding the site of 
Zion. The question whether Zion is the southwestern and 
higher mount of Jerusalem or the southeastern or lower mount 
upon which the city is situated has been variously answered. 
The authors of the Books of Maccabees directly identify Zion 
with the Temple Mount. On the other hand, Josephus says 
that the citadel taken by David was on the western hill, and 
this hill has been identified with Zion since the fourth century 
A. D. In recent decades the opinion, however, that this honor 
is to be given to the opposite mount, separated from it by the 
Tyropoean valley, has prevailed to such an extent as almost to 
be unanimous. Col. Wilson thinks that the supposition that 
the Zion of David was on the western hill necessitates the be- 



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BIBLIA, 155 

lief that after the return of the captivity the name was applied 
to the eastern hill, and that during the first century it was re- 
transferred to the western hill. A more probable view is that 
Zion was the eastern hill, and that the name was only applied 
to the western hill after Constantine had built his * New Jeru- 
salem,' or group of churches, on the supposed site of Christ's 
death and burial. 

The first half of Vol. Ill of the Biblische Studien contains an 
interesting article on the subject by Prof. Dr. Riickert, under 
the title of " Die Lage des Berges Sion." Dr. RUckert defends 
with a goodly array of arguments the traditional view. His 
method is the historical, consisting largely in the examination 
of the use made of the word ** Zion," in both the canonical and 
Apocryphal Old Testament books. In this discussion he ac- 
cepts as genuine the superscription of the Psalms, and mentions 
some other literary views not in accord with modem critical 
results. 

A leading Protestant theologian. Prof. Oettli of Greifswald, 
himself a good authority on Jerusalem topography, declares 
that RUckert's researches will compel scholars to reopen the 
discussion of the question as to the identification of the biblical 
Mount Zion. 



Says a writer in the Independent^ the ancient Egyptians 
made use of exotic as well as indigenous woods in their cabinet 
and wheelwright work, but the hieroglyphic inscriptions gives 
us scanty information as to what these woods were. It is pos- 
sible, on the other hand, to reach very exact conclusions on 
this point by the chemical analysis and histologic study of the 
different remnants which have come down to us. This is pre- 
cisely what has been done by Dr. Georges Beauvisage, profes- 
sor of botany and the faculti6 of medicine at Lyons. He has 
taken some pieces of boards from Pharaonic coffins and some 
utensils in ebony, and after a microscopic examination has 
reached the following results : The coffin lids, which were sent 
from Cairo and came from excavations at Meir, near Quosieh, 
belonged to the twelfth dynasty. He showed all the distinctive 
characteristics of yew wood, of the variety called taxus baccata^ 
that being the only variety of the yew then known in the ori- 
ental region of the Mediterranean basin. This kind of yew is 
not met with in Eg)rpt or in Syria, and the nearest region to 
the Nile where it grows naturally is in the Taurus Mountains 
of Cilicia. Hence it was from there that the Pharaohs of the 



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156 BIB LI A, 

twelfth dynasty imported it, unless it grew in early times 
among the mountains of Northern S3n:ia. In any case, it is 
evident that at that early period relations already existed be- 
tween Egypt and Asia, although we do not know what these 
relations were. Ebony filled an important place in Egyptian 
cabinet work, but as yet it has not been proved to what variety 
and family the habni of the Pharaonic inscriptions belonged. 
Dr. Beauvisage examined several ebony utensils which had 
been sent to him from Eg)rpt, and found after careful chemical 
analysis that they were made of the Dalbergia melanoxylon, a 
leguminous tree which grows in the region extending from 
Senegal to the Red Sea, and not of Diospyros Ebenacea of trop- 
ical Asia. 



Subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund,:the 

Archaeological Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund* 
from July 20 to August ao, are gratefully acknowledged : 

Prof. S. C. BarUett, LL. D. $5.00 Walter C. Hubbard, . 5.00 

Mrs. Samuel Q. Brown, . 5.00 Mrs. August Lewis. . 5.00 

Wm. Emmette Coleman. . 5.00 Rev. J. H. Mansfield. LL. D.. 5.00 

College of the City of N. Y., 5.00 Rev.Chas. E. Moldenke. Ph. D.. 5.00 

MRS. W. B. DINSMORE. 5.00 Rev. N. S. Murphy. . 500 

Wm. R. Fanner, 5.00 Pratt Institute. . 5.00 

CLARENCE M. HYDE, . 100.00 Miss Sarah B. Reynolds, . 500 

DR. FREDERIC E. HYDE, 25.00 Edward Royall Tyler, . 500 

From July 20 to August ao, I have received very thankfully 
these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey Fund : 

CLARENCE M. HYDE. $50.00 Rev.Chas. E. Moldenke, Ph. D.. 5.00 
DR. FREDERIC E, HYDE, 25.00 

From July ao to August 20, the following subscriptions to the 
Graeco- Roman Branch, are gratefully acknowledged : 

Mrs. W. B. Dinsmore, . 10.00 J. M. Pereles, . . . 5.00 
Walter C. Hubbard, . 5.00 

Francis C. Foster, 

Honorary Treasurer. 

Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund.sg Temple Street, Boston. 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., October, 1898. No. 7. 

NOTES ON GREEK PAPYRI. 

MESSRS. Grenfell and Hunt, after bringing out the first 
volume of the Oxjrrynchus Papyri, immediately set to 
work on opening some more of the boxes containing the 
treasures that they brought back eighteen months ago from 
Behnesa. The process of carefully unfolding and mounting 
each fragile leaf of papyrus is scarcely less laborious than the 
actual task of decipherment. They have now progressed so 
far as to be able to form a provisional estimate of the contents 
of their second volume, which will be issued to subscribers to 
the Grseco-Roman Branch for 1898-99. 

In the first place, they have decided to group the non-literary 
papyri together chronologically, and to devote this volume to 
documents of the first century A. D. To these will be pre- 
fixed, as before, a selection of theological and literary pieces, 
of which we may now give readers of Biblia some anticipation. 

The department of theology will include some third century 
fragments of St. John's Gospel, written in parallel columns 
with another work, also of St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corin- 
thians, and of an Apocryphal Gospel, possibly that according 
to the Egyptians. 

Among the additions to classical literature, the chief places 
are claimed by a considerable portion of an unknown play by 
Menander, identified from a passage in it which is ascribed to 
that author by Clement of Alexandria ; and by a good-sized 
papjrrus containing on the secto a treatise on metre, and on the 
verso elaborate Scholia on the Twenty-first Book of the Iliad, 
There are also fragments of a lost epic poem, another comedy, 
a historical work, orations, etc. 



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158 BIB LI A. 

Expert classical authors Will be represented by early pieces 
of (amongst others) Euripides, Thucydides, Plato, Xenophon, 
and Demosthenes. Of Homer there is a tolerably large roll, 
containing nearly 300 lines of the Fifth Book of the Iliad^ 
written on the verso of an important document concerning pro- 
ceedings before a prefect, which presents many difficulties of 
decipherment. 

Meanwhile, the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund 
have decided that Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt shall go out 
again to Egypt this coming winter on another expedition for 
papyri. The scene will probably be in the Fayyum, which 
has yielded almost all the Greek papyri known except those of 
Oxyrhynchus, at a spot familiar to Mr. Grenfell from his 
travels in that region three years ago. 

The second volume of the British Museum Catalogue of 
Greek pap3n:i, which was delayed on account of the publication 
of Bacchylides, will be issued immediately. Like all the recent 
editions of papyri in the British Museum, it is edited by Mr. 
F. G. Kenyon, the author of the annual chapter on Grseco- 
Roman Egypt in the Archaeological Report of the Egjrpt 
Exploration Fund. This volume contains descriptions of about 
400 papyri, and complete texts of 262 with introductions, notes, 
and indices ; while fac-similes of 132 of them (nearly all pre- 
cisely dated),will appear in a separate atlas. The texts are entire- 
ly non-literary, the literary ones with a few exceptions having 
already been published elsewhere ; and nearly all of them be- 
long to the Roman period. They are of the same general type 
as the Berlin papyri already published, many of the papyri in 
both collections having originally come from the same find, at 
and about Dimeh in the Fayyum. The most novel among 
them are perhaps some long rolls relating to the census and 
poll-tax, and the status of the privileged classes known as 
Katoikoi, and the correspondence of a Roman military officer, 
named Alennaeus, in the middle of the fourth century. The 
fac-similes provide a fairly continous series of dated docu- 
ments of the Roman period, with a few from the Ptolemaic 
age, and one fine Byzantine deed, containing a unique example 
of an emphyteusis^ or perpetual lease ; a form of conveyance 
which supplied the Germans with a precedent for their secret 
acquisition of territory in China. 

We welcome an American recruit to the small band of 
editors of Greek papyri, in the person of Mr. E. T. Goodspeed 
of Chicago, who has recently published in the American 



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BIBLIA, 159 

Journal of Philology^ a mathematical fragment now preserved 
in the Field Columbian Museum. It contains examples of prob- 
lems in the mensuration of land, showing the methods followed 
by the government surveyors, which resulted in the registers 
of land for purposes of taxation. Similar documents are found 
in the British Museum collection. This one, which is named 
the Azer Papyrus, appears from the fac-simile that accompanies 
Mr. Goodspeed's article to belong to about the middle of the 
first century A. D. 

The study of Greek papyri has advanced by such rapid 
strides that it already demands an organ of its own. This was 
advocated at the German Congress of Philologists held last 
autumn at Dresden, in an address by Prof. Wilcken of Breslau, 
who may be regarded as the foremost authority on the subject. 
He then recommended the establishment of a special periodical, 
to serve as the common medium for the publication of texts 
and of articles bearing on such texts, and also to keep a record 
of similar publications elsewhere. This proposal was so warm- 
ly taken up that the issue of an Archiv fiir Papyrusforschung 
is now assured for the beginning of 1899, under the editor 
ship of Prof. Wilchen himself, and with the co-operation of 
nearly all the principal students of papyri on the Continent 
and in England. 

J. S. Cotton. 



THE HITTITES AND THEIR LANGUAGE. 

The Hittites and their Language. Bv Prof. C. R. Conder, Lt. Col. 
R. E., LL. D.. D. C. L.. M. R. A. S. 

Within the past few years the subject of the race, language, 
history, and art of the Hittites, has awakened a great deal of 
interest. There has already sprung up quite an extended litera- 
ture upon the subject. In ^4 appeared Dr. Wright's The 
Empire of the Hittites (second edition in 1886), a work which 
gathered the known opinions regarding the Hittites, and en- 
deavored to rectify sacred history by giving the Hittites their 
proper place in secular history. Dr. Wright published in his 
work twenty-seven fac-similes of the Hamath stones, five in 
number, which were the most important monuments of this class 
that have yet been discovered. 

This work enabled Professor Sayce, as well as other scholars, 
to make a thorough study of the Hittite inscriptions. Pro- 



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i6o BIBLIA. 

fessor Sayce has published a number of articles on the subject 
in English reviews and in the Proceeding of the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology, and he has done more with his ready pen, 
and his thorough knowledge of comparative philology, Uian 
any one else to popularize the theory which identifies the 
Kheta with those ideographs. His work regarding the de- 
cipherment is often only tentative, and often does not appear 
to be well founded, but his methods are eminently suggestive. 

Rev. Hyde Clarke has studied the Hittite ideographs, and 
through their phonetic renderings endeavors to establish a 
similarity with the language of Peru and elsewhere in America, 

In 1 89 1 appeared the work of Professor Campbell, in two 
large volumes, to which he devoted some fifteen years, and 
reasoning from philology to race, he claims to intrepret the 
Hittite ideographs without any difficulty, and he gives numer- 
ous translations of the same. But for some reason or other,, 
the English and German scholars absolutely ignore his work and 
it is never even mentioned. We can only call attention to the 
work in this field of such scholars as Pinches, Tompkins^ 
Ramsay, Ball, Taylor, Halevy, and others, all of whom have 
written on the subject. Professor Jensen's work is known to 
our readers (see August Biblia). Some of the best scholars 
are becoming convinced that he is on the right track, and that 
the Hittite ideographs are undoubtedly connected with old 
Armenian is also regarded as an established fact. While Jen- 
sen identifies the language with the Aryan, Halevy makes it 
Semitic, although in very numerous cases the hundreds of 
Hittite names on Assyrian, and Egyptian records refuse to 
jrield Hebrew roots. Dr. Peiser favors the comparison of 
Hittite and Turkish, and this is in line with what Lt. Col. Con- 
der had previously indicated. 

In 1887 Lt. Col. Conder published a little book entitled 
Altaic Hieroglyphics, in which he claimed that the Akkadian 
language, through the Cypriote syllabary, may become a key 
to the Hittite hieroglyphs. This idea Conder claims 
to be original with himself. The late George Smith was the 
first to surmise, and finally to establish, that the Cypriote 
characters, some sixty in number, were remnants of an older 
syllabary, or rather the survival of an extremely ancient mode 
of picture-writing, retained side by side with the Phoenician.. 
Since Conder's first work on the subject, many new 
Hittite inscriptions have been published by Puchstein. 
Ramsay and Hogarth, and the publication of the Tell Loh and 



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BIB LI A. i6i 

Tell Amama texts has cast much additional light on the sub- 
ject, so that now scholars have plenty of material for a 
thorough study of the language. Lt. Col. Conder has given a 
good many years to the study of the Hittite language, but he 
has started out with wrong premises, and therefore his con- 
clusions are necessarily wrong. His theory has a plausible 
basis, but his comparative philology will not be accepted by 
scholars, as it is founded upon unscientific methods. 

Lt. Col. Conder considers that the four great hieroglyphic 
systems — Egyptian, Cuneiform, Hittite, and Chinese sprang 
from rude picture-writings, probably first known in Asia, and 
which may have been the one common original of them all. 
About seventy emblems may be considered original, and ap- 
pear in two or more of the historic systems, some twenty being 
common to all the four. They are divided into four groups : 
first, animal forms; secondly, limbs; thirdly, material ob- 
objects and animals; and fourthly, human inventions. The 
Hittite, Egyptian and Cuneiform agree in the notation of 
numbers, strokes representing units, while hoops stand for 
tens. The four systems, however, developed independently at 
different centers, and soon became very popular and distinct, 
through invention of new emblems or new combinations, and 
according to the requisites of languages of very different 
character. The Hittite symbols do not exceed about i6o in all; 
but the Egyptian possesses 400, the Babylonian in later times 
distinguished 550, and the Chinese now have 24,235 signs 

The Hittite script is written from right to left and left to 
right, the letters in the second line being reversed. As the 
Hittite emblems, as far as known do not exceed 160 in all, in- 
cluding compounds, it is probable that a syllabary was used, 
and it is because the Hittite was considered merely as a 
picture writing, that so little progress has heretofore been 
made in the decipherment of the language. From the sixth 
century down to the fourth they were using in Cyprus a 
syllabary of fifty-four signs. It was recognized that the 
emblems of this Cypriote syllabary were in many cases the 
same found in Hittite, and though some of the comparisons 
seem to have been incorrect, others, like the syllables md^ 
ne, ka^ tiy etc., were indisputable. 

This syllabary could not well be Semitic, because it fails to 
distinguish the special sounds on which Semitic sounds lay 
stress. It might, however, easily be Mongol, since it would 
suffice for the sounds of a Mongol dialet. The Cypriote 



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i62 BIB LI A, 

syllabary does not distinguish g from k^ or / from d^ or m 
from V, nor is the distinction very clear between / and 
r, or between s and z^ and these indefinite sounds are equal- 
ly indefinite in Summerian and Akkadian speech. The Mongol 
origin of the syllabary is thus indicated by the pecularity of its 
sounds. 

As only sixty of the one hundred and sixty sounds have been 
identified, a further step had to be taken, namely, to show 
from internal evidence of form and sound, that the Cypriote 
emblems were originated by a people speaking a Mongol 
language. 

Guided by various considerations, it was necessary then to 
look to Mongol speech for the clue, especially because mono- 
syllabic words are commonly found in this class of language, 
and are uncommon in Semitic tongues, and not usual in Aryan 
languages. A language which was contemporary with the 
sounds of which, however, survive still in great measure in 
pure Turkish, the structure of which is pure Mongol. 

The connection between Hittite and linear Babylonian was 
suspected by George Smith, and since the latter script is better 
known, it is evident that the two systems are closely con- 
nected While they are not identical it is evident that they are 
branches of the original script, developing independently to 
the north and south of Mesopotamia. 

Lt. Col. Conder therefore, after ten years' work, endeavors to 
show, that by language and physical type, the Hittites were a 
Mongol tribe, who were finally scattered in the seventh cen- 
tury B. C. Secondly, that the peculiar script of Syria and Asia 
Minor is intimately connected with that of the Summerians in 
Chaldea. Thirdly, that the language is clearly Mongol, and 
not Aryan or Semitic. Fourthly, that the historical references 
point to the age of the first Kassite kings of Babylon, between 
2250 and aooo B. C, and that this agrees with the Archaic 
character of the script, and of the accompanying sculptures. 

Lt. Col. Conder brings forward his arguments in a very lucid 
and convincing manner, and his parallels between Hittite em- 
blems and Cypriote characters is on a plausible basis, but we 
have little confidence in his comparisons with Akkadian or 
Summerian. It is very doubtful if scholars will atill consider 
with Conder, that the Hittite is a Turanian language, after the 
remarkable discoveries of Jensen, who considers the Hittite 
an Aryan language, and who has the support of Hommel and 
others. 



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BIBLIA, 163 

Lt. Col. Conder's work is very valuable, however, for its 
sixteen plates of inscriptions, which comprise nearly all that are 
published. The contents of this book are: I, Early History; 
II, The Egyptian Conquests in Syria; III, The Assyrian Con- 
quests in Syria; IV, The Races of Western Asia; V, Mongol 
Gods and Beliefs; VI, Mongol Hieroglyphics. One hundred 
and seventy pages are devoted to the appendices, which com- 
prise chapters on chronology, the Akkadian language, the 
Hittite syllabary, origin of the alphabet, the Hittite texts, 
the Hittite vocubulary, and notes on deities and myths. 

In order that our readers may see the difficulty in translating 
the Hittite symbols we give these versions of the first Hamath 
inscription : 

Conder — " With homage expressed to the lord through whose 
might I smite — my king whom I serve, may he live, Zomomelu, 
being king of all, so I who am his countryman inscribe." 

Campbell— ^^ The lord of lords, I am the bar of the gate of 
authority, the emperor of all Syria. I bring an offering to gain 
protection for the king of kings, an altar of sacrifice." 

Jensen—^*' I am the great, the mighty king of the Hittites, 
the servant of the goddess, the king of this city, the mighty, the 
great one among the kings," etc. ( New York, Dodd, Mead & 
Co., lamo, 312 pages. Price $2.50. 



M. AMELINEAU'S STORY OF HIS FIND AT 
ABYDOS IN EGYPT. 

ME. Amflineau, the French Egyptologist who has an- 
• nounced recently the discovery of the tomb of Osiris at 
Abydos, in Egypt, has sent to the Journal Egyptien the fol- 
lowing account of his find : — 

** Everybody who has had a little education, or has read a 
little, knows, or has at least heard of, the legend of Osiris. 
The benovelent god, benignant and charming, to whom is 
generally attributed the progress of civilization in the Nile 
Valley, who taught his contemporaries how to cultivate the 
earth, to enjoy the rural pleasures, to charm their leisures and 
to forget their fatigues with the help of simple and touching 
songs, has been considered up to the present time more as a 
creation of the imagination than as a real, mortal being. The 
part which in the succession of centuries the religious tradi- 



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i64 BIBLIA. 

tion of humanity made him play some ten thousand years ago, 
was not calculated to increase the belief in his reality. But 
hereafter it will be difficult to doubt that Osiris, Isis, his sister- 
wife, and Horus, their son, lived in reality, and played at least 
partially the parts with which legends and traditions have 
credited them. 

" The Egyptian texts speak very often of Osiris's tomb, which 
is designated under the name of * staircase of the great god.' 
They add that the high officials that lived a short time after 
that epoch desired greatly to be buried near Osiris, who had 
preceded them in life and in death. I discovered on the first of 
January of this year this famous staircase, and the next day I 
struck a monument which cannot leave any doubt as to the 
destination of the tomb which my excavations brought to 
light. 

" Two years ago I had already begun a very important work, 
if we consider only the number of cubic meters of sand re- 
moved, and my diggings on one side had stopped at a point 
three or four meters from a large tomb. During my previous 
excavation I had found a great number of traces of Osiris 
worship, but they could be explained by the general devotion 
that people of Abydos as well as other parts of Egypt had for 
the god of the dead, who was also called sometimes * the Uni- 
versal Lord,' because men are all submitted to death's law. 
During the whole of last year my time was devoted to works 
which I did not expect would last so long, and it was only this 
year that I was able to resume what was left uncompleted. 

" The hill under which was hidden Osiris's tomb is about i8o 
meters in length by i6o meters in width, and is here and there 
seven or eight meters high. It was composed of millions upon 
millions of small jars and earthen vases, also some large ones 
mixed up with sand and a few rare pieces of stone. From 
the first days of the excavations, in December last, pieces of 
pottery of all shapes, entire or broken, were found, bearing 
inscriptions written in hieroglyphic or hieratic signs. Large 
numbers of pieces mentioned the name of Osiris and were due 
to the priests, while a smaller number of pieces bore the name 
of Amon-Ra. A few of these inscriptions mention the house 
of Osiris. Among Egyptians a term generally used to desig- 
nate tombs was * eternal houses.' These discoveries impressed 
me so strongly that as far back as December 2, I recorded in 
the diary which I keep of my excavations the belief that I was 
going to come across Osiris's tomb. If my discoveries had 



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BIBLIA, 165 

only related to general worship, I would not have found the 
double (Ka) name of King Menes among the debris ; I would 
not have found that the worship of the dead buried under the 
hill had lasted until the end of the Egyptian empire. In spite 
of all these proofs I lacked yet the details given in the 
Egyptian texts. 

" The tomb was in shape a large rectangle, and on the four 
sides of it were series of tombs which would number about 200. 
Moreover, the necropolis, known in the country under 
the name of Om-el-Gaab-el-Gharby, contained the 
sepulchers of persons of very high rank, among them 
kings, the steles of which I discovered two years ago. So this 
first point was settled. On January i appeared this fortunate 
staircase mentioned by the texts. The next day I discovered 
a unique monument, It was a granite monolith in the shape 
of a bed decorated with the head and legs of a lion. On this 
bed was lying a mummy bearing what is known as the white 
crown, holding in his hands, which came out of the case, a 
flagellum and a pastoral cane. Near the head were two hawks, 
and two more were at the feet. The dead was designated by 
the inscription : * Osiris the Good being.' The hawks were 
labelled, * Horus, avenger of his father,* and the goddess Isis 
is also designated by her name. 

" This monument is 1.70 meters in length and about a meter 
in width and height. The tomb itself has the shape of a dwell- 
ing, with a court yard in front. It contained fourteen rooms, 
and the staircase five rooms to the north, five to the south and 
four to the east. The western face was open. The two ex- 
tremities, south and north, were closed by a wall on the east 
side. The tomb was about 13 meters in length, 12 meters in 
width, and % meter in depth. There were evidences of fire in 
it. I found at the bottom of the rooms indisputable proof of 
the work of spoliators. This fact of the tomb having been 
destroyed by fire has rendered sterile a great part of my labor. 
This to be lamented, and the case is hopeless, for what is lost is 
lost forever. 

" It is not without a deep emotion on my part that this holy 
sepulcher of Egypt was brought to light by my workmen, who 
did not even suspect the importance of the discovery. The 
emotion I felt at the thought that I was touching soil sacred 
for thousands of generations was rendered more intense when 
I considered that my discovery came just in time to prove that 
what had been called my theories, my theses, were not pure. 



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i66 BIBLIA, 

unsupported theories and sensational theses, but unquestiona- 
bly realities proved by fact. Such are in a nutshell the main 
points of my discoveries." 

The Journal Egyptien, in printing M. Am61ineau's letter^ 
makes these comments : — 

" We give the facts such as they are stated by M. Am^lineau. 
We must remember that Mariette spent much time and money 
at Abydos in his researches for the tomb of Osiris. The discov- 
ery of M. Am^lineau, astonishing as it may appear, is a 
possibility and in accordance with the records of all the ancient 
authors and the belief of most Egyptologists, unless this tomb 
is proved after more complete investigations of the epigraphic 
documents exhumed to be a sanctuary erected at a later date to 
Osiris. If it is the tomb of Osiris, it must be still more archaic 
than the tomb of Negadah discovered last year by Mr. J. A. 
Morgan, and also much older in style than all the tombs ex- 
plored so far by Mr. Am61ineau himself at Abydos. On these 
points more details are needed." 



PAPYRI FROM BEHNESA. 

Messrs. Grenf ell and Hunt are busily engaged in deciphering 
the large amount of pap3rri brought by them from Behnesa. 

How strange is the story which these papyri have to tell as 
sheet after sheet is slowly deciphered. Gathered from be- 
neath the drifting sands of the Libyan desert, they are all that 
remain to record the life of one of the wealthiest Christian 
cities of Egypt in Graeco- Roman times. The sand-dunes of 
Behnesa, in Middle Egypt, and on the borders of the papyrus- 
bearing Fayoum, where this mass of records was found, mark 
the site of the ancient city of Ox3n-hynchus, the city of the 
** Fish Worshippers," once the centre of a great diocese, con- 
taining convents, monasteries and many churches. There are 
no ruins on the site, and all the work achieved by Messrs. 
Grenfell and Hunt, on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
had to be carried out in the open desert and in the face of 
blinding sandstorms. 

As we turn over the fragments which cover a period extend- 
ing from the second to the sixth century of our era we seem to 
have the whole of the busy life of this once flourishing city set 
before us, not only the religious and intellectual life, but all 
the minutest details of society, the complaints of the grumblers 



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BIB LI A, 167 

and the sweet cooings of the lovers. Although but a provin- 
cial town, there must have been a cultured and intellectual set 
among the inhabitants as early as the second century, for 
among the fragments we find portions of the writings of most 
of the best known classical writers, including Homer, Herod- 
otus, Sophocles, Plato, and the orations of Demosthenes. The 
gem of the classical remains is a hitherto unknown poem of the 
Lesbian poetess, the "Burning Sappho" of Byron. It is a 
sweet, pathetic appeal to her brother Charaxus, the lover of 
the notorious Rhodopis, to make up the quarrels which had so 
long separated them. The ecclesiastical literature, of course, 
is extensive, the most important being a very early copy of a 
portion of the Gospel of Matthew — probably the earliest. 

It is not those religious or classical fragments that possess 
that human interest, which is the charm of archaeology. Little 
pieces of paper, often torn and badly written, and with defect- 
ive spelling, often have a tale of much interest to tell; and of 
these torn scraps there are many. Of society letters there are 
several. Four lines of writing record an invitation to dinner: 
*' Chaeremon requests your company to dinner, at the table of 
the Lord Serapis. in the Sepapaeum to-morrow, the 15th, at 9 
o'clock." Several of such invitations have been found which 
show that 9 o'clock was the fashionable Greco- Roman dinner 
hour. The dinner referred to was, no doubt, a festival of 
Serapis — the favorite Greco-Roman god, as is shown by 
another beautifully written letter: "Greeting, my dear Serenia, 
from Pet-osiris. Be sure, dear, to come on the 20th for the 
birthday festival of the god (Serapis); and let me know 
whether you are coming by boat or donkey, that we may meet 
you accordingly." Substitute train for the last mentioned and 
it would be suitable for the nineteenth century. In another 
feminine letter written by a country friend we have the usual 
string of commissions. "A piece of violet stuff is to be 
matched for a tunic; small chesses are wanted for the festival, 
andanobol's worth of cake for 'my little nephew.'" As a 
present the writer sends flowers (?) and apples. There is some- 
thing very much of the modem society air in the following 
letter, although of the time of the second century. A lady 
writes to her friend to say she has pledged " caskets of sandal- 
wood, another of onyx, a white veil with a real purple border, 
armlets, a statue of Aphrodite," and other objects, and asks her 
friend to redeem them. The rate of interest is 4 per cent per 
month, a most exorbitant charge, but as the debt was in all 
probability a gambling one the money must be obtained. 



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i68 BIBLIA. 

Of Still greater interest to the citizen of the present progres- 
sive age are the municipal documents. The documents relat- 
ing to the sale of the taxes record the fact that although 
the annual farming had twice been held no one would come 
forward to buy on account of former losses. The accounts of 
the city police are very interesting but dry. Very curious are 
the reports of the municipal doctor, who had been sent by the 
governor to hold an inquest on a man who hanged himself, 
and at another time on a girl who was injured by the fall of a 
house and cut about the hips and legs. The payment to the 
carpenters for the repairs and decoration of Shepherds-st., has 
much of the air of a modem county council missive. 
In conclusion, as we turn over this bundle of old letters, we 
once more recall the old saying, ever true, "there is nothing 
new under the sun." 



STRIKES UNDER THE PHARAOHS. 

THE deciphering of an Egyptian papyrus in the Museum 
of Turin, shows how the old proverb that there is nothing 
new under the sun, applies to strikes as to many other things. 

This papyrus, which is a sort of journal or day-book of the 
superintendant of the Thebes necropolis, furnishes curious de- 
tails of a workman's riot or trade dispute, which occurred in 
the ancient city in the reign of Ramses III. 

The workmen's quarter sent a deputation to the keeper of 
the books aad to scNreral priests of the necropolis during the 
strike. The speaker of the deputation is reported as having 
said : — 

" Behold, we are face to face with famine. We have neither 
nourishment, nor oil, nor vestments ; we have no fish ; we 
have no vegetables. We have already sent a petition to our 
sovereign lord, the Pharaoh, praying him to give us these 
things, and now we address the governor, in order that he 
might give us the wherewithal to live." 

This event took place on the first day of the month Tibi (equal 
to our December 27), and from the facts gathered from the 
interesting document it would appear that the men had struck 
work about two months previously. Some weeks after this they 
were in full revolt. Three times they emerged from their 
quarters, notwithstanding the walls that surrounded them and 



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BIBLIA. 169 

the gates that shut them in. "We will not return," cried they 
to the police sent in pursuit of them. " Go tell you chief what 
we tell you. It is famine which speaks by our mouths." 

" To argue with them was useless ; there was g^eat agita- 
tion," writes the superintendant in his day-book. ** I gave 
them the strongest answer I could imagine, but their words 
were true and came from their hearts." 

They were quieted by the distribution of half rations, but ten 
days later they were up again. Kohus, the leader of the band, 
pressed his companions to provide for themselves. " Let us 
fall," said he, " upon the stores of provisions and let the gover- 
nor's men go and tell him what we have done." This was the 
advice of their agitator. It would appear that his counsel 
was acted upon as soon as it was given. They forcibly entered 
the inclosure, but not the fortress, where the provisions were 
kept. The keeper of the stores, Amen Nextu, gave them 
something and continued to induce them to return to their 
quarters. Eleven days later their movements began again. 
The commander of Thebes, passing by, found them seated on 
the ground holding a meeting behind the temple of Seti, at 
the northern end of the necropolis. Immediately they began 
to shout out : " Famine ! Famine ! " 

The commander then gave an order for fifty measures of 
wheat in the name of Pharaoh, ** who has sworn an oath," said 
he, " that you will have food again." Most likely Pharaoh never 
heard of the event, and never received the petition addressed 
to him a couple of months previously. Kohus, above referred 
to, was evidently the leader of the strikers, much as we have 
labor leaders now, and the man of the hour while the agita- 
tion lasted. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

In the interval between the Quarterly Statements I can give 
no news of the work of Dr. Bliss at Tell-es-Safi (Gath) because 
his hands are so full while at work in the fields that it is diflS- 
cult for him to write his reports, and it would be wrong to ask 
for private or semi-oflScial letters. Indeed the reports sent 
from the field work to the Quarterly^ although intensely 
interesting, are necessarly inadequate to give a full 
account of what is done, so that, after the expiration of a 
firman, some weeks or even months are required by the ex- 



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I70 BIBLIA, 

plorer to prepare the volume which is his final and satisfactory 
account of his work. There is a great value in the Quarterly 
reports, however, for they enable students at home to make 
researches by means of which the ultimate result is made 
more definite and exhaustive. These excavations in the 
Philistine country bring up at once questions in regard to them, 
and especially in regard to the men of great stature which the 
home student must consider in conjunction with the excavator. 

Of course we know that the Philistines gave their name to 
the land, for Palestina is only a form of Philistia. The word 
PHeshethy which is understood to mean the land of " strang- 
ers," is the basis, and this is variously rendered. Thus Exodus 
XV. 14, has " Palestina," and it is " Palestina" in Isaiah XIV. 
29 and 31, but Joel III. 4, we have ** Palestine," and in "Psalm 
CX 8, Lxxxvii. 4, and cviii. 9, it is "Philistia." The re- 
visors have very properly used " Philistia " in these cases, as 
the form " Palistinia " is due to the Seventy and the Vulgate. 

From this we may conclude something as to the strength of 
the Philistines who seemed to Israel in Egypt and on the way 
out of it to be the masters of the promised land so that they 
called it Philistia. The origin of this people is an open ques- 
tion, but it is plain from Genesis xxi. 34, that they entered the 
lands before Abraham, and it is noticeable that Israel had no 
pronounced victory over them until David's time, while I be- 
lieve they do not disappear until the time of the Maccabees. 
There are towns of great antiquity, occupied for centuries 
continuously by one people, and here our spades are at work, 
and the work will be thoroughly done under the control of an 
experienced excavator. 

The great achievement of Gen. Sir Herbert H. Kitchener in 
leading his army of British and native troops though the desert 
in mid-summer to the capture of Khartoum shows the same 
qualities which as a young man he displayed in the service of 
our Fund. He was at first subordinate to Col. Conder, but af- 
terward had sole charge of the survey of Galilee. No book 
from his pen is on our list, but he made reports which appeared 
in the statements of the years 1875 to 1878, and he is an 
authority on Galilee. The introduction thus given him to 
Oriental scenes was followed by service in Cyprus and then in 
Africa. 

In noting the receipts forwarded through the past quarter I 
am happy to acknowledge the very great service rendered to 
our cause by Dr. F. J, Bliss during his brief visit to this 



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BIBLIA, 



171 



country. His lectures in Cambridge, Hartford, New Haven, 
New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, and elsewhere, gave informa- 
tion in important centres and developed general interest, but 
he also collected and turned over to the fund some ^yq hundred 
dollars as the proceeds of lectures, donations, and new sub- 
scriptions. If he can work with a skill, efficiency and 
self-sacrifice in the Holy Land like those qualities he displayed 
in America, all will surely go well, and no one can doubt that 
his capacity to serve the good cause is increasing as the years 
goby. 

It has been interesting during the war with Spain to notice 
the intense interest felt on our side in the Holy Land. The 
Jews adopted a prayer in our behalf and repeated it at the 
Nailing Place in Jerusalem. The reason of this is of course 
the suffering of that nation at the hands of the Spanish. For 
the same reason, that is, on account of the expulsion of the 
Moors from Spain, the Mohammedans were all on our side. I 
have a letter from an official of that faith in Jerusalem begging 
for war news, saying that they could get none there, and ex- 
pressing the fear that we might be beaten because the priests 
of the Roman Catholic Church declared that we were against 
Christianity. I took care that he should have trustworthy ex- 
tracts from papers and also wrote frequently. The Jerusalem 
friend now writes : 

" I was glad to hear from you all the news, only I am sorry 
your soldiers are suffering from fever. We have heard that 
Spain asked for peace. I am sure that she took the wisest 
action. Most of the people here thought that America would 
not be able to conquer Spain as the latter is trained more, but 
I never thought that." 

He also says that all the hotels are engaged for the time of 
Emperor William's visit and " carriage roads made to every- 
where." 

The following contributions have been gratefully received 
since last report : — 



Alexandria Theol. Seminary, ^2.50 

Bentley, John Esq., . 15.00 

Blackwell, Miss P. W., 5.00 

Blakeslee, Rev. F. D.. D. D., 2.50 

Boies, H. M., Esq., 10.00 

Carter, Rev. James, 2.50 

Clarke. Miss L. Freeman, . 5.00 
Congrregational Library , Boston ,2.50 

Crawford, J. P., Esq., . 5.00 



Davis, Miss Grace T., 
Dudley, C. B., Esq., . 
Eames, Wilberforce, Esq. 
Oilman, Pres. D. C, LL. D, 
Goodrich, Prof. P. S., 
Gultman. Rev. A.. D. D. 
Hyde. C. M., Esq., 
Jessup, M. K., Esq., 
Keith, C. P.. Esq., 



$2.50 
5.00 
2.50 
5.00 
2.50 
2.50 

100.00 
2.50 
5.00 



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172 



BIBLIA. 



Lake Erie College, $5.00 

Long Island Hist Society, 2.50 

Maitland, Alex, Esq., . 10.00 

McKean, F. G.. U. S. Navy. 5.00 

Nies. Rev. J. B., Ph. D. . 5.00 

Perry, John H., Esq., 2.50 

Reed, Rev. James, 2. 50 

Schauffler, Rev. A. F.. D. D., 15.00 

Shepherd, G. R., M. D., 5.00 

Slade, Miss A. L., 5.00 

Stevenson, Miss E. W., 10.00 

Stokes, Mrs. O. E. P., . 20.00 



Sweetser. George. D., Esq. 
Walker, Prof. D. A., 
Webster, D. L.. Esq., 
Werren, Rev. J. E., 
Williams, Rev. R. P.. 
Wood, Frank, Esq., . 
Worcester, Rev. W. L., 
Wright, Rev. H. W., 
Wright, Miss M. A., . 
Wood, Mrs. Frank, 
Zimmerman, Rev. J., D, 



$2.50. 
2.50 
5.00 
2.50 
5.00 
5.00 

10.00 
2.50 
2.50 
5.00 

2.SO- 



Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for the United States. 
4^ Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass, 



BOOK REVIEW. 



The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part I. Edited with Translations 
and Notes by Bernard P. Grenfell, M. A., and Arthur S. Hunt, 
M. A. 

We have in this elegant volume the first installment of the 
Greek papyri which Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt recovered 
from Behneseh, in 189 7,* making the first volume issued by the 
Graeco-Roman Branch of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 

In the early centuries of the Christian era, Behneseh — the 
ancient Oxyrhynchus — ^was evidently in a very flourishing and 
civilized condition, if one may judge from the enormous amount 
of official documents of every kind dealing with the adminis- 
tration and taxation of the country, also of private letters, wills, 
etc., which were carefully stored in the government record 
offices. There are besides valuable literary papyri, such as 
a fragmant of probably the oldest known manuscript of the 
New Testament in existence, a very important fragment of 
Thucydides, and portions of Demosthenes, Plato, Herodotus^ 
Homer, Sophocles, Xenophon, Isocrates, etc. These finds 
illustrate wonderfully the inner life of a Greek city in Egypt, 
nearly 2,000 years ago. 

The volume before us contains two hundred and fifty-eight 
texts, and they are selected from over twelve hundred which 
are yet to be published. The texts in the present volume have 
been chosen partly to illustrate the scope and variety of the 



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BIB LI A. 173 

collection. As at least four-fifths of the papyri now in the 
British Museum have not been unpacked, we do not yet know 
what surprises are in store for us. 

The Old Testament papyri contains several verses of the first 
chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel. It was found near the 
"Logia" which created such a sensation last winter. The 
variants are chiefly in the spelling of the proper names, and so 
far as the papyrus goes, it tends to support the text of Westcott 
and Hort against the Texus Receptus. But one of the most 
interesting finds, from a literary point of view, is a part of a 
poem written in the Aeolic dialect, and which is undoubtedly a 
part of an ode addressed by Sappho to her brother Charaxus. 
The dialect and metre, and the resemblance in thought and 
phrase to the known fragments of Sappho, combine in favor 
of the hypothesis if this being written by her. The papyrus is 
written in a good-sized square slightly sloping uncial which 
the editors assign to the third century. A fac-simile of the 
papyrus is given with transliteration, and restoration of the 
text. The following is given as the English translation. 

* ' Sweet Nereids, grant to me 

That home unscathed my brother may return « 
And every end, for which his soul shall yearn, 

Accomplished see ! 

And then immortal Queen, 

Blot out the past, that thus his friends may know 
Joy. shame his foes, — ^nay rather, let no foe 

By us be seen ! 

And may he have the will 

To me his sister some regard to show. 
To assuage the pain he brought, whose cruel blow 

My soul did kill. 

Yea, mine, for that ill name 

Whose biting edge, to shun the festal throng 
Compelling, ceased awhile ; yet back ere long 

To goad us came." 

Among other classical fragments which are entirely new, are 
seven hex|ameter lines of Alcman; a fragment of a treatise on 
meter by Aristoxenus; fragment of a lost comedy by an un- 
known writer; six columns from a chronological work giving a 
list of the chief events in Greek, Roman and Oriental history, 
355.315 B. C; letter to a king of Macedon; fragment contain- 
ing eighteen lines from an elegiac poem, and some epigrams 
and songs for the flute. Among the documents are quite a 



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X74 BIB II A. 

uumber showing the daily life of the Greeks a,ooo years ago, 
and one can see a surprising likeness to similar matters in our 
own day. A girl was injured by a house falling down, and 
claimed damages from the city. The physician appointed by 
the ofl&cials visited the girl and reported : " Your grace sent us 
in consequence of a petition received by you from Aurelius 
Dioscorus, son of Dorotheus, of Oxyrhynchus, to make a re- 
port in writing on his daughter, who, as he complained, had 
been injured by the fall of his house which had occurred. We 
accordingly went to Dioscorus' house, and saw that the girl 
had several cuts in her hip and wounds near the shoulder and 
on the right knee, we therefore present this report." 

There are a number of invitations to dinner, such as the fol- 
lowing: " Chaeremon requests your company at dinner at the 
table of the lord Serapis in the Serapaeum to-morrow, the 
15th, at 9 o'clock." " Hexais requests your company at dinner 
in celebration of the marriage of her children at her house to- 
morrow, the 5th, at 9 o'clock." ** Greeting, my dear Serenia, 
from Petosiris. Be sure, dear, to come up on the aoth for the 
birthday festival of the god, and let me know whether you are 
coming by boat or by donkey, in order that we may send for 
you accordingly. Take care not to forget. I pray for your 
continued health." 

A father breaks off a betrothal as follows : " Forasmuch it has 
come to my ears that you are giving yourself over to lawless 
deeds, which are pleasing neither to God nor man, and are not 
fit to be put in writing, I think it well that the engagement 
between you and her, my daughter Euphemia, should be dis- 
solved, seeing that, as is aforesaid, I have heard that you are 
giving yourself over to lawless deeds and that I wish my 
daughter to live a peaceful and quiet life. I therefore send 
you the present deed of dissolution of the engagement between 
you and her, my daughter Euphemia, by the hand of the most 
illustrious advocate aforesaid with my own signature, and I 
have taken a copy of this document, written by the most 
illustrious advocate aforesaid (Anastasius). Wherefore for 
the security of the said Euphemia my daughter, I send you 
this deed of separation and dissolution written on the nth day 
of the month Epeiph in the nth indiction. 

" I. John, aforesaid, father of Euphemia, my daughter, send 
the present deed of separation and dissolution to you Phoebam- 
mon, my most honorable son-in-law, as is above written." 

Among the papyri are those for repairs of public buildings, 



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BIBLIA. 175 

appointment of guardian, orders for arrest, receipts for wages, 
sales and leases of land, contracts of working men, etc. '* A 
Promise to be Honest " is a contract between Anrelius Menas, 
head watchman, and Flavins Apion the younger, by which 
Menas undertakes to pay twenty-four solidi should he be 
proved to be a party to any theft of the agricultural plant 
under his charge. 

The eight full page fac-similes are very fine specimens of 
artistic work. The book is accompanied with indices of new 
classical and theological fragments, lists of emperors and con- 
suls, personal names, countries, nomes, districts, cities, streets, 
public buildings, symbols, officials, weights and measures, etc., 
and a general index. The notes show g^eat learning and re- 
search. 

This first volume from the Graeco-Roman Branch, is of the 
greatest value to all persons interested in classical antiquity 
and early Christianity in Egypt. It is given gratis to all 
subscribers of %$ to the Branch. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

I:\kit Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, 
Vol. XXX, No. 117, contains an interesting address by the 
well known explorer, Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, on "Biblical 
Lands, their Topography, Races, Religions, Languages and 
Customs, Ancient and Modem." Mr. Rassam is a native of 
Chaldea and is well acquainted with the customs of the Chal- 
deans of Mesopotamia and Assyria. 

Mr. Rassam says that with regard to the language, no one 
can deny that the mother tongue of the present Chaldeans is 
akin to the Chaldee of the Targum, and some parts of the 
Books of Daniel and Ezra, besides a number of Aramaic words 
used in the Old and New Testaments like " yagar-sadadutha " 
(heap of witnesses), "bar" (son), "abba" (father), "talitha- 
cumi," (damsel arise), " Marantha," (Our Lord's coming), etc. 

To show how near the Chaldee of Daniel is to the language 
used by the present Chaldeans and the so-called Nestorians in 
the mountains of Assyria and Media, he quotes a few verses 
from the orthography of the 5th chapter of Daniel in parallel 
columns with the Chaldean text called Pesheto (but errone- 
ously termed in Europe '* Syriac "), which shows how striking 
is the resemblance between the two versions. . . . 



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176 BIB LI A, 

The so-called " Syrians," whether Jacobites or Catholics, are 
not natives of what is known in Europe as " Syria," nor are 
there many of them to be found in that country, the majority 
of the Christians in Syria being either Maronites, Greek Or- 
thodox and Catholic, Armenian Monophysite and Catholic. 
The word Syrian, as it is used in Arabic, is known in biblical 
lands to denote only a religious community and not natives of 
any country in particular ; for although some modem geogra- 
phers have tried to define the limits of " Syria," yet it is a 
known fact that neither the Hebrews nor the Greeks knew ex- 
actly what constituted the boundary of Syria and what is 
really meant by the Syrian language. Indeed, in what in 
Europe is now termed Syria there not less than a dozen differ- 
ent nationalities, who formerly occupied that land ; and if the 
word be taken to mean what was considered in ancient days 
Aram, there is no such country now to represent it save the 
Pashalic of Damascus, while the other two Arams of Zaba and 
Macka are now in the Pashalic of Aleppo. The only people 
that remain who might be considered lineal descendants of the 
Aramean race are the Droozes and Maronites. Thfe remain- 
der of the different ancient nationalities have been merged into 
that of the Arab when those lands were overcome by the 
Arabian hordes in the seventh century. At the same time all 
Jews and Christians who existed in the three Arabias, viz., 
Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Petrflea, had to em- 
brace Mohammedanism or die martyrs. . . . The language 
which is used by the Chaldeans is known in Europe by the 
name of Syriac, but they themselves term it Chaldean, as it is 
called in the Targum, Daniel and Ezra. The word S)n:iac or 
Siryanee is applied by them to the characters used by the so- 
called Syrians or Jacobites. It is true there is very little dif- 
ference between the Chaldean and the Syriac, but the differ- 
ence is noticeable both in the formation of the letters and the 
pronunciation of certain words which no man can mistake. 

Formerly the S3rrians of Mesopotamia, who were of the same 
stock as the Chaldeans, had a like style of writing, but in the 
thirteenth century Bar-Hebrseus, a promotor of the Jacobites, 
wishing to make a thorough distinction between the writing of 
the Monophysites and that of the Nestorians, changed the 
characters and vowel points. The Chaldean / and a were 
changed into ph and o respectively, and if we refer to Holy 
Writ, either Hebrew or Greek, we shall find the present Chal- 
deans keep the old pronunciation in the case of the words 



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BIBLIA. 177 

yegar-sahadutha (heap of witness), Maranatha (the Lord's 
coming), abba (father), talitha (damsel(, Maria (Lord), AUaha 
(God), which the S)rrians pronounce Sohodwotho, Moronotho, 
Obbo, Tolitho, Mono and OUoho. 

Mr. Rassam has no doubt that: the Nestorians, both of the 
lowland and highland of Assyria, came formerly from the same 
origin as the Chaldeans of Mosul, Baghdad and Diarbekir, so- 
cially speaking, they do not stand on the same level, because 
while the former with few exceptions are rural and of the 
peasant uneducated class, being, like the Coords, their neigh- 
bors from remote time, stationary, the latter have always been 
progressive and cultured. 



The new "Dictionary of the Bible, dealing with its Language, 
Literature and Contents," edited by John Hastings, D. D., 
formerly president of the Union Theological Seminary, em- 
bodies the latest and most approved conclusions of Biblical 
scholarship presented by some of the greatest Biblical scholars 
in the world, who sign their names to their articles. 

The articles on the chronology of the Old Testament, by 
Professor E. L. Curtis, and on the chronology of the New 
Testament, by C. H. Turner, are very good examples of the 
careful and up-to-date scholarship that characterizes this work. 
Of the data in Grenesis for the period between the creation and 
the flood, Professor Curtis says : " These numbers . . can- 
not in any case be accepted as historical ; and hence for a real 
chronology of the early ages of man they are valueless." In- 
deed, of the Old Testament chronology generally, he holds that 
it was largely arbitrary and conjectural, being constructed to 
fit into the Hebrew tradition that four thousand years were to 
elapse between the Creation and the coming of the Messiah. 
But scholars to-day declare that this period is entirely too 
short. Recent archaeological discoveries indicate a high degree 
of civilization thousands of years before the Biblical date for 
the Creation, and Maspero places the beginning of Egyptian 
civilization 8,000 or 10,000 B. C. 

Of the article on the chronology of the New Testament, it 
would not be correct to say that it clears up all the diflSculties 
involved, for that probably cannot be done. But all the 
light possible is thrown upon them, and no attempt is made to 
ignore them. A very good instance of this is the statement in 



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178 BIB LI A. 

Luke's Gospel that Christ's birth occurred during the census 
ordered by Augustus, and carried out in Syria by the legate 
Cjrrensius (Quirinius). On this point we quote as follows: 
" A famous census did, indeed, take place, Quirinius being the 
Governor sent to carry it out, ten years or more after the 
Nativity, when Judaea, on the deposition of Archaelaus, in 
A. D. 6, became a Roman Province ; and it provoked the re- 
volt of Judas the Gaulonite, or Galilean. But there is also reason 
to believe that Quirinius must be the name wanting on a muti- 
lated inscription which describes some official who twice 
governed S)rria under Augustus ; and in that case another 
census might be postulated for his other tenure, to justify St 
Luke, if it were not that even this other cannot possibly have 
concluded with the Nativity. ... St. Luke then is in error 
in the name of Quirinius. ... St. Luke's evidence adds 
nothing trustworthy for the chronology of the Nativity beyond 
its synchronism with a census. But if St. Luke's census has no 
date, or rather, a wrong one, does early Christian tradition 
help to fix the Nativity more nearly ? " 

The article on Cosmogony shows the similarity between the 
Genesis and the Babylonian story of the Creation. Was the 
Babylonian story derived from the Hebrew story ? asks the 
writer, Principal Owen C. Whitehouse. No, he replies; on the 
contrary, the Hebrews adopted and modified the elements of 
the Babylonian tradition of the Creation. If this view is the 
true one, it follows, of course, that the Biblical account of the 
Creation is simply a myth. 



The London Athenceum does not take kindly to Captain 
Conder's plan of deciphering the Hittite inscriptions by finding 
what cuneiform characters looks most like each of the 
pictures in the Hittite inscription. It contrasts his book with 
Professor Jensen's great work on the Hittites and the Arme- 
nians, which it describes as '^fuU of fact and sensible argu- 
ment." In conclusion the Athenceum says that, '* with the 
exception of the facts which Professor Jensen has made out, 
the Hittite question stands pretty well where it did years ago." 
" Books, like that of Captain Conder's can only bring discredit 
upon the subject in the eyes of scholars, and, what is worse, 
mislead our very good friend *the general reader.'" 



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BIBLIA, 179 

Profcsor Pctrie has handed over to Mr. F. L. Griffith all of 
the papyri fotind at niahun, for study and publication. Among 
the documents is the following will or marriage settlement, 
dating some 3500 .years B. C.:— 

"Year a, ad. month of Verdure, day 18. Title to property 
made by the priest in charge of the corpse of Sepdu, Lord of 
the East, Uah. 

" I am making a title to property to my wife, the woman of 
Gesab, Satsepdu's daughter Sheftu, who is called Teta, of all 
things given to me by my brother, the devoted servant of the 
superintendent of works, Ankhren, as to each article in its 
place of everything that he gave me. She shall give it to any 
she desires of her children that she bears me. I am giving to her 
the Eastern slaves, four persons, that my brother, the devoted 
servant of the superintendant of works, Ankhren, gave to me. 
She shall give them to whomsoever she will of her children. 
As to my tomb, let me be buried in it withfmy wife, without 
allowing anyone to move (?) earth to it. Moreover, as to the 
apartments that my brother, the confidental servant of the 
superintendant of works, Ankhren, built for me, my wife 
dwelleth [shall dwell ?] therein, without allowing her to be 
put [forth] there on the ground by any person. [In another 
hand.] It is the deputy Gebu who shall act as guardian of my 
son [literally, be child educator of my son]. 

" Name list of people in whose presence these things were 
done : — 

'* Decorator [or polisher ?] of colums, Kemen. 
" Doorkeeper of the temple, Ankhetfi's son Api. 
" Doorkeeper of the temple, Senb's son Senb." 



Dr. Thureau-Dangin has issued a manual of archaic forms of 
cuneiform characters, which, together with Dr. Scheil's 
" Recueil de signes archa'iques," will be indispensable for any 
student who desires to study the great mass of cuneiform 
literature recently published by the British Museum and the 
University of Pennsylvania. Professor Thureau-Dangin's 
work will facilitate the study of the oldest Babylonian docu- 
ments and the solving of the difficult problems connected with 
the question of the origin of the cuneiform writing. 

The same subject has also been treated by Professor 
Delitzsch, in a "Nachwort" to his well-known book on the 



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i8o BIB LI A. 

origin of the oldest system of writing, which appears to be 
chiefly written in reply to the review of the former work by 
Professor Jensen of Marburg. 

A new issue of the " Contributions to Assyriology (Vol. in, 
page 9) contains a number of interesting articles. Dr. Meissner 
of Halle has collected the fragments of tablets containing 
parts of Babylonian laws, which are preserved in the 
Kouyunjik collection of the British Museum, and publishes by 
lithography the cuneiform text, with a translation, a German 
translation and notes. A paper of the late D. W. McGee deals 
with the typography of Babylon, as illustrated by a number of 
cuneiform inscriptions, written in the time of Nabopolassar and 
Nebuchadnezzar II. The spoken Arabic dialect of North 
Morocco has been investigated during a short stay there in 
1889, by Mr. Talcott Williams of Philadelphia, who published 
a number of interesting notes on that vernacular, adding a 
very complete bibliography of works on the Arabic spoken and 
used in Morocco. Dr. Thureau-Dangin communicates some 
details concerning fractions and their expression in the archaic 
Babylonian texts. 

The Biblical World calls attention to a Hittite cylinder in the 
collection of Count Tyskiewicz, {Cylinder Hittite de la Collec- 
tion du Compte Tyskiewicz), This remarkable cylinder is one of 
a choice collection of antiquities just recently purchased for 
about {21,000 for the museum at Boston. The cylinder in 
question is of hematite, fifty-eight centimeters long by twenty- 
four centimeters in diameter. It has a pointed cone, which is 
pierced by a transverse hole. The body of the cylinder is 
occupied by a complicated screw inclosed between two rows of 
double spirals. The principal scene is extremely interesting. 
A man is stretched upon a table; from his body flames seem 
to be rising, while at the head and foot of the body stand two 
persons, performing some kind of operation. Near by another 
person is lying, as if awaiting his turn, while just behind the 
operators there seem to be two worshippers. Then there is a 
personage seated on a throne, in front of which two lions, 
standing on their hind feet, support a cresent-shaped object. 
On the lower part of the scene are various objects, such as 
vases, heads of animals, etc. Other human figures also appear 
in other roles. The interpretation of this cylinder must await 
assistance from others belonging to the same class. The 
cylinder is described by Solomon Reinach in the Revue Arche- 
ologique^ May-June, 1898, pp. 421-3. 



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BIB LI A, i8i 

Professor Hilprecht, occupied during the summer with arch- 
-aeological researches in the Imperial Ottoman Museum at Con- 
stantinople, has started for a scientific tour into the interior of 
Asia Minor. 

The German expedition to Babylonia will probably begin 
to excavate at Warka, the Biblical Erech (Gen. x, lo), which 
was the scene of Lof tus's earlier researches. The climatological 
conditions there are even more unfavorable to a long stay 
than at Nippur. Erech was not only a chief religious center 
of the Babylonians, but played also a prominent political role 
in the earliest history of the country. Systematic operations 
at Warka will doubtless yield a rich harvest. 



In the last number of the Mittheilungen of the German 
Palestine Society, Professor Briinnow gives a report of his 
journey last year to the Hauran. The chief result of his 
investigations has been to determine that about all the ruins 
found east of the Dead Sea down to Petra are of Roman origin, 
and that pactically nothing of the Moabite period is yet left. 
He thus agrees with Rindfleisch, who makes the Mohamme- 
dans responsible for the destruction of the old civilization of 
the Hauran, Briinnow states that he will now prepare a new 
map of Moab and Edom on the basis of his researches. 



The Gospel, Epistles on Revelation of St. John, is another 
volume of the Modern Reader's Bible. Professor Moulton has 
with his usual literary skill and helpfulness arranged " The 
Good Tidings of St. John (Gospel) or the Signs and Witness of 
Jesus," "The wisdom of John," commonly called the First 
Epistle, also the other two Epistles and the Revelation, in such 
a manner that each work illustrates itself. The whole work is 
divided into the independant divisions into which it seems to 
fall. The Revelation is described as a rhapsody. Dr. Moul- 
ton describes it as an epic in the flow of narrative, broken by 
little dialogues, but that there is none the less an approach to 
dramatic form in the linked succession of visions, which fol- 
low like the acts of a drama. The introduction and notes avoid 
all questions of authorship, textual history, and canonical 
questions, but considers the sacred writings from a purely 
literary point of view. 

(New York. Macmillan & Co., 66 Fifth Avenue. lamo, 224 
pages. Price 50 cents.) 



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iSj bib LI a. 

Subscriptions to the Ceypt Exploration Fund, the 

Archaeological Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
from August ao to September 30, are gratefully acknow- 
ledged : 

Richard P. Borden, . $5.00 James H. Harlow, 5.00 

MRS. GEORGE BOWDOIN, 25.00 Mrs. M. D. Hicks. 5.00 

Miss Josephine L. Danforth. i.oo MISSIANNIE B. JENNINGS, 72.25 

MRS. W. B. DINSMORE. 25.00 Mrs. George H. Qaincy, . 10.00 

Mrs. J. W. Dewiss, . 6.00 Robert H. Sajrre, 5.00 

George R. Harlow, . 5.00 Mrs. Hugh M. Smith, 5.00 

From August 20 to September 30, I have received very 
thankfully these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey 
Fund ; 

MRS. GEORGE S. BOWDOIN, 50.00 MISS ANNIE B. JENNINGS, 25.00 
Josephine L. Burpeau, M. D., 5.00 Mrs. George H. Quincy, . s.oa 

From August 20 to September 30, the following subscrip- 
tions to the Graeco-Roman Branch, are gratefully acknow- 
ledged : 

Bangor Theological Seminary, 5.00 Mrs. George H. Quincy, 5.00 

Miss Virginia Butler, . 5.00 Robert H, Sayre, . 5.00 

George R. Harlow, . 5.00 Mrs. Hugh M. Smith, . 5.00 

Miss Annie B. Jennings, 5.00 Amos W. Stetson, 5.00 

New York State Library, . 5- 00 

Francis C. Foster, 
Honorary Treasurer. 

Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 59 Temple Street, Boston, 

In July Biblia I asked for special subscriptions towards the 
admirable work of the Archaeological Survey. To those of Mr. 
George B. Tucker, Mr. Clarence M. Hyde, each I50, and Dr. 
Frederick E. Hyde, ^25, may now be added the subscription of 
Mrs. George S. Bowdoin for I50. Of the special fund for $500 
three-fifths, or I300, remain to be raised. Will not our readers 
promptly aid in five-dollar and larger contributions ? It is pur- 
posed to resume work in Egypt early in the winter. May I 
not expect the full and needed amount, as above, by 
December ? 

William C. Winslow, 
Honorary Secretary, U, S. A. 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., November, 1898. No. 8. 



HIERAKONPOLIS. 

THE Egyptian Research Account, of which Prof. Petrie 
is the guiding spirit, carried on its operations last winter 
at Hierakonpolis, on the left bank of the Nile, almost opposite 
El Kab, the scene of its work during two previous years. As 
on previous occasions, Mr. Somers Clarke and Mr. J. J. Tylor 
joined resources ; but the actual work of excavation was con- 
ducted by Mr. J. E Quibell, assisted by several ladies and 
gentlemen. We may mention that Mr. Quibell's work for the 
Research Account will now cease for a time, as he has 
been appointed on the staff of the Ghizeh Museum, to help in 
the great task of compiling the catalogue. 

In order to avoid confusion, it may be as well to state at 
once that there were two other places in Ancient Egypt known 
by the name of Hierakonpolis, which means City of the 
Hawks. Both of these are on the right bank of the Nile, lower 
down the Nile, being the capitals respectively of the Twelfth 
and the Sixteenth Nomes. The Hierakonpolis with which we 
are at present concerned was the site of the ancient Nekhen, 
and its ruins are now called Kom el Ahmar. Conspicuous 
among these ruins is a fort, familiar to all Nile-voyagers 
Nothing was found within this fort, which seems to have been 
exhausted by sebakh'^\g%^x% ; and the cemetery of prehistoric 
age in the desert was equally unproductive. It was on the site 
of a temple of the Xllth Dynasty, within the cultivated region, 
all that Mr. Quibell's discoveries were made. Here he was 
fortunate enough to light upon a series of pits, containing 
votive deposits of great antiquity. Among these was the gold 



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i84 BIB LI A, 

hawk, of the Vllth or Xllth Dynasty, which has attracted so 
much attention as being undoubtedly the earliest and largest 
piece of gold sculpture known. As a matter of fact, only the 
head is of solid gold ; the body is made of copper plates, with 
gold plumage. This unique object has of course been reserved 
for the Ghizeh Museum. 

From an archaeological point of view, however, the most 
valuable portion of the find is the great mass of objects that 
can confidently be assigned to the 1st and Ilnd Dynasties ; or 
in other words, to the period preceeding the Great Pyramid. 
Until a few years ago, this period was generally regarded as 
mythical, and its kings (beginning with Menes) as mere names. 
Prof. Petrie, by his excavations at Koptos and Negada, was 
the first to make known remains of this prehistoric period. 
After that followed M. Am^lineau's researches at Abydos, of 
which no adequate account has yet been published. Then 
came the startling news that M. de Morgan had chanced upon 
the tomb of Menes himself at Negada ; and now Mr. Quibell 
has collected such a quantity of new meterial as will tend to 
put all the previous discoveries in their proper place, and make 
the ages before Khufu almost as familiar to us as is the Old 
Kingdom. 

The Egyptain Research will shortly publish a volume con- 
taining a full account of Mr. QuibeU's work at Hierakonpolis, 
together with photographs of every important object found. 
But, in anticipation of that oflScial publication, the readers of 
BiBLiA may like to read a preliminary notice, based partly 
upon the exhibition held in London during July, and partly 
upon an article contributed by Prof. Petrie to the forthcoming 
Archaeological Report of the Egypt Exploration Fund. 

The objects found at Hierakonpolis differ from all others 
of this early age in not being funerary, but representing civil 
and military life. The most interesting are a number of large 
slate pallettes, covered with reliefs on eact side, which are a 
marvel of primitive sculpture. The finest of these, now at 
the Ghizeh Museum, represents scenes in the life of a king 
whose ^tf-name was Nar-mer, but whose personal and dynastic 
name is unknown. On one side he is shown holding an enemy 
by the hair, and ready to smite him with a mace ; behind fol- 
lows his chamberlain, bearing his sandals and a copper water- 
pot ; below are two slain enemies with a hieroglyph over each. 
On the other side is the king in triumph, his chamberlain 
behind and high priest in front ; before them four chiefs of 



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BIBLIA, 185 

the Nomes carry standards ; below ten decapitated enemies 
are lying on the ground. Another slate pallette is covered on 
both sides with figures of animals, lions, leopards, giraffes, 
oryxes, hunting-dogs, and others mythical. Scarcely less inter- 
esting are the large limestone mace-heads, some nearly a foot 
high, likewise carved in relief. One shows the same king Nar- 
mer seated, receiving the submission of a rival monarch with 
130,000 captives and a still larger number of cattle. Another 
represents the king superintending irrigation works in the 
Delta, which is of unique value for the state of civilization in 
this primitive era. Another king, whose personal name was 
Besh, is represented by two statues, while his name also occurs 
on an immense granite jar. The minor objects include hun- 
dreds of ivory statuettes and carved plaques, dozens of figures 
of animals in green glazed pottery, many elaborate cups and 
dishes with the royal names, an enormous jar of syenite two 
feet across, and gigantic flint knives. The ivory statuettes are 
unfortunately in bad preservation, but enough remains to 
restore the physiognomy and costume of the people, which is 
essentially non-Egyptian. The men are bearded, and do not 
wear the kilt, while the women are nude. 

Prof. Petrie claims that he is now able to enumerate the ka- 
names of no less than twenty-two kings, antecedent probably 
to the IVth Dynasty, beginning with Menes and ending with 
Sahu. It is remarkable that only one or two of them have 
personal names. Yet in Manetho and the lists of the XlXth 
Dynasty none but personal names are found, and not a single 
one of these ^^-names can yet be connected with any of the 
personal names. This raises a suspicion that the ^a-name was 
the sole royal name of the ruling race of the first three Dynas- 
ties, and that the personal names recorded three thousand 
years later were a subsequent invention. 

Prof. Petrie thus summarises our present knowledge of 
the ages before Khufu : The oldest remains that we can group 
belong to a civilization of high mechanical taste and ability, 
but very low in imitation of natural forms, with unrivalled 
skill in working flint, but only just beginning the use of metals. 
This was the civilization that he provisionally called "new 
race," but now prefers to term " pre-dynastic,*' as being the last 
part of the indefinitely long prehistoric age which includes 
palaeolithic times. He still inclines to believe that the people 
were Libyan, with an admixture of some Negro elements in 
remote time. In all the burials of pre-dynastic times not a 



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i86 BIBLIA. 

single example of hieroglyphic writing has been found, nor a 
single scarab amulet. Rudely scratched marks on pottery are 
abundant ; but in only two or three instances are there marks 
that can be connected with the later hieroglyphic signs. 

When we reach dynastic times, a great change has taken 
place. The inhabitants are physically of a diflEerent type — ^the 
head is not so remarkably long and narrow, and the nose is 
thinner ; hieroglyphs are freely used ; copper has become far 
more common ; the wheel was used for pottery, and the wheel 
for stone. The styles of the pre-dynastic objects can yet be 
traced, altered and degraded ; all the graceful and highly 
skilled hand pottery has changed to clumsy, tasteless forms, 
and the exquisite contours of the stone vases have passed into 
mere lumpiness. But a new force was at work ; and artistic 
drawing and modelling of natural forms begins to appear 
stifHy and in archaic fashion, but leading directly into all the 
well-known conventions of later Egyptian art. 

J. S. Cotton. 



HOW WAS THE PYRAMID BUILT? 

THIS problem is somewhat difficult to solve with any 
degree of certainty, as we have no monumental record of 
the ancient method, nor of the mechanical appliances then in 
use for such a purpose. How all the immense blocks of stone, 
forming the core of the Great Pyramid, were lifted and trans- 
ferred to such heights as those of its upper courses is a marvel of 
mechanical ingenuity. Almost every conceivable method has 
been suggested. The most common method of transportation 
was the employment of an immense number of men to haul 
by main force enormous blocks from the quarry, several hun- 
dred miles distant. 

We propose to show that the method of erection and con- 
struction was entirely different from any plan that has ever 
yet been suggested. An inclined plane, ramp, or sledgeway, 
was run up the middle on each of the four faces or sides, with 
low steps on each side of the ramp, for the haulers to ascend 
and descend, and the blocks taken up on sledges ; the inclined 
sledgway being built up as fast as each course was finished, 
until the uppermost tiers were reached. The core masonry 
Toeing built up after the face casing of each tier was laid, until 



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BIB LI A. 187 

the entire course was completed. The top of each course 
would be used as a leveled base or floor for transferring the 
blocks to their places in the next upper course. 

Herodotus conjectures that " The summit of the Pyramid 
was first finished; descending thence, they regularly completed 
the whole." But this is simply an opinion or conjecture formed 
over 2300 years after the event, and not the statement of a 
known fact. It would be next to impossible to begin at the 
top and finish the casing downwards, putting on the capstone 
first, and do it with that accuracy and perfection which the 
case required. The builders began at the base, and the crown- 
ing capstone was placed on the apex and summit when the 
whole casing of the sides had been finished. The four inclined 
ramps or sledgeways would then be finished downwards, and 
the work completed. The angle of the finished sides, and 
height of the apex, were determined from the finished base ; 
the base was not determined from the apex. The inclined 
ramp or causeway by which the blocks were conveyed from 
the Nile to the base of the Pyramid, and up the hill of Gizeh, 
was a very low inclined plane, and the method of transit up 
the sides of the Great Pyramid would be intrinsically similar. 

There seems to be good ground for believing that four 
such inclined planes, ramps, or stairways, probably ten feet 
wide and about three feet deep, were run up the middle of each 
side of the Great Pyramid, one on each of the four sides, run- 
ning up the mid-line of the face from base to apex or summit. 
Prof. Petrie says " The faces of the core masonry being very 
distinctly hollowed. This hollowing is a striking feature ; and 
besides the general curve of the face, each side" has a sort of 
groove specially down the middle of the face, showing that 
there must have been a sudden increase of the casing thickness 
down the mid-line. The whole hollowing was estimated at 
thirty-seven inches deep on the N. face." He noticed this 
deep groove in the mid-line of each of the four faces of the 
Pyramid, but failed to understand its significence, and con- 
jectured that " it was done so as to thin out the casing at the 
sides." — P)rramids and Temples of Gizeh, p. 44. 

This mid-line groove would be the place where the sledge- 
way, or inclined ramp and stairway, was located, running up 
and down the mid-line of each face, from base to apex, up which 
the great stones, forming the successive course of masonry, would 
be drawn. Arriving at the top of the tier, without unloading 
or removal of the block, the sledge would be hauled along the 



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i88 BIBLIA. 

top of the finished course, to, the place where the block was 
wanted. Perring conjectured that a machine might have been 
used known as the polyspaston of Vitruvius (Vyse-Pyramids of 
Gizeh, vol. I, p. 107, note). Doubtless a machine of some kind 
would be in constant use at the spot where a block was being 
placed in position, but that would be all the case required. 

The popular theory, that the core masonry was built up 
first and completed, before the casing was put on, is based on 
not knowing how the great stones could be lifted upwards. 
Herodotus says : " The ascent of the Pyramid was regularly 
graduated by what some call steps, and others call altars. 
Having finished the first flight, they elevated the stones to the 
second by the aid of machines constructed of short pieces of 
wood; from the second by a similar engine they were raised to 
the third, and so on to the summit. Thus, there were as many 
machines as there were regular divisions in the ascent of the 
Pyramid ; though in fact, there might be only one, which, being 
easily manageable, might be removed from one range of the 
building to another, as often as occasion made it necessary. 
Both modes have been told me, and I know not which best 
deserves credit.'' 

It is evident that Herodotus did not regard either method 
worthy of credit. They were conjectured, guesses at best ; 
and are a fair sample of our modern speculations, which are 
no better than those suggested by Herodotus. Only think for 
a moment what a wearisome task it must have been, if either 
of the two plans were true. Each stone must have been 
hauled up from step to step, to a great height ; the average of 
each lift being three feet high, whilst the number of lifts 
would be about 230, and the number of stones would average 
about 2,500,000. The time lost in changing the machine at 
every step is beyond any reliable estimate. But the two 
methods suggested by Herodotus are purely conjectural. For, 
in all the thousands of sculptures and wall paintings, there has 
not yet been found a single derrick or other contrivance for 
lifting heavy weights to a great height. Nor could any very 
large machine have been used on the courses of the Pyramid, 
Gigantic labor of this kind must have been accomplished with 
very simple means, and with little or no mechanism other 
than the manual labor of thousands with little or no training. 
But by the plan we have suggested, of using a ramp- way, or 
inclined sledgeway in the mid-plane of each of the four sides of 
the Pyramid, a block would be hauled upwards without change 



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BIB LI A, 189 

and be at the top of the highest course in less time than it 
would take the haulers — working by either of the two plans 
suggested by Herodotus — to change the machine ready for a 
second or third lift at the bottom of the courses. And as the 
apex was reached by the highest course, the sides would con- 
verge until there would be nothing left but the width of the 
sloping sledgway, eight or ten feet wide, on each of the four 
sides. Any one of them would be amply wide enough to allow 
the capstone to pass upward, as it would be only about ninety 
inches wide, whilst the four rampways, thus coming together, 
would form an open platform at the top, or a square of about 
120 inches to each side, and allow a standing space of fifteen 
inches all round the sides, for adjusting the capstone in its 
place. This standing space would also form the base of the 
last course of casing, which could readily be placed in position 
after adjusting the capstone. Then, finally, the rampways 
could be filled in as the masons descended to the base, and the 
whole completed. Probably the real reason why no lifting 
machines have ever yet been seen, or represented on the 
sculptured walls, is this, that none were ever used. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE METHOD USED. 

The rampway to the rock-cut tombs at Assouan, of princes 
of the VI and Xllth dynasties, was lao inches wide, and the 
stairway of the sloping ramp goes back 375 feet, almost identi- 
cally the same as the Great Pyramid, which slopes back 378 
feet from the edge of the casing on the platform. It has also 
250 steps, eighteen inches deep, and five inches high. The 
Pyramid has probably 217 to 220 steps or courses of masonry. 
An inclined plane with a flight of steps on each side for the 
haulers, would answer the purpose of the builders of the Great 
Pyramid ; whilst the use of such a rampway, with a stairway 
on each side, ten feet wide, such as may be now seen at 
Assouan, will prove that such a method was in use in ancient 
times during the Vlth dynasty, and not long after the time of 
the Pyramid builders of the IVth dynasty, if not actually 
contemporaneous therewith. 

Impracticable theories are the natural result of not know- 
ing how the workmen hauled upwards large blocks to their 
destined place in the great structure. It was a common 
method in pyramid times to select a prominent vein of lime- 
stone, high up in the side of a cliflE, in which to place a rock- 
cut tomb. The most elaborately beautiful tombs in Egypt 



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190 BIB LI A. 

belong to the great feudal families which immediately suc- 
ceeded the Great P)rramid times, and are of this character. 
They are reached by a sledged stairway cut in the cliff. A flight 
of steps, roughly cut or constructed in hewn rock, leads up 
from the plain below to the entrance of the tomb, at a consid- 
erable height. At Benni Hassan and Thebes these stepped 
stairways are buried in sand ; but recent excavations have 
brought to light a well preserved example in a cliff at Assouan. 
The cliff is formed by a stratum of hard sandstone rock, which 
runs along the brow of the slope northward and southward for 
miles. In the face of it are cuttings which look like ancient 
tombs, and if we follow it for a few yards we come to the 
remarkable double tier of rock shrines. 

In this cliff we discover an ancient system of rock-cut 
tombs placed at varying levels arranged in terraces, like those 
of the Great Pyramid, forming its core masonry. These relics 
of an ancient race belong to the Vlth dynasty, who were 
probably almost as old as the IVth dynasty of Khufu, and 
would therefore be fully acquainted with the Great Pyramid 
system of carrying large blocks of precious stones up an 
inclined plane, tramway, or sledgeway. A well preserved 
example, leading up the side of a cliff to the tomb of Sabbena 
and Machoo, princes of the Vlth dynasty at Assouan, was dis- 
covered in 1885, by General Sir F. Grenfell. It also contains a 
cartouche of Pepy II, of the Vlth dynasty. A flight of steps 
on each side of an inclined plane or rampway, cut into an 
almost perpendicular cliff 100 feet high, leads from the river 
Nile bank to the door of the tomb. The rampway is ten feet 
wide, with steps on each side eighteen inches deep, five inches 
high, and 250 in number=375 feet horizontal, which were used 
by the haulers and mourners who went up and down the steps 
on both sides of the ramp. The funeral posession slowly 
scaled the cliff, by dragging up the large sarchophagus block 
of marble to the top of the ramp and entrance to the tomb, 
whilst the haulers and mourners ascended by the double stair- 
way on each side of the inclined ramp. In an immense build- 
ing like that of the Great Pyramid, whose faces are inclined 
planes, there would be little or no danger to the unskilled 
laborers, and less chance of damaging the great precious stones 
hauled up by this method, than by using cranes, derricks, and 
similar machines ; the work would be safely and rapidly done, 
and the common people with unskilled labor could be obtained 
anywhere to do this hauling work, at a cheap rate, and with 



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BIBLIA, 191 

the least possible expenditure of time, training and physical 
energy. 

The rampway up the mid-line of each of the four faces of 
the Pjnramid would be only 381 feet horizontal, and the 
height of steps up to the apex or summit would be smaller as 
the courses or tier were gradually lower in height. So that 
less effort would be expended as the apex was reached, and a 
large number of haulers would be at liberty, as the number of 
stones for the upper courses were gradually diminished. 

Our next article will be ** Why was the Pyramid built on 
this plan?" 

S. Beswick, C. E. 
HoUidaysburg, Pa. 



PREHISTORIC CIVILIZATION. 

WHERE was the cradle of the human race ? The explorer 
cannot find it ; the theolgian, the naturalist, and the 
archaeologist have all sought it in vain, and "the problem '* 
says Professor Ebers, " remains unanswered. "A few thousand 
years of recorded history only takes us back to a prehistoric 
period of untold length, during which took place the primary 
distribution of mankind over the earth and the development 
of the great races, the formation of speech and the settlement 
of the great families of languages. The few nations which 
have a history do not profess to go back to the beginning of all 
things. The theory, however, of ethnologists and archaeologists 
with regard to the cradle land would fill volumes. It has been 
a favorite theory to place Atlantis as the fountain head of the 
streams of population which colonized both the Old and the 
New World. Plato lived four hundred years before the birth 
of Christ. His ancestor, Solon, was the great law-giver of 
Athens six hundred years before the Christian era. Solon 
visited Egypt and was there told by a very old priest an 
account of the island of Atlantis where there was a great and 
wonderful empire, a people who built temples, ships, and 
canals ; who lived by agriculture and commerce ; who, in pur- 
suit of trade, reached out to all the countries around them. 
Plato states that the Egyptians told Solon that the destruction 
of Atlantis ** in one dreadful night and day," by a long deluge, 
occurred nine thousand years before that date. Geological evi- 
dences shows that vast masses of land once existed in the re- 



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192 BIB LI A, 

gion where Atlantis is located by Plato in the Caribbean Sea, and 
that therefore such an island must have existed. This theory 
has been well presented by Unger* and Ignatius Donnellyf. 
DelitzschJ places the location on the Euphrates between Bag- 
dad and Babylon. Haeckely,|| Caspari,§ Peschellf and many 
others, place it in a wholly imaginary, now submerged prehis- 
toric continent under the northern portion of the Indian 
Ocean. Warren** places the cradle of the human race at the 
North Pole. 

Our earliest traces of man are found in Europe and not in 
Central Asia, where in all probability he first appeared. We 
must remember that when man first appeared, the eastern 
continent presented a different appearance than it does at the 
present time. The continent of Europe stood at a higher level 
than it does now. The whole of the North Sea was not more 
more than three hundred feet deep. The British Isles were 
joined together and united not only to France, but there was 
dry land all the way from Scotland to Denmark, over all that 
area now called the German Ocean. Land extended from 
Spain and Africa, out as far as the Azores and the Canaries. 
The north of Africa was joined on to the Eastern continent 
and to Spain, for 'the narrow straits of Gibralter had not yet 
been formed ; but a great sea stood where we now have the 
Great Sahara, and joined the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. 
The Bosphorus had not been formed. Each being sundered 
from Asia by what might be called the Ponto-Mediterranean, a 
vast sea including the Aral, Caspian, and Euxine Seas, to- 
gether with the plains of the Danube and Volga, and dis- 
charged into the Arctic Ocean by the valley of the Obi. 

Such was the appearance of the continent when we find 
man the contemporary of the mammoth, the wooly rhinoceros, 
and other extinct pachyderms. We have from the gravels of 
Abbeville, evidence of his handiwork, dating from a period 
when the Somme flowed three hundred feet above its present 
level, and England was still united to the continent. Man 
must have inhabited France and Britain at the close of the 



*Die versunkene Ins el Atlantis, Vienna, i860. 

\ Atlantis ; The Antediluvian World, New York, 1882, 

X Wo lag des Paradies, Liepsig, 1S81. 

\The Pedigree of Man, London, 1883. 

%Die Urgeschichte der Menschheit. 

^Races of Man, New York. 

** Paradise Found, Boston, 1886. 



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BIB LI A, 193 

quartenary period, and must have followed the retreating of 
the last glacial epoch, to the close of which Dr. Croll and 
Professor Geikie assign on astronomical grounds an antiquity 
of some 80,000 years. Haeckel asserts that man has existed 
upon the earth ** probable more than 100.000 years." Mortillet 
says "at least 230.000 to 240.000 years," and Mr. John Fiske 
thinks that ** the human race has covered the eastern and the 
western hemisphere for thousands of centuries." 

During this vast period but the rudest outline of the life 
of man is placed before us, and between the stone age and the 
neolithic period when the Aryan race first appeared in Eastern 
Europe is a vast blank which we cannot fill in. From this 
later period begins the real continuous history of our race, and 
we can trace mankind through the forgotten eras of the 
world's life down to the dawn of history. However, the only 
paleoethnic fact which we wish to record is that the Nile and 
the Syrian Sea on the west, Upper Armenia and the Caspian 
on the north, the Hindoo-Kush and the Indus on the east, and 
the Arabian Sea on the south, bound the region where Cushites, 
Semites, and Aryans, " the first farmers, workers, or founders 
of cities, the second pastoral people, and the third mountain- 
eers, afterwards emigrants and conquerors, met, elbowed each 
other, and mingled, conquerors and conquered by turns, in- 
venting arts and the use of metals, learning arms and how to 
organize themselves hierarchically, reaching their ideal 
through religion, and having in writing the most powerful in- 
strument at the disposition of human intelligence. With them 
we have the beginning of history, and a continuous chain of 
social organizations down to our own day." Here were the 
seats of the greatest monarchies of ancient times, populous 
and powerful enough to work out, on the most imposing scale, 
the grandest events of history. Nothing is known for certain 
about the emergance from primitive barbarism of the great 
races, or about the determination of national characteristics. 
What made the Jew a Jew, the Greek a Greek, is as unex- 
plained as what daily causes the germs of an oak and of an ash 
to produce different trees. Each race, like each family of 
speech, has its own distinct individuality, and already in the 
sixteenth century before Christ, an Egyptian artist in a tomb 
at Thebes belonging to Rekh-ma-Ra, an Egyptian prince, who 
lived a century before the Exodus, had actually noted the out- 
ward features of the several races of mankind, each depicted 
with its own peculiar characteristics, so far as they were known 



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194 BIB LI A, 

to him. The black-skinned negro, with all the features which 
still characterize him, is the representative of the south; then 
came the white-skinned European and Libyan, with fair hair 
and blue eyes; the Asiatic, with olive complexion and some- 
what aquiline nose, as the inhabitants of the valley of the 
Nile, who display all the traits that distinguish the Egyptian 
of to-day. 

It must have taken many generations and many thousands 
of years for human speech to have grown from, the earliest 
beginnings into elaborate languages, and for these in their 
time to have developed in families spread far and wide over 
the world. This immense work had already been accomplished 
in ages before the earliest inscriptions of Egypt, Babylon, 
Ass)rria, Phoenicia, Persia, Greece, for these show the great 
families of human speech already in existence. Philology has 
shown that groups of ancient and modem languages in Asia 
and Europe, the Indian group, the Persian group, the Hellenic 
or Greek group, the Italic or Latin group, the Slavonic group 
to which Russia belongs, the Teutonic to which English is a 
member of, the Keltic group which Welsh is a member of, are 
all descendents of a common ancestral language which is now 
theoretically called the Aryan. But the Assyrian, Phoenician, 
Hebrew, and Arabic, known as Semitic languages, are sister lan- 
guages, and they point back to an earlier parent language which 
has long since disappeared. The ancient Egyptian cannot be 
classed as a member of the Semitic family, though it shows 
points of common resemblance which may indicate some 
remote connection. There are also known to have existed 
before 2000 B. C. two important languages not belonging to 
either the Aryan or Semitic family : these were the ancient 
Babylonian and the ancient Chinese. When the families of 
languages first became known to us we find no grammatical 
point of identity between the Semitic or Aryan linguistic 
groups. The roots are totally distinct, the formative elements 
essentially different, nor have the functions of these elements 
anything in common. The abyss separating these two systems 
is not merely deep — it is impassible. Now we must allow an 
immense period of time for the life, growth, and separation of 
the different families of languages, or believe that man must 
have acquired the faculties of speech in different localities in- 
dependently, and have thus given birth to several races of 
mankind originally distinct. But from the most widely sepa- 
rated nationalities of the old world we find proofs of the ex- 



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BIBLIA, 195 

istence of primeval doctrines, theories of cosmical, religious, 
political, and even social character, so similar in detail that the 
hypothesis of their common origin in some region that had 
been historically and geographically the center of all their 
peoples seems to be completely established. From the Mon- 
golians of the distant east to the Pelasgic nations of the west, 
and from the Hamites of Africa, the Cushites of Chaldea, to 
the Aryan races of high Asia, we trace these traditionary 
ideas. 

The civilization that we find before us in the earliest known 
history appears elaborate and perfect. After that, only slow 
changes of fashions and taste influence it, and but few discover- 
ies of importance were made during thousands of years which 
ensued. The earliest civilization was completely master of the 
arts of combined labor, of masonry, of sculpture, of metal- 
working, of turning, of carpentry, of pottery, of weaving, of 
dyeing, and other elements of a highly organized social life. 
And in some respects their work is quite the equal of any that 
has been done by mankind in later ages. As far back as any 
historical documents carry us, we find in Chaldea a population 
emerged from the savage state. The social relations are con- 
trolled by laws which extend their protection even to the slave, 
and there is a regular system of taxation. The rents of the 
land are determined either according to a fixed valuation or 
according to the current produce. Family ties are very strong. 
To disown father and mother is a veritable crime. The deser- 
tion of a child is punishable with imprisonment. 

The Babylonians were essentially a reading and writing peo- 
ple, and in the century before the Exodus, recent discoveries 
have shown that clay libraries existed, and that an active cor- 
respondence was carried on by means of clay tablets in all 
parts of the ancient Oriental world. The Babylonian language 
and characters were taught and learned not only in Mesopo- 
tamia, but also in Kappadocia, Syria, Palestine, and even in 
Egypt. 

We find in China over 2000 years ago, a culture in science, 
industry, literature, and the arts of civilized life scarcely in- 
ferior to that of the most enlightened nations that have 
appeared in history. Unlike the Egyptians and the civiliza- 
tions of the west, the Chinese did not go forth into the world 
and establish communication with other peoples. They never 
colonized or occupied other lands; but their culture developed 
without any extraneous influences, and they lived apart as if 



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196 BIB LI A, 

China were a world by itself. We look in vain for representa- 
tives of their race on the monuments of Egypt, Babylon, or 
Persia. 

The researches of Dr. Schliemann in Greece gives indications 
of civilization in that country, which may lead back to over 
aooo B. C. 

The Egyptian civilization began at least 5000 B. C, and 
reached its zenith under the III and IV dynasty, under the 
builders of the pyramids some 1500 or 2000 years afterwards. 
" Then in its full strength the Egyptian life rises out of the 
past like a giant peak, or like its own pyramids out of the 
sandy plains. It is cold and rigid, like a man of granite, but 
it is so great that it seems to defy all efforts of time." When 
they first came before us everything seems to point them out 
already old, whether it be their enormous tombs or temples^ 
their elaborate social life, or their complicated religious sys- 
tem, with its long mysterious ritual. No country in those early 
ages was so far advanced in civilization as Egypt; none could 
boast so grand a history; such fine reaching power; such 
splendor of architecture; such knowledge of arts and science; 
such royal magnificence in its government, and such accumu- 
lated wealth in its national treasury and in the hands of its 
nobles and priests. "And what a history it is ! Sculptured on 
these monuments, sketched on these fragments of papyrus,, 
protrayed on the walls of these temples and tombs, is an 
empire great in power, war, and dominion, great in architec- 
ture, science, and the arts of life — an empire that for a hundred 
generations withstood the forces of time and decay, and that 
even in its ruins represents the oldest, and as yet the most 
enduring civilization on the surface of the globe." 



THE GENIZAH MANUSCRIPTS. 

DR. Soloman Schechter is still busily engaged in the exami- 
nation of the valuable collection of manuscripts which he 
brought back from the Genizah of Old Cairo. Among the 
more noteworthy treasures which this collection contains are 
fragments of the Books of Ecclesisticus in Hebrew and certain 
palimpests of which the underwriting is Greek and which 
preserve to us unique fragments of the Hexapla and the Aqui- 
la's version of the Old Testament. There are, moreover, about 
twenty large boxes of fragments which contain matter of 



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BIBLIA, 



197 



much interest to Semitic scholars, e. g., Biblical fragments in 
an early Hebrew hand, presenting in some instances the 
superlinear punctuation ; liturgical fragments and portions of 
the Talmud and the commentaries thereon ; historical docu- 
ments (wills, etc.) ; fragments in Arabic, mostly written in 
Hebrew letters, and a few fragments in Sjoiac. 

"The process," as Dr. Schechter explains himself, "of exam- 
ining such a collection is necessarily a very slow one. In the 
ordinary course of cataloguing manuscripts, you have to deal 
with entire volumes where the study of a single leaf tells you 
at once the tale of hundreds and hundreds of its neighbor and 
kindred. This collection consists not of volumes, but of sepa- 
rate loose sheets, each of them with a history of its own,|which 
can only be learned by subjecting it to examination by itself. 
♦ * * All have to be arranged * after their kind' which as 
specimens of writing they have to be sorted in some kind of 
chronological order. * * * The Genizah furnishes us with the 
oldest known manuscripts of any part of the Bible even older 
than the Pentateuch manuscript of the British Museum de- 
scribed as dating probably *from the ninth century.' " 

Of great variety again are the fragments in which all the 
words (except those at the beginning of the verses), are repre- 
sented by initials only, as for instance, " In the beginning, G. 

c. the h. a. the e " (Gen. II.) That such abbreviations 

should be employed even in copies of holy writ was only nat- 
ural in an age when the chisel and the pen were the only 
means of making thought visible. On the strength of the few 
they met with in Bible manuscripts, Kennicott and other 
scholars tried to account for certain misreadings of the Septua- 
gint. If we take up a dictionary and look up how hundreds 
of words begin, for instance, with the letter jff, and think on 
the other hand, that in the sentence before us there is only 
room for one B-headed word, and some idea may be formed of 
what a dangerous pitfall lay in every initial for the Greek 
translator, or even for the Jewish scribe. The Genizah has 
for the first time supplied us with samples proving that the 
abbreviation system was not limited to certain isolated words 
but extended to the whole contents of the Bible. This partic- 
ular system seems to have been known to the old Rabbis under 
the name of "Trellis- writing." These Bibles were undoubtedly 
intended for the use of the grown-up scholar. 

Dr. Taylor, Master of St. John's College, and Dr. Schech- 
ter, the reader in Talmudic, at Cambridge, have offered to the 



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£98 BIB LI A. 

University on certain conditions this valuable collection — one 
of which is that these MSS. be kept in the University library 
as a separate collection and be called by some such name as the 
** Taylor- Schechter collection of the Genizeh of Old Cairo," and 
that the University undertake to make such provisions as is 
possible to bind, or preserve the MSS. and have them sorted 
and catalogued within the ten years from the acceptance of 
the collection. It is supposed that the cost will be about J500. 
The collection was gratefully accepted by the University. 

Dr. Schechter is about fifty years of age — is a native of 
Roumania. His youth was spent exclusively in the study of 
Hebrew literature. In the year 1882, he went to England 
as a tutor in rabbinic studies to Mr. Claud G. Montefiore. In 
1890, he was elected Lecturer in Talmudic at the University of 
Cambridge. On the 13th of May, 1896, he discovered the first 
leaf of the original Hebrew of Ecclesiasticus, and in 1897, he 
was sent to Egypt and Palestine for further investigation. He 
returned laden with treasures which were noticed by the press 
everywhere. On February 3, 1.898, the degree of Doctor of 
Literature was conferred upon him by Cambridge — which is 
only given if " The Committee be of opinion that the original 
contributions (of the candidate) constitVLte^ prima facie a qual- 
ification for a degree.'' 



GOLGOTHA OR CALVARY. 

MR. J. M. TENZ has an article on the above subject in the 
October number of the Quarterly Statement of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. The traditional Calvary in the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre is ascended by eighteen steps; 
below are chambers cut in the rock which are used for relig- 
ious purposes. The rocky hill, when in its natural state, may 
have been a hillock of the form of a skull, or the skull of some 
warrior who fell in one of the sieges of Jerusalem may have 
been found in one of the clefts of the rock to give it that 
name, and may have led to the strange tradition that the skull 
of Adam was buried in Golgotha. Origen distinctly asserts 
that there was a Jewish tradition that the body of Adam was 
buried in that place — " Place of a skull.'* There is no histori- 
cal evidence to show that there was a public place of execution 
where Calvary is commonly fixed, nor would that ricb man 



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BIB LI A. 199 

Joseph of Arimathsea have made his new sepulchre so near a 
place where criminals were put to death. The Roman guard 
hurried Jesus away and nailed him to the cross at the first 
convenient spot, as there was some fear of a popular insurrec- 
tion. When they came to the place, called the place of a skull, 
there they crucified him. This place was near the city. Dr. 
Schultz states that he traced the remains of a wall, excluding 
Golgotha, and taking in the pool of Hezekiah. Some recent 
discoveries made by Dr. C. Schick and others also support this. 
Before the third, or Agrippa's wall, wall outside Calvary was 
built, the gate of the second fortification on the east side of 
that place must have been the principal thoroughfare, as now 
at the Jaflfa Gate, and many coming from the south, west, and 
north countries would have passed close by that little hill of 14 
or 15 feet in height where the crucifixion is believed to have 
taken place. The gentle rising ground west and north from 
that hill, and the city wall on the east and south, would have 
given sufficient accomodations for the chief priests, scribes, 
elders, and people who stood beholding; and they that passed 
by reviled, wagging their heads and scoffing. 

Now in that place where Jesus was crucified there was a 
garden and a new sepulchre, there laid they Jesus. The tradi- 
tional sepulchre is about 140 feet from the chapel of Calvary, 
only little of the natural rock is visible within the tomb, the 
rest is covered on all sides with brown marble. A little dis- 
tance further west are the so-called tombs of Joseph and Nico- 
demus. They are left in their natural state, and are decidedly 
Jewish, and must have been within the second or Nehemiah's 
wall, as none but David and the kings of Judah were allowed 
to be buried within the city of David. It was not until ten 
years after the crucifixion of our Lord and Saviour that 
Agrippa began the third north wall which enclosed Calvary 
and the tomb within the city. 

Some time after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans 
under Titus, Adrian caused the ploughshare to pass over the 
ruins of the city and temple, and build a new city and call it 
Aelia Capitolina. An edict was issued interdicting every Jew 
from entering it. Nor did the Christians escape persecution. 
A temple of Venus was erected on the site of Calvary and 
tomb to pollute the spot regarded as sacred by Christians. Yet 
Christians were in time permitted to settle themselves within 
the walls of the city, and Aelia soon became the seat of a 
bishopric. Amid all the changes and superstitions it is most 



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20O BIB LI A, 

unlikely that the sacred spot where the redemption of the 
world was completed should be forgotten. The tradition of 
the site of Calvary and tomb was anterior to the time attributed 
to the finding of the Cross by Helena, and the building of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre by her son, Constantine. 

There is another place outside the Damascus gate which of 
late years also received the name** Skull Hill." From the 
nearest road it takes about three or four minutes to ascend to 
the top of that hill. According to the Jewish tradition it was 
the place of stoning. The criminal was first cast down from 
the precipice of that hill, a height of about fifty feet, and if life 
was still left in him was then stoned to death. Near by is a 
tomb, believed by some to be the tomb of Christ But when 
it was first discovered by the owner of that land and pointed 
out to Dr. C. Schick, it was full of bones andTearth, and when 
cleared out the mark of a cross was found on the east rock- 
wall, and another on the north side of the chamber, which are 
still to be seen, no doubt dating from the crusading time. The 
entrance to this tomb is more than two feet above the ancient 
level of the rock-floor outside, so that the disciples wotdd not 
have been required to stoop down to look in the tomb as 
stated in St. John xx, 4:5. Where the garden is supposed to 
have been, large cisterns and walls of ancient buildings have 
been discovered, and on the rock-floor in the front of the 
entrance of the tomb is a long trough cut in the solid rock 
which appears to have been used as a drinking place for cattle. 
There is no sign that there was at any time a rolling or other 
stone before the entrance, as in some Jewish tombs, but that 
it was shut by a door. The arrangement of the interior is 
the same as that of several other Christian tombs in the 
vicinity and near St. Stephen's Church, which is now erected 
on the foundation of a former church of that name, where it 
is believed St. Stephen was stoned. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

WRITING before the arrival of the October Quarterly, I 
can only say that it is expected to contain a preliminary 
report of Dr. Bliss of his new work at Gath. It is understood 
that he began the first of September and so could have little 
to tell except as to his arrangements and beginnings. 

The book by Dr. Bliss on Jerusalem has been delayed bv 



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BIB LI A. 201 

a fire in the publishing house, but it is now definitely promised 
to be shortly in my hands for sale. The old work " Recovery 
of Jerusalem " has been nearly sold out, and it may not be 
reprinted because its contents have been in part incorporated 
into "Thirty Years Work," and in part have become perfectly 
well known. A new work, all the whole subject, will be wanted 
in time, but at present the work by Dr. Bliss will engage the 
attention of readers. 

It is pleasant to see that Dr. Bliss and several others, 
including General Warren, Colonel Conder, Professor Hull, 
Dr. Post, Dr. Merrill, and Sir Charles Wilson, have been em- 
ployed in the preparation of the new Bible Dictionary, now in 
process of publication by the Scribners. It will be found that 
the articles on geographical, geological, zoological and botanical 
subjects are very finely done. The article on Capernaum was 
written by the Rev. W. Ewing, formerly of Tiberias, who holds 
that Khan Minyeh represents the site and takes the ground that 
the water of jEZ-Tabigha was conducted southward by means 
of the rock-hewn passage to the city. I am glad to commend 
the dictionary in its scientific qualities, but in the field of 
theory the destructive critics make confusion of Aaron, Abra- 
ham, Benjamin, Caleb, David and other historical characters. 
The way in which such extremists darken counsel would be 
incredible if it were not here at every turn and on almost 
every page. 

Contradictory reports come to hand in regard to the Zion- 
ist movement which means so much for the future of Palestine 
and not a little for the future of Palestine study. One day we 
are told that a fund of a million dollars has already been sub- 
scribed in sums of five dollars, which would represent two 
hundred thousand members, and that the sultan of Turkey 
has expressed his good will, and the next day we have an 
entirely diflEerent story. In the latter report we learn that a 
census has been taken, that Jerusalem has forty-one thousand 
people and JaflEa sixty thousand, and that the whole of Pales- 
tine has nearly three millions, and that in consequence of this 
great increase of population the sultan has issued an order re- 
stricting immigration, which order is partly due to the agitation 
of Zionism. We do not know which of these reports to believe, 
but the latter sounds the more likely to be true, and the 
inference may be drawn that the sultan will see to it that the 
Zionist movement goes very slowly, every concession being 
granted after delay and large payment. 



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doa 



B IB LI A, 



In the end it will be much better for all concerned if the 
Jews gain only two or three places of colonization and have 
five years of experience before any general movement is 
made. The dangers of famine and climatic disease will be 
much reduced if the Zionists move very slowly towards their 
coveted goal. 

I have just learned from a newspaper report that the Bev. 
Walter G. Webster, our beloved Rhode Island secretary who 
was lost in La Burgoyne^ has given by will one thousand dol- 
lars to the Fund. Not knowing as yet more of this most inter- 
esting fact I can only say that this bequest will permanently 
testify of his great appreciation of the work and vrill form 
among his fellow-students in the Divine Word, a most fitting 
memorial. This is certainly the first bequest for this purpose 
in America, but in this as in all other things he has set a good 
example. 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for the United States. 
^ Quincy Street^ Cambridge^ Mass, 



Subscriptions to the Effypt Exploration Fund» the 

Archaeological Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 



To thi Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from September 30 to October ao, are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 

John J. May, $5.00 

Princeton Theological Semi'ry, 5.00 
J. T. Sawyer, 5.00 

Gen. John C. Smith, . 5.00 

Lyman C. Smith, 10.00 

The President White Library. 11.60 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Wood, laoo 



John B. Atkinson, . 


$5.00 


JOHN H. BLISS, . 


25.00 


Isaac Bassett Choate, 


5.00 


Hon. E. E. Fannan, 


5.00 


Francis Hall, 


5.00 


Thomas Ingles, 


5.00 


Charles P. Keith, . 


5.00 



Prom September 30 to October 10, 1 have received very 
thankfully these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey 
Fund: 



Francis Hall, 



5.00 Gen. John C. Smith, 5.00 



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BIBLIA. 203 

From September 30 to October 10, the following subscrip- 
tions to the Graeco-Roman Branch are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 



Mrs. M. £. Ames, 



John Bentley, 
Charles P. Bowditch, 
Mrs. Henry Famam, 
Francis Hall, 
Charles P. Keith. 



$5.00 Buffalo Public Library, $5.00 



10.00 Columbian Theo. Seminary, 5.00 

5.00 Congregational Library, . 5.00 

5.00 Free Public Library. Newark, 5.00 

5.00 Haverhill Public Library, . 5.00 

5.00 Library Co. of Philadelphia, 5.00 

H. C. Rowley, 5.00 Long Island Historical Soc'y 5.0c 

Rev. John Worcester, D. D., 5.00 Princeton University Library 5-oc 

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. . . ... 5.00 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 5.00 

Theological Seminary Library, Alexandria, Va., .... 5.00 

University of Chicago (Logia), 3.00 

Yale University Library, 5.00 

Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 59 Temple Street, 
Boston. 

Francis C. Foster, 
Honorary Treasurer* 



The General Meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund will 
be held in London, November 10, 1898. 

The program for the winter is practically settled. Professor 
Petrie will go to his former concessions, from Denderah to 
How, and Mr. Mace will accompany him, in the employment 
of the Fund. 

M. N. DeG. Davies is going out on behalf of the Archaeologi- 
cal Survey Fund, to copy old Kingdom tombs, and supply F. 
LI. Griffith with another volume. Grenfell and Hunt are 
going to the Fayoum in the interests of the Graeco-Roman 
Branch. 

All these will go in November. The two artists Carter and 
Sillem, started Oct. 5 for Deir-el Bahari, where it is hoped 
that they may be able to complete the work of restoration and 
copying. 

The Society will thus have four parties altogether at work. 

The Archseological Report will be ready in a few weeks; and 
both Vol. IV of the Survey, "The Origin of Hieroglyphics," 
by F. LI. Griffith, and Vol. XVI "Deir-el Bahari III," by M. 



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204 BIB LI A, 

Edouard Naville of the Egypt Exploration Fund will appear 
before the end of the year. 

Jas. S. Cotton, Hon. Sec'y of the Fund, is reading all these 
volumes in proof. Professor Petrie has a volume upon Den- 
derah in preparation and Grenfell and Hunt are getting out a 
second volume of translations from the papyri found at Oxyr- 
hyuchus in 1896. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

The name of Alexander the Great has been discovered by 
M. Jules Oppert, in the cuneiform inscription in the fourth 
volume of the Babylonian Tablets, Br. 83-5-12, No. 619. The 
date reads according to him, in the month Sebot, on the sixth 
day, in the sixth year of A-lik-sa-an-dan, the king, which M. 
Oppert calculates to be the 21st of January 323 (Julian), or one 
hundred and ten days before the death of Alexander. 



A valuable collection of ancient Egyptian bronzes, con- 
taining sixty-odd pieces, with an average height of eight 
inches, is offered for sale by an Armenian official in Constan- 
tinople. The bronzes represent images of gods and sacred 
animals. Their value is estimated at about eight thousand 
dollars by their present owner, but in all probability they 
can be bought for three thousand dollars. 



Mr. S. Beswick, of Hollidaysburg, a valued contributor of 
BiBLiA, has in preparation a book on Egyptological subjects. 
Mr. Beswick was bom in England, and was a pupil of Dr. 
Dalton, of Manchester, and is a member of the British Asso- 
ciation. He is the inventor of a method of computing the 
magnetic declination of the needle. Professor John K. Rees, 
head of the Astronomical department of Columbia University, 
says : " Mr. Beswick's theory is interesting and based upon a 
very ingenious argument. It would not be at all surprising if 
the Egyptians had preserved something of the astronomical 
conceptions in their stone monuments. That the pyramids had 
some astronomical purpose has long been the belief of modem 
astronomers. Professor Proctor held that at one time the apex 



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BIB LI A, ' 205 

of the pyramid was not built, a level space being left to serve 
as a platform for astronomical observations. Others have held 
that what are now termed ventilators, the spaces running from 
the base of the pyramid to the exterior, may have served as 
dark tubes for the study of the stars, the observer standing at 
the interior end of the base of the monument. 

I shall be glad to see Mr. Beswick's book on the subject of 
the sphinx and pyramids, so as to ascertain his proofs for the 
contention that the sphinx represents Aquarius and Leo. It 
is an interesting suggestion which his future astronomical cal- 
culations may prove." 



The Archseological Survey has been able to secure the 
services of Mr. N. de G. Davies for the coming season, and 
preparations are being made for an active campaign. Through 
the kind offices of Professor Erman, the director, and of Dr. 
Schaefer, his assistant, the Berlin Museum has lent a set of 
squeezes from the celebrated sculptures in the tombs of Ty 
and Ptahhetep at Sakkareh. The Ptahhetep set is nearly com- 
plete and offers a splendid opportunity for studying the fine 
details at leisure. A series of careful drawings of hieroglyphs 
and interesting details is now being made from it ; in Egypt 
this will be revised and extended, and a complete examination 
of the tomb carried out. Outline drawings of these sculptures 
have lately appeared in Quibell's ^^Ramesseum^' from copies 
made by Miss Pirie and Miss Paget for the Egyptian Research 
Account. 

The copying and examination of the interesting Der el 
Gebrawi tombs of the Vlth Dynasty, towards which much 
material was collected by M. Newberry's expedition in 1892-3, 
will now be completed for publication. 

From time to time as the work progresses, M. Davies 
proposes to furnish some account of it to the readers of Biblia. 

F. LI. Griffith. 



The Cambridge University Press will issue in a few months 
a work by Professor A. H. Keane, entitled " Man, Past and 
Present." It will be a sequel and complement to the 
" Ethology," giving detailed accoimts of the pre-historic ages, 
the evolution of writing systems (pictorial, cuneiform, hiero- 
graphs, and alphabetic), the historic peoples, the present 
populations of the world, their roots in the past, their religious 



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2o6 BIBLIA. 

beliefs, and general culture, broadly with a view to establish 
by continuous illustrations the principles laid down in ** Eth- 
nology." Chief among these are the physical and mental 
unity of the human race, its great antiquity, its origion in a 
single centre, and its difusion from that centre (Indo-Malaysia) 
over the inhabited globe in early Pleistocene times and hence 
the necesary evolution of everything (present types, langu- 
ages, letters, religions, social institution, etc.), not from 
fully formed systems, but from germs and rude beginnings. 

There will also be a table showing for the first time the 
pictorial origin and evolution of the Babylonian cuneiform 
script from the oldest known forms (Akkado Sumerian, 3000 
to 4000 B. C.) to the Assyrian (1000-600 B. C). Mr. Keane 
considers this important, because the pictorial origin of the 
cuneiform script has been denied and is extremely difficult of 
proof with the scant materials now available. 

The professor also hopes to establish the common origin of 
the Iberian (Basque) and the Hamitic (Berber) languages 
and consequently the unity of the primitive people of North 
Africa and West Europe, including the Picts and other pre- 
Celtic inhabitants of the British Isles. 



In 1857, Mindon-min, King of Burma, erected a monument 
near Mandalay celled the Kutho-daw. There he built 700 tem- 
ples, in each of which there is a slab of white marble. Upon 
these 700 slabs is engraved the whole of the Buddhist Bible, a 
vast literature in itself, equal to about six copies of the Holy 
Scripture. 

This marble Bible is engraved in the Pali language, 
thought to be spoken by Buddha himself, 500 B. C. Photo- 
graphs of some of the inscriptions have reached England, and 
Professor Max MUUer has examined them. But, alas, for all 
this human ingenuity and perseverance ! If His Majesty, Min- 
don-min, thought to perpetuate the teachings of Buddha by 
causing it to be graven on the rock he nourished a vain 
ambition. 

The climate of Burma is moist, and its eflEects have already 
wrought havoc on the surface of the white marble, and the 
photographs show a partial efifacement of some of the Burmese 
characters in which the Poli text is engraved. 

This is certainly the largest known copy of any portion of 
literature. Even the National Encyclopedia of China in 5,000 



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BIB LI A, 207 

volumes occupies a comparatively small space. To reach 
the other end of the limits of the printers and engravers' 
art we need only remember the " Smallest Bible in the World," 
and the diamond edition of Catullus, Tibellus and Propertius. 
To engrave the Bible of Buddha on the marble slabs in 
the temples of Kutho-dau must have cost thousands of dollars, 
but these sermons in stone are easily outclassed by a copy of 
the New Testament, which beautifully printed, can be bought 
for twenty-five cents, and if carefully cherished will last many 
generations. 



On his scientific tour through the northwestern provinces of 
Asia Minor, Professor Hilprecht has discovered new Hittite 
monuments in basalt near Angora, by means of which the 
northern boundary of the ancient Hittite states is shown to 
have extended about five days' journey to the north from Bog 
Haz-Keni, well known from the rock-cut Hittite monuments 
preserved there. In all probability the Hittite boundary ex- 
tended even more northward. The find has been reported by 
Dr. Hilprecht to the authorities in Constantinople, who have 
given orders to remove the monuments to the capital of the 
Turkish empire. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



The American Journal of Semitic Languages, the Amer- 
ican Journal of Theology, and the Biblical World, for October, 
contains a bibliographical supplement of thirty-six pages of 
Theological and Semitic Literature, by W. Muss-Amolt. 



The contents of the American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 
I., No. 6, are as follows : — 

Excavations in Corinth, 1896, by R. B. Richardson; The 
Theatre at Corinth, 1896, by F. C. Babbitt; A Roman Building 
in Corinth, by H. F. DeCou; Two Reliefs from Assos, by R. 
Norton; Tenochtitlan, its Site Identified, by A. H. Noll; 
Archaeological Bibliography, 1897, by H. N. Fowler. There 
are twelve plates of excavations and buildings at Corinth, and 
a Relief from Assos. 



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2o8 BIBLIA, 

The Prang Educational Company announce for early pub- 
lication this fall, Egypt ^ the Land of the Temple Builders^ by 
Walter Scott Perry, director of the department of fine arts at 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, with illustrations, intended for 
readers who have not time for an exhaustive study of the sub- 
ject. 



The Archil fiir Religionswissenschaft^ published in Leipzig, 
and edited since the beginning of the present year by Dr. Th. 
Achelis, of Bremen, aims to be the repository of the discussions 
and researches of the specialists, not only of Germany, but also 
of other countries, in the department of ethnology, especially 
in the connection of this department with linguistic facts and 
theories. The special departments are Greek mythology, 
Roman mythology, Slavic mythology, Germanistics, Roman- 
istics, Eg)rptology, Sanskrit, Old Persian ( Avesta), Assriology, 
Semitic mythology, modem Persian, Christian m)rthology, 
mythology and religion of the uncivilized peoples, folklore, 
philosophy and religion. More than three hundred scholars 
have promised their aid, quite a number of them non-Germans. 
The Archil is published in four quarterly parts, the whole 
volume costing fourteen marks. 



Mr. Froude is publishing the Ethiopic story of the Apos- 
tles, on which Dr. Wallis Budge has been engaged for some 
years. It consists of a copy of two Ethiopic MSS. in the British 
Museum. One dates from the fifteenth century, and is the 
oldest Ethiopic MS. containing the history of the twelve 
Apostles known ; the other is of the seventeenth century. 
The earlier MS. formed part of the treasure that King Theo- 
dore looted from various religious houses to stock the library 
of the Church of the Redeemer of the World at Magdala and 
was taken by the British army at Magdala, in 1868. Probably 
these Ethiopic MSS. are based on the reports sent home to 
Jerusalem by the Apostles after they had gone forth to preach 
the gospel. Together they represent the most complete trans- 
lation through the Arabic or Coptic of an early work in Greek, 
now lost, but current in the Christian Church during the first 
four centuries. Dr. Budge's English translation of them is to 
follow next year. The Marquis of Bute has defrayed the cost 
of the printing of the Ethiopic text. The edition will be 
limited to 250 copies at one guinea each. 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly J ottrnal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., December, 1898. No. 9. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

THE sixteenth annual meeting of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, held in the Hall of the Zoological Society, London, 
on November 10, indicates a prosperous condition of ajBEairs 
throughout the Society. At this late hour, before the publica- 
tion of 61BLIA, I can only select some brief data from the 
addresses of the Chairman, Sir E. Maunde Thompson, of the 
Honorary Treasurer, Mr. H. A. Grueber, and of the Chief 
Explorer, Prof. Flinders Petrie. 

Sir Edward well places the success of the Fund: "But 
more than all there is the immense human interest which 
appeals to us. The fact that when we open a tomb and find in 
it the objects of every-day life, the ornaments, the personal 
possessions, which were in use thousands of years ago, and 
which come to our hands again, after the lapse of that long 
time, in almost the same condition as when they left those of 
their owners — this it is that gives us that intense human inter- 
est in these discoveries, and touches us with that human sym- 
pathy that makes the whole world kin." We are glad to learn 
"that the antiquities which were discovered have supplied 
sufficient selections to be sent to twelve museums in this 
country (England), to five in America, and to one in Australia ; 
but that although the number of museums in America receiving 
such selections are fewer than those in this country (England), 
the quantity of objects sent to our fellow subscribers across the 
water was not less than that which remained in England." I 



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210 BIB LI A, 

wish all our American museums, too, to know that the one 
American oiBfice, located in Boston, furnishes a list pro rata of 
subscriptions to London, upon which the Committee, with equal 
impartiality, proceeds to distribute or designate these antiqui- 
ties for our museums. "The repairs of Deir-el-Bahari are now 
practically completed, and only the protection of a few objects 
remains to be done." All who know will indorse the remark 
that " the clearing of the temple will ever be regarded as a 
work reflecting conspicuous honor upon the Egypt Exploration 
Fund." 

Mr. Grueber, who has so modestly, yet efficiently, handled 
the funds for many years, tells us that he has received the sum 
of ;^5,oo6 from these sources : E. E. Fund, ;^3,379 ; its Arch- 
aeological Survey, ;^5is ; its Graeco-Roman Branch, ;^i,ii2. 
That he has expended, for the first, £2,^^, for the second, 
;^i39, and for the third, ;^6is, or a total of ;^3,698. Here, 
then is a balance of ;^i,4o8. But the ;^5,oo6 included the 
legacy from the late Edward Cooper of ;^i,ooo and ;^62 from 
dividends. Besides, the extraordinary sales of the Logia netted 
;^293. The subscriptions for the E. E. Fund itself are, from 
English subscribers, ;^i,o73, ^'^^ from American, ;^86i, as fol- 
lows, from Boston, ;^435, Philadelphia, £\io, Chicago, ;^i48, 
New York, ;£ ia8. The office in Boston, however, stands for 
the whole land. As the receipts for the Survey and Branch 
departments are given in bulk I cannot proportion their amotmts 
from England and America. The total net sent to London 
through the Boston or American office is considerably over five 
thousand dollars. 

Professor Petrie announces that "for the coming season 
we hope to continue working within the ground allotted to us 
last year — about fifteen miles from Denderah is a great stretch 
of cemeteries beginning in the pre-historic and early historic 
times and coming down to the XVIIIth Dynasty. Our workers 
give me good hopes of results." Professor Petrie, always mind- 
ful that "not a fragment be lost," says of his volume on 
Denderah, in preparation : " To publish every inscription by 
photograph or drawing would have entailed far more expense 
than seemed justifiable. For a great mass of inscriptions that 
are not of much interest it was thought best to print a small 
edition which will cost but little. Thus the subscribers' inter- 
est in expenditure will be duly considered, while the standard 
will be carefully maintained of making available for study every 
fragment of inscription that is discovered." 



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BIBLIA, 211 

Sir John Fowler did not preside owing to illness. The 
cable has but just announced his death. Officially and person- 
ally I held him in the highest estimation. As a correspondent 
he was always courteous, fair and wise, and he seemed to ever 
appreciate our American tone and temper in discussing our 
mutual welfare as Englishmen and Americans. How prosper- 
ous a Society he leaves to rejoin Erasmus Wilson, Stuart Poole, 
and especially Amelia Edwards, who together founded it in 
1883. William C. Winslow. 

November 24, 1898. 



The Porte has been induced to grant Germany a very favor- 
able firman to conduct archseological explorations in Asia 
Minor. The Emperor is very much interested in this matter, 
and one result of his journey will undoubtedly be a great de- 
velopment of German activity in conducting excavations on 
the important sites of ancient Nineveh and Babylon, the 
scenes of the great discoveries begun by Sir Henry Layard so 
long ago as 1845. It is not without significance that the firman 
for carrying on these operations is strictly confined to German 
officials, and that applications from other governments for 
similar privileges have not been entertained by the Porte, with 
the exception to the one granted to Professor Hilprecht. The 
claims of England, however, to several mounds in the neigh- 
borhood of the above-mentioned sites are safeguarded by 
treaties and firmans dating back to the days of Layard's 
excavations. 



GREAT PYRAMID-THE PROBLEM SOLVED. 

Datum. — Use the Pyramid as you would use a Celestial Globe. 

Place the optical axis of its passages pointing to the pole. 

THE object of this article is to present a new solution of 
the problem, based essentially on new facts, new views 
and new interpretations, as the result of a recent discovery, 
that the pyramid passages were designed to represent sections 
of the Zodiac. This is claimed to be a fundamental fact, and 
not mere theory. That each section of a passage is as many 
inches in length as the constellation it represents is minutes of 
arc, measured on the ecliptic exclusively. And any criticism 
on this fundamental fact should be based on the demonstration 
given in the following table. We call special attention to this 



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212 BIBLIA. 

notable discovery, that the pyramid passages are astronomical 
in their structure, use and design, whatever else they may 
mean. 

The entrance passage representing Cancer, the ascending 
passage Gemini, the grand gallery and ante-room passage 
Taurus, and King's Room representing Aries. I claim it as a 
matter of fact, that each passage and its allied constellation, 
in the order here given, are identical in length to any degree 
of accuracy you may desire. The passages are there to meas- 
ure — ^there is no denying that as a fact ; and the constellations 
are in the heavens, and can be as readily measured as the pas- 
sages, and with equal precision and accuracy. Both are mat- 
ters of observation and fact, appealing to the senses, and meas- 
urable by instruments of great delicacy and precision. The 
Pyramid is the only monumental record of primitive uranog- 
raphy and of the constellations of the Zodiac. So that, if this 
discovery and identification of the ancient Zodiac be admitted, 
we will have a working theory of the Pyramid and its record 
to guide us in our future researches, such as we never had be- 
fore. Unfortunately, the ancients left no maps of the heavens, 
nothing but verbal descriptions, so that no accurate drawing in 
detail of the ancient Zodiac has come down to us. The Great 
P)rramid is the only building where definite measurements of 
the ancient constellations have been recorded, from which 
actual measures can now be taken. 

The following Table of the longitude of stars for the Epoch 
of 1900 A. D. is sufficiently accurate to answer our purpose. I 
have inserted only the most notable stars in each constellation, 
with their longitudes for 1900 A. D. The limit of each con- 
stellation is its limit on the ecliptic exclusively, and the Table 
will give an idea of that limit as determined by the Pyramid 
passages. The extent of each constellation is identical with 
the length of that one section of the Pyramid passages which 
it represents, as measused on the ecliptic exclusively. An inch 
in the passages represents one minute of arc on the ecliptic, 
and on the ecliptic only. The constellations outside the ecliptic 
leave empty spaces between them, and continually overlap each 
other, more or less. So that it is impossible to present a con- 
tinuous limit or boundary of each constellation, except where 
that boundary crosses the ecliptic in each case; the beginning 
and ending of each can thus be readily determined and meas- 
ured by its longitude. This is what the astronomical architects 
of the Pyramid have done. They have fixed a definite limit of 



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BIBLIA. 



213 



SO many degrees and minutes of arc in longitude to each con- 
stellation, measured on the ecliptic and nowhere else. 

The longitudes of the stars in this Table for 1900 A. D. are 
relatively about the same as when the Pyramid was erected. 
Each star has a proper motion of its own, which will make 
some slight changes in their relative distances from each other. 
But the Table is sufficiently accurate to answer the purpose we 
have in view, namely, to prove that the extent of passages in 
the P)rramid are absolutely identical with the extent of con- 
stellations in the Zodiac they are designed to represent, 
measured on the ecliptic exclusively. The King's Room is 
413.5396 inches long, and 306.3648 wide; so that the total circuit 
of the four sidesis equal to 413.5396x3=1337.5888 inches. Prof. 
W. W. F. Petrie makes it 413.53 on the south side length, mak- 
ing the total circuit 412.53x3=1337.59 inches. 

Table of Constellations for 1900 A. D. 



King's Room. 



ARIES. 



i237'.8888 IN Length. 



Stars, 



Begins. 

g 
b 
a 
h 

zth 
z 
Ends. 



Longitude. 



31" 4/ 47'' 

32^ 9' 34 

3« 56 4 

36 37 24 

37 4 14 

38 o 14 

50 54 14 

53 35 33 



Minutes of Arc, 



0.0000 

31.7741 

68.3814 

389.6166 

316.4333 

372 .4333 

1 146 .4333 

1337.5888 



Inches in the 
passages. 



0.0000 

31.7741 

68.3814 

389.6166 

316.4333 

37*4333 

1146.4333 

1137.5888 



Length, 



20- 37' 35" 



1337'.5888 



1137-5888 



Gallery and Anteroom. TAURUS. 3i5o8'.3373 in Length. 



Begins. 

Vertical plane. 

Alcyone. 

Aldebaran. 


53° 35' 33" 
57 58 38 
' 58 57 24 
68 45 4 


i237'.5888 
1570.8514 
1639. 6331 
3317.3888 


1237.5888 
1570 .8514 

1639.6331 

3317.3888 


Pyramid, 
b 


78 13 13 
81 33 34 


3784.5748 
3984.6331 


3784.5748 

3984.6331 


2 
aCoch. 


83 45 24 
86 38 4 


3117.6331 
3380.3888 


3117.6331 
3380.3868 


Ends. 


88 15 35 


3387.8161 


3387.8161 


Length, 


35^ 50' 13" 


3150'.3373 


3150.3373 



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214 



BIBLIA, 



Ascending Passage. GEMINI. i546'.986o in Length. 


Stars, 


Longitude. 


Minutes of Arc. 


Inches in the 
passages. 


Begins. 

Propus. 

h 

Castor. 

Pollux. 

Ends. 


^^"^ 15' 35" 

89 53 " 

91 41 50 

97 21 29 

107 27 49 

109 12 54 

"2 13 33 

114 2 35 


3386'.i8o6 

3485.4139 
3594.0639 

3933.5472 
4540.0472 
4645.1306 
4825 .7806 
4934.8021 


3386.1806 

3485 .4139 
3594.0639 

3933.5472 
4540.0472 
4645.1306 
4825 .7806 
4934.8021 


Length, 


25° 46' 59" 


i546'.986o 


1546.9860 



Entrance Passage. 



CANCER. 



986^.9605 IN Length 



Begins. 

I Omega. 

z 


114° 2' 35" 
1x6 6 46 
120 15 51 


4934'.8o2i 
5058.9999 
5318.0832 


4934.8021 

5058.9999 
5318.0832 


b 
I a 


123 2 12 
126 29 52 


5474.4332 
5682.0999 


5474.4332 
5682.0999 


2 a 

Ends. 


127 29 52 
130 29 32 


5742.0999 
5921 .7626 


5742.0999 
5921.7626 


Length, 


16^ 26' 57" 


986'.96o5 


986 .9605 



The last constellation Cancer is not carried to its full meas- 
ure, but stops at 986.9605, because the basement floor of the 
entrance passage begins there, which represents zero on the 
dial plate of Egyptian chronology. The constellation extends 
beyond this point 216^.2508, and the Entrance passage also ex- 
tends 216.2508 inches backwards, with a double row of stones 
on each side, running backwards from the beginning of the 
basement floor, fully 216.2508 inches. It serves to show the 
original extent of Cancer in Pyramid times. The method is 
too simple and obvious to be misunderstood, and is self-cor- 
rective. I invite the attention of scientists to the correlations 
it makes self-evident. I also ask our scientific astronomers to 
give it a critical and careful examination, and test it as severely 
as they may deem best, by any method they may prefer as being 
most appropriate and decisive. 

The Entrance passage mouth seems turned back on itself, as 
stated above, by a double row of blocks 216.2509 inches in 
length, making the total length 1 203.2113 inches, which is also 
the total length of Cancer in minutes of arc=«2o^.32ii3 in 



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BIBLJA. 215 

length on the ecliptic. A notable feature in this case — which 
will be as new and unexpected to astronomers as to Egyptologists 
— is the fact that the lengths of the three passages are success- 
ively 343.7747 inches longer in length. The Entrance passage 
is 1 303.21 13 inches long, Ascending passage 1546.9860, and 
Grand Gallery 1890.7607 inches. There is the same notable 
extension successively of 343.7747 minutes of arc, or of longi- 
tude, in the length of the three constellations they represent — 
Cancer, Gemini and Taurus. And this difference is exactly 
one-tenth the Radius Vector of the earth's orbit in minutes of 
arc or longitude, whilst the total lengths of the Ascending 
passage and Grand Gallery— 1546.9860+1890.7607=3437.7470 
minutes of arc-= Radius Vector as used in modern astronomy. 
The ancients evidently knew its modem value. The accuracy 
of this Table is visible in the heavens. The extent of each 
constellation in the line of the ecliptic is clearly demonstrable 
to the sight, and placed beyond the reach of doubt, denial or 
conjecture. Every man competent to judge can see for him- 
self. The evidence, fortunately in this case, appeals to the 
senses. It is not theory alone, it is the fact itself ; so that it is 
useless to regard it as mere coincidence. 

What of the other constellations of the Zodiac ? Well^ they 
are there also^ awaiting identification. Over the King's Room 
are five other chambers, representing the five constellations 
after Aries, which together with Aries formed the southern 
half of the Zodiac in Pyramid times, making altogether nine 
out of twelve. The remaining three constellations — Leo, 
Virgo, Libra — were then out of sight, at the lower extreme 
side of the ecliptic below the horizon, buried with Leo, as is 

the case with Ihe Sphynx. They now lie Where ? Well, 

if the American branch of the Egypt Exploration Society will 
undertake the task, I will find them (/ know where they lie) 
and include a revision of previous measurements with better 
instruments of precision, and the work to include discoveries 
in the structure and purpose of the Pyramid, not known to 
any previous explorer, but now known to the writer. 

The passage-tubes have been placed in the same meridian, 
so that the pole-star would be able to look right down along 
the optical axis and meridian of both tubes at the same time, 
and thus sight places in the line of the ecliptic as they pass 
across the meridian. The optical axis of the passages virtually 
represents the equinoctial colure which advances along the 
ecliptic, step by step, from one position to the next at a given 



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2i6 BIBLIA, 

rate annually. «The equinox is; always in that one meridian of 
the colure, and in no other, connecting the pole with the eclip- 
tic. That msridian colure, or optical line of the passages, is 
the standard which fixes the epoch as it passes successively 
along the central line of the Zodiac. In the present instance, 
the architect has carried the optical axis round until it has 
arrived at a point 1815.329 minutes of arc in the constellation 
Tauri, as clearly and definitely determined as if it had been 
done by the most expert modem astronomer. Petrie makes this 
position 181 5.5 inches. 

The royal astronomer of the P)rramid has placed the meridian 
in a definite spot where the ecliptic and equinoctial lines cross 
each other, so that the place of the equinox in the Pjrramid de- 
termines the epoch which the architect desired to monumental- 
ize for the benefit of future generations. Extreme accuracy is 
claimed in this determination. The equinox has been placed 
at a point 1815 minutes 19.7436 seconds of arc in the constella- 
tion Tauri, measured exclusively on the ecliptic. 

I have been asked for additional details about the Sphinx, by 
one of our eminent scientists who makes astronomy a specialty. 
I will comply with this request in my next article on " Builders 
of the Pyramid and Sphinx — Who were they ? " 

S. Beswick, C. E. 

Hollidaysburg, Penn. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

IT is pleasant to report that the work " Excavations at Jeru- 
salem," by Dr. F. J. Bliss is now received and will be sent 
to subscribers for I2.75 prepaid, to others for $3.75. It is a 
handsomely printed volume of nearly four hundred pages, with 
three charts in a pocket at the back and numerous plans and 
illustrations among the leaves. It is the joint work of Dr 
Bliss and Mr. Dickie, the excavator and draughtsman. A full 
account is given of the work of three years, some of it appar- 
ently unsuccessful, but all of it really contributing to our 
knowledge of the ancient city. Of course the book ends vnth 
the sad fact that the [firman gave out at the very time when 
a few weeks or even days more were urgently needed, but 
we have had time already to recover from our first sorrow 
over the enforced abandonment of the attempts to find the 



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BIBLIA. 217 

tomb of David. It is a difficult task to give account of an ex- 
cavation in a way easy to follow, but this has been skillfully 
accomplished. 

The headings of the chapters are — " The Wall from the 
Protestant Cemetery to the Jewish Cemetery, Discoveries on 
^6<Jj^ the Western fiilfi, the Wall from the Jewish Cemetery to 
Ophel, the Tyropoeon Valley, the Church at the Pool of 
Siloam, Minor Discoveries, the Small Finds, Historical 
Sketches of the Walls, Chronological Bearings of the Excava- 
tions, Story of the Expeditions." 

Our minds now turn to the new work with the hopefulness 
which seems justified by the results at Lachish. 

The October Quarterly was very interesting, although there 
was, as yet, not much from Dr. Bliss. Dr. Schick had several 
letters treating of Gihon, the Dragon's Well, Hebron, Aruboth, 
and other matters. In speaking of the Tabernacle I was sur- 
prised at his saying that there is nothing in Arab tents corres- 
ponding to the boards of the three sides. In Palmer's Desert 
of the Exodus he expressly mentions the low stone walls so 
arranged as to form three circles of a tent, which is placed on 
top of them, the fourth side being left open, and says that these 
walls stood ready for the tents in all the places where the 
Arabs were in the habit of encamping. This seems sugges- 
tive, and we must also remember the sides made of reeds now 
used by the Arabs. In passing along the back of an encamp- 
ment I remember the straight line of perhaps twenty tents and 
the reeds standing up just as the boards did and protecting the 
interior from the intrusion of wind or rain, and from the gaze 
of strangers. In Dr. T. O. Paine's book on the ** Holy Houses " 
dttch a tent is figured in order to explain the " boards." Stanley 
in his ** Sinai and Palestine," page 299, says that " the sanc- 
tuary of Shiloh in the Rabbinical traditions was a structure of 
low stone walls, with the tent drawn over the top, exactly 
answering to the Bedouin villages of the present day, where 
the stone enclosures oft remain, long after the tribes which 
they sheltered, and the tents which they supported, have 
passed away." The analogy to the Arab tents may be carried 
further, for they have dividing hangings as did the Tabernacle, 
and behind the curtain Sarah heard the voice which promised 
to Abraham the birth of a son. 

It is believed that the extraordinary cleanliness of Jerusa- 
lem, Jaffa and other places induced by the visit of the Ger- 
man Emperor and Empress will be preserved, and thus that 



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2i8 BIBLIA, 

one marked good result of that visit will be an improvement 
in the health of the cities which received him. This is one 
benefit, and it would not be surprising if there were several 
others resulting from the careful scrutiny of those in the royal 
company, as Eg3rptology was indebted to the scientific men 
who accompanied Napoleon in 1799. 

Attention is called to the honorary list of local secretaries. 
During the visit of Dr. Bliss and by his aid, a new departure was 
made in this respect, and the result is an auspicious beginning of 
a list every way worthy of the Fund and influential for its 
benefit. Our work as excavators is really only in its begin- 
ning, and we need a stronger support in this country for the 
thorough prosecution of it so far and fast as the Sultan 
permits. 

A new arrangement has been made as to the maps, so that 
they will be hereafter obtained through me, just as is the case 
with books and slides. As with the books, the London price is 
augmented slightly by freight charges and more heavily by 
the duty, but the maps will be sold at exactly what it costs to 
deliver them. 

The collotype of the raised map, a photographic reproduc- 
tion which has proved of great utility to ministers and 
teachers, will be sent for the present singly or in quantity for 
forty cents. 

Theodore F. Wright, 
Honorary Secretary for the United States, 

43 Quincy St., Cambridge, Mass. 



Subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund» the 

Archaeological Survey Fund» and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 

To the Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from October 20 to November 20 are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 

Fres'tHenryM. Booth, LL.D., ^5. 00 Fred G. McKean, ^5.00 

Hon. Addison Brown, . . 5.00 Fres'tHenry Morton, Ph. D., 5.00 

E. W. CLARK, . . . 25.00 Rev. Jas. S. Stone, \>S>,, . 15.00 

MRS. AND'W CARNEGIE, 25.00 Prof. Dean A. Walker. . 500 

Mrs. Anna E. Douglas, 5.00 Frank Waller, . 21.00 

William Gibson, . . .5.00 The President White Library, i.oo 
S. P. Leeds, .... 5.00 



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BIBLIA. 219 

From October jo to November jo I have received very 
thankfully these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey 
Fund : 

£. W. Clark, . $15.00 Mrs. Samuel D. Warren, . $5aoo 

From October 20 to November 20, the following subscrip- 
tions to the Graeco- Roman Branch are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 

E. W. Clark, . $15.00 American Geographical So- 

il. C. Rowley, . . 5.00 dety, .... $5.00 

Rev. Jas. S. Stone. D.D., . 5.00 Baptist Theological Semin- 
Mrs. H. M. Wilmarth, 5.00 ary, Rochester, N. Y., . 5.00 

The Newberry Library, 
Chicago, . . . 5.00 

Francis C. Foster, 
Honorary Treasurer. 
Oflftce of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 59 Temple Street, 
Boston. 



A meeting has been called in New Haven, in Room No. 10, 
Phelps Hall, on Monday, Dec. 5th, to consider the expediency 
of organizing a local committee to have the center of opera- 
tions in Yale University, " with the object of efficiently pre- 
senting enlarged contributions to the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
and increased interest in Egyptology. It is understood that 
should such a local committee be organized, the University 
will become entitled to a proportional share of the various ob- 
jects of archaeological interest obtained by the Fund's ex- 
plorers." The call is signed by James M. Hoppin, Charles 
Ray Palmer, Addison Van Name, O. C. Marsh, D. Cady Eaton, 
T. D. Seymour, Timothy Dwight. 

Rev. Dr. Winslow says, " I heartily commend the project of 
establishing a New Haven, or Connecticut, Branch of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund. It will awaken a larger interest, 
secure larger funds, and will secure donations of objects for 
the Museum. I hope our subscribers will all join it. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Rev. G. E. White, of Marsovan, Turkey, has recently visited 
Eyuk and Boghaz Keoy. The latter was a considerable city 



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220 BIB LI A. 

in the days of the Hittites. The space enclosed by walls is 
over a mile long by a half mile broad, and contains remnants 
of three castles and three palaces. l^D^the top of the wall tq/>f>7^ 
what was the bottom of the moat in places exceeds 150 feet in 
a straight line. The walls were built without mortar, the great 
rampart of earth being topped by a double-faced wall of 
large cut stones, the space between being packed with rubble, 
the outer upper edge of each cut stone having a little turned 
up ledge, which prevented the stone laid upon it from slipping. 
The outer slope of the wall is in some places paved with flat 
stones, which both hold the earth, and would place invaders at 
the mercy of defenders. The principal palace was of the form 
of an Oriental inn, with a series of rooms about a large central 
court. Near by was found an overturned chair or throne 
mounted upon and between two lions. 

Mr. White sends an account of his trip to the Hartford 
Seminary Record^ which journal comments as follows : " The 
letter from Rev. G. E. White, of Marsovan, Turkey, which we 
publish in the ' Alumni News ' revives the Carew Lectures of 
1891-92 upon the people called Hittites. So varied and vigor- 
ous has been the survey these last years that a cloud of dust 
has hovered over the entire * Hittite ' territory. The very 
name has acquired a still more fleeting and uncertain value. 
Yet all look with extreme expectancy for sudden light. Per- 
haps the most promising worker in this field to-day is Dr. Karl 
Lehmann, who recently made an extended tour through Asia 
Minor studying the Vannic inscriptions. He approaches the 
problem indirectly and considers at least the hierogljrphics, if 
not the people themselves, Aryan. ♦ * * When cuneiform 
tablets were first discovered four years ago, near Boghaz 
Keoy, a wholly new link was added to th^m^sterious chain; as 
again still another when undeniable relics of the Mycenean 
culture also appeared, giving to the place a peculiar archaeolo- 
gical significance." 



Dr. W. Max Milller has recently returned to Philadelphia 
from a summer's trip in Europe, where he has been very busy 
in archaeological work. Considerable time was spent in the 
British Museum revising the plates for his new work the 
** Love Poetry of the Ancient Egyptians." An accurate fac- 



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BIBLIA, 221 

simile will be given of the London papjrrus (Harris 500). Mas- 
pero was enabled to give only an extract from this papyrus 
from photographs, but it has now been carefully collated by 
Dr. Miiller. He will also utilize the lately discovered love 
songs at the Gizeh Museum, and has thoroughly revised the 
Paris texts. 

While in Paris, Dr. Miiller had an opportunity of inspecting 
the priceless treasures discovered by Amelineau at Abydos, 
just as they were being unpacked. Professor Petrie also 
showed Dr. Miiller the fruits of Quibell's discoveries at Hiera- 
conpolis, which are perhaps even older than those of Ameli- 
neau. Many of them will come to America. Dr. Miiller also 
attended the funeral ceremonies of his old teacher, Professor 
Ebers, at Munich. 



A sober second thought seems to be convincing even con- 
servative scholars, as we learn from the Independent^ that the 
apologetic value of the Tel el-Amama find is not as great for 
biblical researches as was at first thought to be the case. 
Among others an indication of this discussion in the Leipzig 
Kirchenzeitung^ No. 35, in which the identification of the 
Chabiri yn^ the Hebrews is strangely antagonistic. The 
writer says that the Sagas and the Chabiri^ notwithstanding 
the claims of Winckler, are not identical, but rather the for- 
mer are Bedouins of the Syrian desert, otherwise called Suti, 
Egyptian inscriptions give both names Saasu and Sutet^ the 
latter at the beginning of the new dynasty. But at that time 
the Sagas or the Suti put in their appearance from the lower 
Tigris. The identification of the Chabiri with Hebrews is not 
in harmony with facts of history and Scriptures; least of all is 
the incursion of the former identical with the advance of 
Joshua. In the Amama tablets Milkiel came north from Heb- 
ron against Abd-khiba^ of Jerusalem, while in the Scriptures 
Joshua is the leader coming from the North with the Hebrews. 
In the Jewish records Adonizedek is king of Jerusalem, 
Horam, king of Gezer, Jabin, king of Hazor and Japhia, king 
of Lachish. In the Amama tablets altogether different rulers 
are mentioned. In fact, such and similar facts go to show that 
the Amarna letters do not contain direct or reliable confirma- 
tion or description, or an essential companion piece to the 



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222 BIBLIA, 

accounts of the Hexateuch, but are, however, an exceedingly 
valuable report of the civilization and culture of the century 
of the Exodus, and therefore a testimony for the fact that the 
time and locality details of the Mosaic age are correctly repro- 
duced in the biblical records. In this lies the great value of 
the Amarna tablets. 



We have received from the Victoria Institute, the Annual 
Address by the Right Hon. Lord Kelvin, in which he endeavors 
to show strict limitations to the possible age of the earth as 
an abode fitted for life. Arguing from the standpoint of the 
frictional resistance against tidal currents on the earth's sur- 
face causing a diminution of the earth's rotational speed and also 
on the consideration of underground heat. Lord Kelvin has 
good reason for judging that the consolidation of the earth 
took place more than twenty or less than forty million years 
ago, and probably much nearer twenty than forty. " If the 
consolidation of the earth was finished twenty or twenty-five 
million years ago, the sun was probably ready, — though pro- 
bably not then quite so warm as at present, yet warm enough 
to support some kind of vegetable and animal life on the earth." 



Rev. James Freeman Clark, writing on the subject of 
Egyptian architecture, says : " Some four or five thousand 
years have passed since the Pyramids were erected, and they 
are still the grandest architectural work ever apcomplished by 
the genius of man. Through all these centuries they have de- 
clared his faith in an invisible world ; they stand as records 
of his belief in immortality and in a resurrection. As they now 
rise, rude and disjointed, stripped of their casing, they still 
give the impression of indestructible solidity. These artificial 
mountains, in the midst of the vast sandy African plains, have 
a mountainous grandeur. What must they have been, when their 
sides were covered from base to summit with polished blocks 
of granite fitted so exactly that the blade of a pen-knife could 
not penetrate the lines of juncture, and the polished surfaces 
wholly covered with inscriptions and carved with sculpture. 
Loftier than the highest spire of Europe, the Great Pyramid 
widened out into a still more enormous base, contains ten 



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BIB LI A, 223 

million cubic yards of stone, enough to build a wall two feet 
thick and six feet high from Boston to San Francisco. The 
interior is equally astonishing from the mechanical skill dis- 
played in the construction. 



Professor Hilprecht sends the following Egyptian notes to 
the Sunday School Times : 

The German Postal Museum in Berlin recently acquired 
three wooden writing-tablets discovered in ancient tombs of 
Thebes in Upper Egypt. They date from the periods 1500 B. 
C, 1400 B. C, and A. D. 200, respectively. At the top of the 
first tablet there are two holes; at the top of the second similer 
tablet, there are four holes, intended to keep red and black ink, 
commonly used by the scribes of ancient Egypt. Traces of 
dried ink may still be recognized in them. The lower, some- 
what receding, part of each tablet, is closed by a thin plate of 
wood. It serves as a receptacle for the calam^ or pen made of 
cane. When opened, these calams were found in the first 
tablets. The third tablet, of Graeco- Alexandrian origin, has a 
black writing surface, and was apparently used as by a school 
boy, for at the upper end the Greek alphabet is written. 



Professor Dr. A. Wiedemann, of the University of Bonn, 
Germany, writes that, in tombs at Gebel Silsilis, in Upper 
Egypt, dating from the time before the pyramid builders, clay 
cups stood beside the skeletons, containing curls of hair, in 
which brown and yellow strands were mingled with discolored 
ones. This fact seemed to show that the two races living at 
this period together in the Nile valley, the Asiatic invaders, 
and the Libyan autochthones, had hair of different colors; 
the first was dark, the second fair, the two becoming in the 
higher age more grayish and whitish. In the same cup was 
placed the hair of different persons, which explains the double 
coloring at the same spot. This explanation has been contra- 
dicted by the celebrated anthropologist, Rudolph Virchow. 
{Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie, iSgS, No. i.) Starting 
from the fact that sometimes dark hair suffers a discoloration 
in tombs, he makes the supposition that originally all this 
Egyptian hair was dark, and that the fair coloring of ^ oart 



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224 BIB LI A, 

was brought about after the bur3dng by the influence of the 
earth in the tomb. This idea would be very evident if it were 
possible to explain why, in one and the same cup, and under 
the same circumstances, some of the hair remained brown, 
while another part became fair. A satisfactory answer to this 
question has not been found, and, until it is, the old view need 
not be given up. It remains very probable that at the 
Nagada period a part of the Egyptian population was formed 
by a fair-haired people. 



Professor Herman Hilprecht has just returned from Con- 
stantinople where he has been successful in obtaining from 
the Sultan a firman permitting for two years the continuance 
of excavations on the site of Nippur, which has been rendered 
so famous by the previous discoveries of Professor Hilprecht 
It will be remembered that some of the archaeological finds 
made it possible to locate a historic point in Babylonian 
history where previous there had been existing to scholarship 
but a prehistoric period. 

Dr. Hilprecht says that his trip has been a most enjoyable 
one. While abroad he had been decorated by Christian IX of 
Denmark with the decoration of the Order of Danebrog, upon 
the fifteenth anniversary of his coronation as ruler of Den- 
mark, which was also the looth anniversary of the date upon 
which Muenter, the eminent scholar, laid before the Danish 
Academy of Science an essay on Persian and Babylonian 
cuneiform inscriptions, which was a pioneer in a field of learn* 
ing which since then has made giant strides. Another tribute 
to his contribution to learning was the decoration as com- 
mander of the Order of Albert the Bear. 



Near Marash, a central station of the American Mission in 
Asia Minor, an earthen pot was recently discovered containing 
nearly a hundred silver coins in a fine state of preservation. All 
of the coins are of the same value, being an Attic tetradrachmon 
(equal to about seventy-five cents in our money). The coins 
were struck in the fifth century, B. C. They have been sent to 
the museum at Constantinople. 



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BIBLIA, 225 

Mr. N. de G. Davies, who is at work in Egypt for the Arch- 
seological Society, will go to Saqqareh to complete the work 
that has been begun by others on the tombs of Ptahetep and 
Thy (Vth Dynasty). He will then proceed up the Nile to the 
neighborhood of Beni Hasan and el Bersheh, where there are 
Vlth Dynasty tombs. 

Says the Honorable Secretary in his report : " Some of 
these sculptures (at Saqqareh) have already been published 
on a small scale in a volume of the Egyptian Research Account ; 
and by the kindness of Professor Erman of Berlin, a nearly com- 
pleted set of squeezes of the sculptures have been placed at Mr. 

Griffith's (who has arranged the expedition) disposal 

Mr. Davies will undertake slight clearances around the masiaba^ 
to ascertain its plan and discuss whether more sculptures exist. 
From the squeezes a collection of 300 typical hieroglyphs, 
mostly of very fine style, have already been copied — of full size 
and with minute accuracy. The publication of these will add 
immensely to our knowledge of the early forms of hieroglyphic 
writing, and furnish an important continuation of the work begun 
in the third memoir on the Beni Hasan tombs and carried further 
in the new volume to which I have already referred." 



In a letter to the Sunday School Times , Professor Hilprecht 
mentions in connection with his recent visit to the East, that he 
acquired an important cuneiform document of King Nabuna'id, 
the last Babylonian king of the so-called Chaldean dynasty 
founded by Nabopolassar (6«5 B. C), and overthrown by Cyrus 
(538 B. C). It is a brown barrel-shaped cylinder of baked clay, 
five and a half inches long, and measuring six and three-quarter 
inches at its largest circumference in the center. With the 
exception of the two flat ends, the whole surface is inscribed with 
two columns of Neo- Babylonian cuneiform writing, in several 
passages not very easy to decipher owing to certain incrustations 
formed there in the course of the twenty-five hundred years 
which it was buried under the ground. Only a small portion of 
the ends of lines 5-14 of the second column is broken off, other- 
wise the cylinder is well preserved. This cuneiform document, 
containing altogether fifty lines of inscription, is the best 
authentic record of Nabuna'id's restoration of Babylon's gigantic 
inner fortifications, known by the name of Imgur-Bel. The 



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226 BIBLIA, 

importaoce of the document is enhanced by the statement in 
line 1 6 that the king devoted his energy also to the venerable 
temple Eshidlam, god Nergal's sanctuary in Cuthah (or Cuth, 
comp. a Kings 17 : 30 34), to the northeast of Babylon, hitherto 
not mentioned in Nabuna'id's numerous inscriptions. 



The wonderful spread of Islamism has led to the spread of 
the Arabic language over Egypt and the whole north of Africa, 
and has extinguished nearly all the other dialects of the Semitic 
family, while Persian an<^ Turkish have borrowed largely of 
the Arabic speech, and the language of Spain and the Hindu- 
stani of Central India have borrowed abundantly of its mate- 
rial. In fact, some of the modern Indian dialects swarm with 
Arabic words. Spoken Arabic is constantly changing from 
the synthetic to the analytic state, and the dialectic varities is 
visible especially in the Arabic of Spain, Egjrpt, Arabia and 
Morocco. The latter dialect presents more grammatical dif- 
ferences than the other dialects, but has not reached the rude 
jargon of the Maltese, which is of Arabic origin, but full of 
barbarisms and foreign elements. The dialects of Arabia, 
Syria and Egypt differ but slightly, and only in local terms and 
peculiar expressions. For instance, in the Egyptian dialect, 
"WW hoosh teiyab'*' (vulgarly ^^ mosh teiyib") for ''ma kuwa 
teiyib*' " it is not good " ; placing the demonstrative after the 
word to which it relates, as '* elbeyt de ** " this house," and the 
frequent unnecessary use of the diminutive form in adjectives; 
BS^'sugheiyir" ioT " j^T^A^^r," " small " ; and ''kureyib" for 
"*ar^^*,"*'near." 

We have received from Mr. Talcott Williams a reprint of a 
paper read by him before the American Oriental Society and 
contributed to the Beitrage zur Assyriologie und Semitischen 
Sprachwissenschaft^ on "The Spoken Arabic of North Morocco." 
Mr. Williams has made two trips to Morocco, and being ac- 
quainted with Syrian Arabic, which he acquired in boyhood, he 
took pains to make a study of the Arabic dialect of Morocco 
and vicinity. The first thing he noticed was the absence of 
gutterals and the slovenly character of the pronimciation. 
There was a tendency to shorten words, eliminate syllables 
and clip terminations, which completely changes the vocaliza- 



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BIB LI A. 227 

tion of many words. There is also a tendency to sharpen and 
shorten vowel sounds. " Daraba " becomes " drab " in Morocco, 
and ^^bahar'* becomes bhary Such words as ^^karbah^'* 
**kalamy ^* kunsel*' etc.^ are pronounced cockney style, with 
the first letter omitted. 

Mr. Williams also found in Morocco at least three dialects of 
Arabic — the Arabic of the towns, that of the villages and the 
mountain district, the latter being almost unintelligible to one 
who speaks the Arabic of the coast towns, or of the Arab. Mr. 
Williams' paper is very interesting to the student of Arabic. 
It is accompanied by a bibliography of works on the Arabic 
spoken and used in Morocco, and a comparative list of words 
used in Morocco and S3nna. 



No. 5 of the current volume of the Mitteilungen of the Vor- 
derasiatsche Gesellschaft of Berlin is devoted to a new investi- 
gation of the problem of the so-called Hittite Inscriptions, by 
Dr. Z. Messerschmidt, containing a criticism of Professor Jen- 
sen's various articles on the subject. It was written, however, 
before the publication of Professor Jensen's last and exhaust- 
ive work connected with the Hittite question. 



We learn from advance sheets of the annual report for 1897- 
98 of the Honorable Secretary of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 
that the Fund will have no less than four expeditions at work 
in Egjrpt this coming year. Professor Petrie will resume his 
excavations at Denderah, which were so fruitful last winter. 
Messrs. Howard Carter and C. Sillem are at Deir-el-Bahari, 
where they hope to be able to finish this year the task of copy- 
ing the sculptures of the Great Temple for the future volumes 
of M. Naville's monumental work. Mr. N. de G. Da vies has 
already left England to collect fresh material for the Archseo- 
logical Survey. Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt have also left 
England to conduct another search for Greek papyri in the 
promising region of the Fayoum. 

Part III of M. Naville's Deir-el-Bahari wiW be issued imme- 
diately to subscribers to the Fund for 1896-7, and also Mr. 



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328 BIBLIA. 

Griffith's Collection of Hieroglyphs for the Archeeologicml Siinrcy. 
The first part of Professor Petrie's work on Denderah, as a sec- 
ond volume of Oxyrhynchus Papyri^ may be expected during 
the year. 

Says the Honorable Secretary : " We have good reason also 
to anticipate larger support from America. From the founda- 
tion of the Fund, and especially since the tour of the late Miss 
Amelia B. Edwards in the United States, we have been funda- 
mentally an Anglo-American Society. Though its governing 
body has necessarily had the seat in this country, it has hap- 
pened in some years that America has provided at least one- 
half of the income. In accordance with a resolution of the 
Committee, which was reported to you last year, independent 
organizations in America are now entitled to nominate repre- 
sentatives of their own on the Committee." 



The Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Vol. 
XX., Part 6, contains Herodian Pottery and the Siloam In- 
scription, by E. J. Pilcher. Biblical Chronology, by Rev. 
Joseph Homer, and two articles on Egyptian signs, by Dr. 
Karl Piehl. The Appendix contains a portrait of the late Sir 
Le Page Renouf , with a chronological list of publications of 
Dr. Renouf, from 1891 to 1897. Also plates of Gyiil Tep6Text, 
and Tablet from Kaisariyeh. 



Prof. J. F. McCurdy, in his article on " Light on Scriptural 
Texts from Recent Discoveries," in the Homiletic Review for 
November, says that Merodach-baladan was by his Assyrian 
contemporaries, who have told us nearly all that is known of 
him, "not called a Babylonian at all, but a 'Chaldean.' This 
word Chaldean calls a halt at once in the progress of our story. 
Unless it is explained, the ordinary reader will be hopelessly 
confused, for the name has usually been applied to several 
things which it is not. It is sometimes used as the equivalent 
of Oriental soothsayer or astrologer, a very one-sided designa- 
tion, which we owe to the usage of classical writers. It has 



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BIBLIA. 229 

also been employed as the name of the very early inhabitants 
of Babylonia — ^in fact, of the people who maintained power 
in that region up to the Assyrian Conquest. It is this wholly 
wrong sense that Prof. George Rawlinson makes ' Chaldea ' to 
be the first of his * Five Great Monarchies.* Then again wp 
are familiar with the term ' Chaldee ' as used to designate the 
language in which the Aramaic portions of the Old Testament 
and the Aramaic versions called the Targums were written. 
This also is a gross mistake, for the language of the Chaldeans 
was pure Babylonish, identical with the Assyrian of the cunei- 
form inscriptions, and standing just as far apart from Aramaic 
as it did from Hebrew. These are pretty serious mistakes, 
but it takes a little time to correct time-honored misconcep- 
tions, and after the twentieth century has well begun, we shall 
hear no more of such errors from Biblical teachers. 

" Who then, were the Chaldeans ? Instead of being the old- 
est people of Babylonia, they were among the latest to come 
before the world ; and instead of being the first ruling class 
in that country, they were the very last to attain to the supreme 
power. Indeed, the g^eat Nebuchadnezzar, who died only 
twenty-four years before the fall of Babylon, was the first 
Chaldean who held undisputed sway in Babylonia, and it was 
only when he had established his djmasty firmly that Babylonia 
and Chaldea could be used as interconvertible terms. We 
know nothing of their ancient history, for they are not men- 
tioned till near the close of Babylonian and Assyrian times, 
whose records, with some considerable breaks, stretch over a 
period of about three thousand years. We can, however, trace 
fairly well their rise to prominence and power." 



An important Egyptian publication has just been issued by 
the trustees of the British Museum in the shape of a f ac simile 
of the famous Rhind Mathematical Pap)mis. The papyrus 
deals with such subjects as the elements of geometry and the 
theory of fractions, and was prepared for publication by the 
late Dr. Samuel Birch, several years ago. It has been revised, 
and a special introduction to the work has been written by Dr. 
Budge. 



Zoroaster^ the Prophet of Ancient Iran^ with appendices, re- 
productions in half-tone and maps, by A. V. Williams Jackson, 



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230 BIB LI A. 

Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages in Columbia University, 
is the title of a volume to be published very soon by the Mac- 
millan Company for the Columbia University Press. It deals 
with the life and legend of the Prophet of Ancient Iran, the 
Magian Zoroaster or the representative and type of the laws 
of the Medes and Persians, the Master whose teachings the 
Parsis still faithfully follow to-day. 

The scope of the work is comprehensive; its aim is to gather 
all that is known about Zoroaster from tradition or history, and 
to present this personage in his historic light. The appendices 
contain much critical material on the subject of the date of the 
prophet, the scene of his ministry, and such allusions to him as 
can be collected from the classical, the Byzantine and other 
literature. A special appendix is also devoted to the supposed 
sculptural portraits of Zoroaster, with half-tone reproduction 
of the figures, and a large map complete the volume. 



Contents of Parts 3 and 4 of Volume XX. of the Travaux 
Relatifs h la Philologie et h tArchiologie : 

Listes Geog^aphiques de M6dinet-Habou, by G. Daressy.— 
Zur Polychromie der Altaegyptischen Skulptur, by F. W. von 
Bissing. — Une page des sources de B^rose, by V. Scheil. — Notes 
et Remarques, by A. Wiedemann. — A Travers la vocalisation 
6gyptienne, by G. Maspero. — Notes prises dans le Delta, by 
G. Poucart. — Gleanings from the land of Egypt, by A. H. 
Sayce. — Les Antiquities egjrptiennes du Mus6e de Sens, by J. 
Baillet. — Mentu-em-hat, by Miss J. A. Gourlay and P. E. New- 
berry. — Notes des Voyage, by U. Bouriant. — Notes d'^pigraph 
et d'arch^ologie assyriennes, by V. Scheil. — La Tombe des 
Vignes k Thfebes, by Ph. Virey. 

In the two interesting contributions of Father Scheil, he refers 
first to the smallest Babylonian inscription extant, which he 
has transliterated and translated, being engraved on an amu- 
let and containing an invocation of the famous star-deity Kak- 
si-di, while the second contains nothing less than a fragment of 
the Babylonian Deluge story dealing with the first mythic 
kings on earth, among whom there appear to be mentioned 
Adoros and his son Adaparos. The fragment, we are told, was 
discovered at Nineveh, and the writing resembles that on the 
tablets of Assurbanipal's Library found at Kuyunjik. 



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BIBLIA. 231 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

The Book of Daniel, from the Christian Standpoint, with Essay on 
Alleged Historical Difficulties, by the Editor of the '• Baby- 
lonian AND Oriental Record.*' By John Kennedy, M.A., D.D. 

The book of Daniel is excluded from the historical books of 
the Old Testament in the Jewish Canon, and classed along with 
the Hagliographa. For many centuries the genuineness of 
Daniel has been one of the burning questions of biblical crit- 
icism; such scholars as Bleck, DeWette, Hitzig, Ewald and 
Driver denying the authenticity. In a recent number of the 
Journal of Biblical Literature (Vol. XVII., Part i), Professor 
George A. Barton, in an article on " The Compositian of the 
Book of Daniel," says : " On a close examination of the book, 
we find in Daniel the work of three, and possibly of four, 
authors, besides an editor." 

In a number of instances the account given by the Book of 
Daniel is at variance with the testimony of the inscriptions. 
Nabonidas was not slain, nor was Belshazzar the son of Ne- 
buchadnezzar, as we are repeatedly told in the fifth chapter of 
Daniel. Darius, and not Cyrus, was the destroyer of the 
Babylonian monarchy, and Cyrus became his successor. M. 
Clermont Ganneau has shown that the Aramaic words which 
so upset Belshazzar means, *' Reckon a manet, a shekel and its 
parts." The ** Astrologers, the Chaldeans and the soothsayers" 
evidently could not interpret them. The old Babylonian names 
mentioned in Daniel are not correct, as the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions show us. The statement that the king of Babylonia was 
addressed by his native subjects in Aramaic, proves that the 
author of Daniel was unacquainted with the real language of 
the Chaldeans. 

Numerous books have been written indicating the authen- 
ticity of Daniel, by such Assyriologists as Lenormant, Oppert, 
Talbot, George Smith, and such biblical scholars as Hengsten- 
berg, Havemick, Gaussen, and others. We have now before 
us a new book on the subject. Dr. Kennedy approaches the 
subject by examining on general grounds all evidence, both 
external and internal, and a critical study of the book itself, 
chapter by chapter. The charges of historical accuracy are 
answered by Dr. Kennedy, whose studies in Assyriology entitle 
him to speak with some authority. From the opinions of Dr. 
Driver, who does not regard the Book of Daniel as a work of 
pure imagination, but as written on a " traditional basis," Dr. 
Kennedy differs absolutely, and he brings forward good argu- 



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233 BIB LI A. 

ments to show that Dr. Driver makes admissions or expresses 
opinions that are sufficient to undermine all the improbabilities 
and other objections which he alleges against the historicity of 
the book. Dr. Kennedy appeals to Christian inquirers and 
critics, and his strong point is that Christian men, and men 
who believe in Christ, who believe that He was divinely fore- 
shadowed in the prophecies of the Book of Daniel, can only 
act logically by believing that it is not only a prophetic book, 
but, in some respects at least, the greatest of prophetic books, 
and that they cannot be required to re-assert the grounds of 
their conviction in divining every question which is more or 
less dependent on it. Dr. Kennedy boldly challenges ** a ver- 
dict in favor of the historical accuracy of the statements of 
the Book of Daniel, on all the points wherever it touches or 
comes into any connection with the general history of the times 
in which Daniel lived.'' Dr. Kennedy's arguments will com- 
mand great respect, as they are tersely expressed and are fully 
abreast with the scholarship of the time. 

(London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. New York; E. & J. B. 
Young & Co. lamo, pp. 219. Price, $2,50. 



Excavations at Jerusalem, 1894-1897. By Frederick Jones Bliss, Ph. D., 
Explorer to the Fund; Author of "A Mound of Many Cities." 
Plans and Illustrations by Archibald Campbell Dickie, A.R.I.B.A. 

In April, 1894, the Palestine Exploration Fund received a 
permit authorizing excavations at Jerusalem. Great interest 
was at once awakened, as it was hoped that some of the prob- 
lems having reference to Ancient Jerusalem would be set at 
rest. There was no telling what interesting record might be 
brought to light from under the old walls, buildings and sites. 
Dr. Bliss, who had been so successful in his work at Tell el 
Hesy, was to superintend the work at Jerusalem, and no better 
man could be found for the purpose. Dr. Bliss is a native of 
Syria, and is a son of the Rev. Daniel Bliss, who was missionary 
of the American Board at Mt. Lebanon, Syria, from 1856 till 
1862. He was afterwards president of the Protestant college 
at Beyrout. Dr. Frederick Bliss was educated partly at Be}'TOUt, 
and was graduated at Amherst college. He was perfectly fa- 
miliar with the language of the fellahin, and deeply interested 
in archaeological work. The permit to excavate at Jerusalem 
was good for two years, which period was afterwards extended, 
and all finds were to go to the Imperial Museum at Constanti- 



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BIBLIA. 233 

nople. Actual work was begun on May aj, with eight men and 
boys, but these were soon increased to twenty. During subse- 
quent seasons the average was thirty-five, while sometimes the 
number employed was over fifty. 

The chief work was the tracing of the lines taken by the 
south walls of Jerusalem. In the book before us Dr. Bliss 
begins at the point where he first found the wall, and then he 
carries the reader on to the various discoveries on the western 
hill, the wall from the Jewish cemetery to Ophel, the Tyropoeon 
valley, the church and the pool of Siloam, and concludes with 
a historical sketch of the walls of Jerusalem, chronological 
bearings of the excavations, and the story of the expedition. 

As Dr. Bliss says, twenty times the walls of Jerusalem have 
been besieged, twice razed to the ground. -.They have had 
many different builders, who have built on many different lines. 
Jews, Romans, Oriental Christians, Crusaders, Arabs, have all 
left their traces. When Dr. Bliss began his work these walls 
were almost entirely beneath the soil. Dr. Bliss has been able 
by his discoveries to illustrate the Jebusite period, the Solo- 
monic period, the period of the late Jewish kingdom, the Hero- 
dian period, the period of Hadrian, the Early Christian period, 
and the Latin period. 

To the Early Christian period belongs the upper wall, the 
gate on the western hill with its four sills, the second period of 
the Siloam Gate, the remains of houses lining the street in the 
Tjrropoeon, the church above the pool, the church on the Mount 
of Olives, the mosaic north of the Damascus Gate, the tombs 
found west of the Virgin's Tomb, the Tombs of Sur Bahir, and 
probably the isolated tower on the western hill, etc. 

Every chapter is illustrated with large plans, of which there 
are thirty-four, and the illustrations number forty-five. There 
are also two large plans and a map in the cover pocket. 

(London: The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 
3vo, pp. 374. Rev. Theo. F. Wright, 42 Quincy street, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., who will supply this work for $2.75.) 



Jerusalem THE Holy. A Brief History of Ancient Jerusalem; with 
AN Account of the Modern City and its Conditions, Political, Re- 
ligious AND Social. By Edwin Sherman Wallace, Late United 
States Consul for Palestine. 

During the five years that Mr. Wallace has been a resident 
of Jerusalem he has had excellent opportunities from diligent 



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234 BIB LI A. 

personal investigation of making a careful study of his sub- 
ject. He has drawn for the historical parts of his work from 
the latest and best authorities, including the publications of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. The result is the most com- 
plete work on the subject of the Holy City that we have met 
with, superceding the excellent works of Robinson, Williams,, 
Barclay and others. This work will prove an excellent g^ide 
to intending visitors, giving them an intelligent comprehension 
of what they shall see when they arrive at Jerusalem. At the 
same time it will benefit those whom circumstances prevent 
from beholding the present remnant of the once g^eat city,, 
giving a realistic account of the varied fortunes of the city and 
the experiences through which it has reached its present con- 
dition. Its four thousand years of strange, many times de- 
structive, experiences give it an unique place in history. Mr. 
Wallace describes the city as it was in the days of the Canaan- 
ites, of David and Solomon, and as Christ saw it. Then an ac- 
count is given of Jerusalem as it is to-day, its walls and gates,^ 
the hills and valleys round about, the churches, recent archaeo-^ 
logical excavations, climate and health, and the Jews, Chris- 
tians and Moslems in the city. 

Speaking of the future of Jerusalem, Mr. Wallace says: **It 
is certain that Mohammedanism will have nothing to do with 
the city's future. Its six hundred years of possession and its 
present deplorable condition warrant the assertion. Jerusalem 
has been ground under the heel of Moslem oppression, in spite 
of the fact that as a holy city it is with them second only to- 
Mecca. It would still be in the same deplorable condition were 
the Christian nations and their many Jewish subjects not be- 
coming much interested in it. Quietly the Jew and Christian 
have been getting possession of desirable building sites and 
erecting substantial structures. Less than half the city within 
its walls is owned by Moslems, while hardly any of the new 
city outside the walls is now in their hands. This desire to 
acquire Jerusalem real estate, a desire that animates Christians 
and Jews, gives a strong indication of what the city of the 
future is to be. Its destiny is bound up with religion. For 
similar reasons Christian and Jew love it; to each it is holy for 
what it has been; it will become holier and greater still." 

The work is illustrated with fifteen half-tones, from photo- 
graphs, and four maps. 

(New York: Fleming H. Revell Company. 8vo, pp. 359. 
Price, 1 1. so.) 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., January, 1899. No. 10. 

CODS AND TEMPLES OF JAVA. 

JAVANESE history does not commence before the middle 
of the twelvth Christian century. The time before this 
epoch is without any known written records, save here and 
there an inscription in the old Javanese language decipherable 
only by the priests of Bali, the sole inheritors of the mysteries 
of the prehistoric tongue of the Javanese people. 

The religion of the island of Java, from the beginning of 
the historic period down to the Mahometan conquest in the 
last quarter of the fifteenth century, was a modified Hinduism, 
or Brahminism somewhat purified by the infusion into its cult 
of the doctrines of Buddha. It was, and still is, a religion half 
Brahminic and half Buddhistic, and was brought from Hindu- 
stan by immigrants during the twelvth and thirteenth centu- 
ries, at which epoch there appears to have been a considerable 
movement of Hindustanee people toward the islands of the 
eastern archipelago. Still later, or about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, the Hindu sect of " Siva- worshippers " sent 
missionaries to Java who succeeded in establishing and main- 
taining their worship until the arrival of the conquering 
Mahometans in the last quarter of the fifteenth century. In 
the immediately succeeding century, Christianity began to 
make conspicuous inroads among both Mahometans and Hin- 
dus, the missionaries following in great numbers in the wake 
of the Dutch, Portugese, Spanish and English traders. 

Siva has always been the principal god of the Javanese. 
Although Buddha's statues adorn many a temple and shrine 



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236 BIB LI A. 

in this wondrously beautiful island, yet the aborigines never 
regarded him as other than what his common designation con- 
veys to the world at large, i. e., he who has attained to the 
BMdhashipy or Nirvana. Buddha appears most frequently in 
Java as the contemplative Brahmin, and is called by the 
natives Pandita Sabrang, or " foreign Brahmin," without much 
apparent tendency to deify him. He receives the worship of 
"dulia," or secondary adoration, as a Hindu saint. As a 
prominent mark of subordination to other gods it is noticable 
that whenever in Java the statue of Buddha appears along 
with that of Siva, the former always faces toward the latter as 
the real center of worship. From the frequency with which 
one meets with the images of Buddha throughout the length 
and breadth of the island, one might be led to think that he is 
the supreme deity, but the fact is his divinity appears to 
diminish in inverse ratio to the number of his statues. 

In the groups of small temples surrounding a large central 
one (a peculiarity of the Javanese cult) only the images of 
Buddha appear, while the image of some superior being like 
Siva is enshrined within the middle temple, or Javanese 
"Holy of Holies." Toward this central shrine all the images 
of Buddha face, showing very plainly that to the Javanese 
people Lord Buddha is only a half -deified Hindu Brahmin ador- 
ing a higher power. Siva on the other hand, as the third 
divine being in the Hindu triad, was always the object of the 
most intense popular devotion. He is called the "great God," 
" Lord of the world/- the " most powerful," while Brahma and 
Vishnu respectively the first and second divinities of the trinity, 
enjoy their own share of national favor. In the Hindu relig- 
ious system Brahma the creator, Siva the destroyer, and 
Vishnu the preserver are together the basis of Hinduism, and 
from them all other acknowledged divinities appear to have 
emanated. 

The images thus far discovered in Java are mainly those 
of Buddha. In the great temple of Boro Bodor were formerly 
four hundred statues of the great Indian Sage, all showing 
him in a sitting posture as in Hindustan, with legs bent inward, 
soles of the feet upturned, the right breast bare, the hands 
now in one now in another position. The facial features in- 
variably present the Hindu cast, and the head has a goodly 
growth of short curley hair. All the images or sculptures of 
Java yet brought to light bear unmistakable signs of the Hindi! 
origin of the Javanese religion. In fact, beyond a few very 



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BIB LI A. 237 

ancient images discovered in the mountains of the Sundas, we 
have no relics whatever to tell us the nature of \h.^ pre-HinM 
worship — the pre-historic character of the cult of the " pearl 
of the eastern archipelago." Religion there is HindU through 
and through, as testified by the exhumed monuments, and we 
shall probably never know much about ih.^ pre-HinM ages. 

Beside the images of Buddha we frequently meet with 
those of the Hindii Brahminic deities, both gods and goddesses, 
and among these we recall the statues of Kala (god of death), 
Ganesa (god of wisdom), SHrya (god of the sun), Mahadua 
(the bull), Siva (the destroyer), and many others. The 
statues of these gods are made either of brass or basalt, the 
latter most exquisitely carved, and indicating an astonishingly 
high development of sculpture, considering the low stage, 
politically and ethically, prevailing throughout the archipelago, 
from the earliest historic times down to the present. 

A study of the statues of the gods and goddesses of Java 
aflEords the student some little satisfaction, perhaps, by leading 
him into the fields of both sculpture and religion, and may 
help him to realize more clearly the fact that religion in Java 
must have come from India. The statues of Vishnu the 
destroyer, show him in many different attitudes, illustrating 
him in succession as " Lord of the world " seated .upon his 
throne as a devotee (setting an example to all men to worship 
Brahma^ the unseen God), and as the conqueror riding in his 
chariot, crowned with the cresent. All three of these illustra- 
tions breathe the religious and artistic atmosphere of Hindu- 
stan. The physiognomy of Siva in each is plainly Hindustanee, 
although some of the attendant ornamentation is of local color- 
ing. The fact that Vishnu appears with a d^^r^/in itself proves 
the Indian orign of his cult, since beards are an unknown 
facial adornment in the island of Java, while the chariot with 
which he is sometimes represented, shows a like origin, from 
the fact that no wheeled vehicle was ever seen in the island 
until the present century. The covering around the loins of 
the many human figures are also of the Hindustanee type, 
and are wholly unknown to the Javanese natives, while the 
weapons represented, the broad sword, the shield, the bow and 
arrow, are likewise distinctively Hindu weapons of offense and 
defense. This Hindustanee tinge so noticable in the statues 
is equally pronounced in the sculptures on the walls of the 
temples, for even the scenery therein depicted is clearly that 
of western India. Scholars who have tried to see in exhumed 



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238 BIBLIA, 

Javanese antiquities the evidences of a native cult have been 
forced to alter their opinions and refer nearly everything of a 
religious or artistic character to Hindustan. 

In the mural and other representations of Buddha, we 
have him in the successive r61es of the contemplative Brahmin 
attained to Nirvana, as the recipient of flowers and fruits from 
the hands of his scholars, as teacher of departed souls, and 
finally, as a semi-deified war-lord inspiring his devotees to 
fight, and receiving from a hand at the right the offering of 
the symbol of victory. 

The temples of Java are of three kinds. First, — Those 
built in groups of small dimensions, each containing one 
statue of Buddha. Second, — Large buildings of enormous 
stones erected on the tops of hills, encircled by several walls 
built on terraces. T'A/rrf.— ^Shrines of brick and mortar and 
without any pretensions to grandeur. In the first class is the 
great temple of Brambanan^ the enclosure of which measures 
at the base of the outer wall, six hundred feet in length by five 
hundred and fifty in width. All the buildings are built of 
hewn stone (basalt) in the shape of a p5rramid, while in the 
center rises the main temple to a height of sixty feet. Each 
of the smaller encircling fanes contains a statue of Buddha, 
while the central one (the " Holy of Holies ") is a shrine for 
one of the superior Hindu gods. 

Of the temples built on hill tops, that of Boro Bordor is 
the largest and most gorgeous. It is situated in the province 
of Kadu, amid romantic scenery. It was here that many of 
the most valuable images and inscriptions were found many 
years ago. Its walls ascend in six successive terraces from 
the plain up the slopes of a small hill, the central dome rising 
to a height of one hundred and sixteen feet, while the base of 
the whole enclosure at the outer wall is five hundred and 
twenty-six feet square. At the top, near the central dome, is 
a circle of ^^ bee-kive-like** structures in three circular terraces. 
On the walls are found countless bas-reliefs, representing 
audiences of kings, royal processions, temple worship, hunting 
and water scenes, while its walls have upward of four hundred 
images of Buddha, set in as many different niches, not to 
speak of pictures of lions, elephants, deer, and cows ; animals 
that are not indiginous to Java, and which point to India as 
the seat of the Javanese religion. At some of the gates of 
this magnificent shrine stand colossal figures of human guards, 
while at others crouch immense stone lions, warders of the 



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BIB LI A, 239 

gods within. This was also a habit among Babylonians and 
Egyptians. 

It is a striking fact that, notwithstanding the Indian origin 
of the religion of Java, there is nothing revolting in any of the 
pictorial scenes or sculptures, as is too frequently the case in 
Hindustan. It was Lord Buddha, prince of India, who temp- 
ered the horrors of Hinduism by his benign influence, and 
made Javanese Hinduism just what it is. Brahminism bap- 
tized by Bflddhism, and thus rendered purer and less revolting 
to the christian eye. 

A. K. Glover. 
Wells, Minnesota. 



RUINS AT QUIRIGUA, 

CENTRAL AMERICA abounds in ancient city ruins. 
These ruins indicate an origin dating far back in pre- 
Columbian times, how far back is only, up to date, a matter of 
shrewd guessing. Most archaeologists put it back in the 
seventh century. The hieroglyphic writings abound every- 
where, but there is no trilingual Rosetti stone to aid some 
keen ChampoUion to decipher them and read of their pos- 
sible origin, their life and doings. Of late a good deal of 
interest centers in this strange land full of the evidences of a 
former powerful and advanced civilization. 

What gives particular interest to the Quirigua Ruins is 
owing to the fact there is being constructed a transcontinental 
railway from Puerto Borrios to the city of Guatemala. This 
railroad runs near the ruins which are on the edge of the val- 
ley of Montagua, some sixty miles from the Carribean Sea in 
Guatemala. These ruins were first brought to light in 1841 by 
P. L. Stephens, the celebrated explorer. In 1881 and again in 
1884 A. P. Maudslay spent several months here photographing 
its ruins, but his work has not yet been published. There has 
been no excavation here and no field in all Central America 
offers a richer return to the archaeologist. The sculptured 
monuments or stelae that appear are exceedingly rich in 
hieroglyphic work. The mounds would yield yet other evidences 
and might afford a possible clue. These ruins consist of a 
large number of mounds, pyramids and terraces, both square 
and rectangular, measuring from six to forty feet in height, 
some standing in groups of four arranged around a central 



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240 BIB LI A. 

square or plaza, while others occupy isolated positions. The 
greater number of these structures have been faced with 
squared stones and have flights of stone steps on one side lead- 
ing to the top, so familiar in Mexico. There are three princi- 
pal structtires in the main group, near which are standing 
thirteen large monuments in the form of stelae and large 
rounded masses carved to represent grotesque animals. These 
seem to be in the grand plaza of the old city. At the northern 
end of this grand plaza stands a rectangular structure some 
300 feet from east to west and 175 from north to south. There 
is an old pond, possibly artificial, at the northern end, and on 
the southern are three splendid stelae or monoliths from four- 
teen to eighteen feet in height These are highly carved, 
front and back, with representations of human figures; on one 
is a man with a chin beard, Egyptian fashion. Both sides 
are entirely covered with hieroglyphic writing in the form of 
squares, called Katum. On one of them is the most important 
hieroglyphic work yet discovered in America. It is elaborately 
inscribed, the upper half in pictures most intricately wrought 
out, and in the lower half are the abreviated and conventional 
characters as commonly found among the Mayans. This pic- 
ture writing may sometime greatly aid in solving the hiero- 
glyph problem. This form of picture writing is very rare. 
One such is found in Copan, Honduras. 

A little to the south of these are two of the highest monu- 
ments ever discovered in the New World : one is 22 and the 
other is 25 feet above ground. The longest one is leaning at 
an angle of 45 degrees and must be at least ten feet under 
ground. On one is carved a man with chin beard; he is stand- 
ing on a platform covered with symbolic carving; his feet are 
shod with elaborate sandals and heel touches heel. He has on 
an immense head-dress formed of five grotesque masks. The 
ears have huge ornaments. The breast and body are loaded 
with ornaments. A loin-cloth hangs from the waist almost to 
his feet in elaborate designs. 

Near these are other groups and one of them is in the form 
of a gigantic turtle, highly and conventionally carved. Roughly 
described it is a cube about eight feet on each side and weighs 
a score of tons. The rock out of which they are carved is a 
grey porphyry, the quarries being several miles from the ruins 
and more than 600 feet above the valley. 

Prof. M. A. Saville, in speaking of these important ruins, 
puts these questions : — *' Do these monuments recount the 



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BIB LI A. 241 

written history of a long vanquished people, or are they their 
astrological and ritualistic records? Do they contain their 
astronomical calculations, or are they simply the biographies 
of the personages carved on their sides ? or have we here the 
mythology, represented in the curious and fantastic figures, 
explained by the accompanying hieroglyphic texts ? " 

These questions await an answer, which only careful and 
thorough exploration and excavation can afford. 

H. C. F. 



MORE ABOUT THE SPHINX. 

I HAVE been asked for more details about the Sphinx by a 
few of our eminent and leading scientists who make 
astronomy their special study. I repeat then my former state- 
ment (BiBLiA, Sept. No. 6, p. 134), that the Entrance Passage 
angle of the Pyramid at the mouth of passage is 26® 33' 54", 
and as the latitude of the P5rramid is 29® 58' 51", the declination 
of the Sun at the date of erection would be 12® 54' 48".026i, 
its azimuth would be 75® 58' i7".707s, right ascension 30^57' 
ai".9373, longitude 33° 17' 35".2i98, and obliquity 24® i' 26" 
.4552. These results are built into the very structures of the 
Pyramid and Sphinx, and in the Observatory and Trial 
Trenches, front of the Pyramid. 

The height of the Sphinx is 64.57 feet=774.8 inches=774.8 
minutes of arc=i2® 54' 48". The length of the body of the 
couchant lion is 154.7805 feet, but when roughly measured, it 
is usually given at 155 feet. This length represents right 
ascension of the Sun in Leo, or 30° 57' 2i".9373— 1857.3656 
minutes of arc— 1857.3656 inches™ 155 feet without fraction. 
Length of paws, 38 feet. Total length i55+38«:i93 feets»23i6 
inches, which is identically the same total length as the con- 
stallation as Leo in minutes of arc««23i6'=38.6^. The plateau 
of rock was hollowed out into an immense rocky basin or large 
amphitheatre, in the middle of which the natural rock was left 
as a central core, so as to be sculptured into this mammoth 
stone monument forming the Sphinx. A descending range of 
135 feet of steps, cut in solid rock, 40 feet wide, reached the 
bottom level and platform area. The body of the lion reaches 
a depth of 1 20.1 201 feet below horizon level, with a platform 
of 15 feet, making a total of 135 feet. Hence the depth will 
indicate the lowest range and Obliquity of the Ecliptic. 



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242 BIB LI A. 

Therefore zao feeU=i44o inches without fractionsn=rZ44o 
minutes of arc=24° of declination for the Obliquity of the 
Ecliptic at the time and date of erection. With fractions, 
the exact value would be 24° i' 26".45. So that the body of 
the lion, by close measurement, is 1 20.1 201 feet below the 
horizon level. 

In aftertimes the Sphinx was almost the only symbolic 
image used as guardian of the temple ; sometimes long rows 
of them were placed in front of the sacred edifice. But the 
Great Sphinx is unique in this respect, that it is the only one 
whose body is sunk and buried in solid rock beneath the hori- 
zon. In all probability it preceded all others. The Great 
Sphinx is the only one whose astronomical significance is built 
into its very structure. 

S. Beswick, C. E. 
Hollidaysburg^ Pa, 



M. de MORGAN'S DISCOVERIES AT SUSA. 

Mde MORGAN, formerly Director-Greneral of Antiquities 
• of Egypt, has discovered at Susa the remains of the 
Anzanite city which flourished before the dynasty of Achae- 
menes and Cyrus the Great. It was already known that ruins 
left by Darius, Xerxes, Alexander, and others were at Susa \ 
but, M. de Morgan found that the lowest of the three layers of 
ruins, some forty feet below the surface, contained the remains 
of an ancient people, the progenitors of the Aryan race. Some 
eight hundred texts were found, and a remarkable bronze 
tablet, five feet long, two feet and a half wide and one foot 
thick. Five statuettes seem to have served as the legs of the 
tablet. The soldiers of Assyria had taken this tablet out of 
the palace to carry it away, but its great weight had compelled 
them to abandon it amid the ruins. A granite obolisk was also 
found, whose four sides were covered with texts, deeply en- 
graved in the stone. 

Originally Susa was the capitol of Ancient Elam, peopled 
by the children of Elam, the son of Shem. They did not call 
themselves Elamites, but their own name for Elam was Anzan. 
More than twenty-six centuries have passed since the Anza- 
nites held their own city. Apparently they were driven out 
of it. It was burned to the ground by Asurbanipal, King of 



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BIBLIA. 243 

Assyria, about 620 B. C. We read, " During a month and a 
day," says the King of Assyria, " I swept the country of Elam 
from one end to the other. I took away from it its fields, the 
voices of men, the herds of oxen and sheep, the sound of joy- 
ous music." 

M. de Morgan has brought to light here numerous steles, 
tablets, etc., and one peculiar stone of black, bituminous lime- 
stone, nineteen inches by eight. On top is a coiled serpent 
and on the four sides are inscriptions. 

The first flat side contains a star, the moon and sun, 
beneath which is some one, evidently a king, seated upon a 
square throne. He wears long hair, is beardless and has on 
a hat and vestments very much like the Chaldean. A tunic of 
skin falls to his ankles, clinging close to the figure. His arms 
are covered with bracelets and he lifts his two hands in sign 
of adoration before a scorpion placed above him. At his feet 
is an elion, the front of which alone is visible, the rest being 
hidden behind the king. Below are five lines of inscription. 

The second face is divided into several lines, containing 
standards or religious emblems, a hawk on its perch and a 
couchant bull, with six lines of text. The other two faces are 
covered with texts. 

In the interior of the halls M. de Morgan found a consider- 
able mass of cinders and charcoal, and the debris, which was 
smoked and sometimes burned, together with the calcined 
bones of men and animals, shows that Susa was burned. 

M. de Morgan expects to spend four or five years in ex- 
cavating the entire city, which covers 1,200 acres. He sums 
up his general conclusions as follows : 

ANZANITE RUINS. 

The principal sites of Anzanite ruins are the so-called 
" Citadel " and the meridian lines of the tell, called the " royal 
city." 

Other Anzanite sites are to be found east of the Apadana 
and in other neighboring hills of the great tell. On the tell of 
the Citadel the level of the Anzanite city (contemporaneous 
with Asurbanipal) is found a depth of about thirteen feet. 
After the ruin of Susa by the Assyrians all the monuments 
which could not be taken away were turned upside down. 

ACHAEMENIAN RUINS. 

The principal centre of the Achaemenian ruins seems to 
have been the tells called the " royal city." The depth of the 



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244 BIBLIA. 

Achaemenian ruins below the surface varies from three feet 
in the Apadana to almost forty in trench No. a. 

THE GRAECO-PERSIAN RUINS. 

After the taking of Susa by Alexander the Greats no im- 
portant monuments were erected there. 

SASANIAN EPOCH. 

The city of Susa seems to have disappeared completely 
before the end of the Arsacite epoch, or at the beginning of 
the Sasanian djmasty. 

In the Susan texts we shall find not merely the acts of 
some kings whom we have known, but we shall ascertain the 
names of many soverigns never known before in modem 
times, and whole historic lists and entire dynasties extending 
over thousands of years. These will be reconstructed from 
the monuments just excavated. 



LATE DISCOVERIES OF NEW TESTAMENT 
APOCRYPHA. 

IN a paper before the Church of England Congress, an ac- 
count is given of the discovery of some New Testament 
Apocryphal writings. A German resident in Cairo became 
possessed of a large mass of tattered papyrus — ^leaves, written 
in the seventh century, and containing facts of one treatise, 
in a hitherto unknown dialect of Coptic. Dr. Carl Schmidt 
last year secured this treasure for the University Library of 
Heidelberg. To judge from his description, the fragments 
are in a very bad condition. Only one leaf has survived quite 
entire; the rest are in smaller or larger pieces, many contain- 
ing only a few letters, so that some time must elapse before 
they can be sorted out, fitted together and published. How- 
ever, a kind fortune has preserved the last leaf of all, and, as is 
usual in ancient manuscripts, the title of the whole book is 
written upon it. The title is " The Acts of Paul the Apostle." 
To those who have had occasion to study the history of 
the Canon of the New Testament this title should be a famil- 
iar one. For the book in question was one which for long 
hovered upon the verge of Canonicity. It is difiicult, without 
going into confusing details, to give a true and vivid idea of 
its position and importance; but two picturesque facts may 



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BJBLIA. 24S 

be quoted. In a famous classification of New Testament 
notes by Eusebius in the fourth century we find " The Acts 
of Paul" entered as a disputed book, but in the same class 
as the Catholic Epistles and the Revelation of St. John. And 
what is, perhaps, still more striking, we find that St. John 
Chrysostom — a man who never refers to the revelation of St. 
John — cites facts from the Acts of Paul, and uses it as a gen- 
uine historical document. It was, then, long held in the ut- 
most respect, and there can be little doubt that in a good 
many churches it was read as a sacred book. That a writing 
with such a history should now have been given back to us is 
clearly a matter for rejoicing. As yet no portion of the 
Coptic text has seen the light, we have only the discoverer's 
short preliminary account to go upon. One main result that 
is prominent in the accounts is this : it transpires that for a 
considerable time we have had in our hands — nay, have printed 
and commented upon — important fragments of these Acts 
without knowing for certain, and in one case without even 
suspecting, their true origin. 

For more than a century the learned world, as it is called, 
has been familiar with a book called the Acts of Paul and 
Thecla. This tells us how Paul came to Iconium from 
Antioch, and how his preaching converted a young lady of 
the name of Thecla, and led her to break off her proposed 
marriage with a youth of the city. In consequence of this 
an unsuccessful attempt was made to bum her alive. When 
she had escaped and rejoined Paul, they went together to 
Antioch; and here she was once more arrested and exposed 
to the beasts; but they would not touch her. Thereafter she 
lived peacefully and died a natural death. 

Now this story was known to Tertullian at the beginning 
of the third century; and he tells us that the author of it was 
a presbyter of Asia Minor, who confessed that he had written 
it out of love for St. Paul, and was in consequence deposed 
from his place. And St. Jerome, in telling the same facts, adds 
another which has been a puzzle to many people. He says 
that the confession of the presbyter took place ** before John," 
which would throw the composition of the book back to the 
end of the first century. But, it is believed that the two 
words "before John" are corrupted in one manuscript, and 
that instead of them we ought to read " at Iconium," a slight 
change which would remove all difficulty from the passage. 

However this may be, the Coptic manuscript discovered by 



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246 BIBLIA. 

Professor Schmidt shows quite clearly that the Acts of Paul 
and Thecla are just one chapter out of the Acts of Paul which 
became popular and was circulated separately. This interest- 
ing discovery helps us very materially toward proving an idea 
of the amount of genuine historical matter which was con- 
tained in the book as a whole. That there is some we cannot 
doubt. There is evidence of a knowledge of the localities 
named; at least one person is introduced who is mentioned in 
secular history as a resident in the district concerned; and we 
are given a description of St. Paul's personal appearance 
which has all the ring of truthfulness. 

" And Onesiphorus saw Paul approaching, a man short in 
stature, bald-headed, crook-kneed, of a fresh complexion, with 
eyebrows that joined, and a rather hooked nose, full of grace; 
for sometimes he appeared as a man, and sometimes he had 
the face of an angel." 

But this is not all. There is another extract from these 
Acts which have been known to scholars even longer than the 
Acts of Paul and Thecla. It consists of a couple of letters, 
the first from the Corinthian Church to Paul, and the other 
his answer to it. 

The Corinthian letter begs St. Paul to write, disputing the 
doctrines of two heretical teachers, Sarion and Cleobius, who 
are troubling the Church of Corinth; and St. Paul, who is in 
prison at Philippi, deals shortly in his answer with the var- 
ious points of their erroneous teaching. These letters com- 
monly known as the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, had the 
odd fate of being translated into English by Lord Byron 
when he was staying at the Armenia convent at Venice. The 
only language in which the letters have hitherto been known 
are Armenian and Latin; and it seems likely that both these 
versions were made, not from the original Greek, but from 
Syriac. It appears, also, that the Sjrrian Church for a long 
time accepted the letters as genuine; and St. Ephraem the 
Syrian commented upon them along with the rest of the Paul- 
ine Epistles. The view that they were an extract from the 
Acts of Panl was advocated some years ago by Professor Zahn; 
and now, sure enough, we find them proving an integral part 
of the Coptic text. 

Lastly, we find in the original Greek, and also in a good 
many other versions, the concluding portion of the whole 
book. In it is related the return of Paul to Rome — ^most likely 
from Spain — and his martyrdom by decapitation at the hands 



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BIBLIA. 247 

of Nero. The leading incident, which supplies a motive for 
the execution of Paul, is the conversion and raising from the 
dead of the favorite cup-bearer of Nero, Patroclus, who, like 
Eutychus, had fallen from a window while listening to the 
preaching of the Apostle. The story implies the release of 
Paul from his first imprisonment and a further*missionary 
journey; and, this together with the fact and manner of his 
martyrdom, is in all likelihood historical. There is no mention 
of Peter in this part of the book; but we may predict with 
some assurance that the complete text will tell us of a meet- 
ing of the two Apostles in Rome and of the martyrdom of 
St. Peter about a year before that of St. Paul. 

The Acts of St. Paul, when complete, was a book larger 
than the Canonical Acts — as long, in fact, as the Gospel of St. 
Mark and St. John put together. The pieces of it which we 
have described amount to about a quarter of the whole; but 
from them and other scattered quotations we are able to 
gather a fair knowledge of the complexion and character of 
this famous early romance. The writer was not, as the 
authors of the Apocryphal Acts commonly were, the champ- 
ions of any eccentric or heretical view. He was orthodox ; 
nay, if Tertullian is to be translated, he was a priest of the 
Catholic Church. As his sources he employed the Canonical 
Acts, the Pauline Epistles, including the Pastoral Epistles, 
and genuine traditions; and, perhaps more than all these, he 
drew upon his own fancy. 

At what point in St. Paul's career he began his biography 
we do not know. Perhaps the new fragments will afford us 
some trustworthy information as to the birth and parentage 
of the Apostle; they may, for instance, contain a story given 
by St. Jerome that his parents lived at Gischala in Galilee. We 
can, however, see that a chief object of the writer was to fill 
up the gaps in the narrative of the Canonical Acts. We know, 
for instance, that he gave the details of the fight with beasts 
at Ephesus (and very sensational they are); these are indica- 
tions that the visit to Athens was treated at large; and through- 
out it is evident that great stress was laid upon the achieve- 
ments of the female converts of the Apostle. The net gains 
to our knowledge by the publication of the Acts of Paul will 
probably be a number of picturesque stories and a small but 
very precious residium of genuine new information about the 
unique career and personality of one of the most interesting 
figures in history. 



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248 B IB LI A, 

SIR JOHN FOWLER. 

THE death of Sir John Fowler occurred, Nov. 19th. He 
was one of the most noted engineers of the day, and his 
work was not confined to Great Britain, for he was for a time 
consulting engineer in the dominion of the Khedive of Egypt 
Some of the largest railways in Great Britain were constructed 
under his supervision, and he was one of the engineers of the 
noted Forth bridge, over a mile of which is covered by the 
three great cantilevers, 152 feet above the water. The Prince 
of Wales opened the bridge in 1890, and announced that 
the Queen had conferred a baronetcy upon the engineer. He 
had previously been made a K. C. M. G. for his work in Egypt, 
and the honorary degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him 
by Edinburgh University in the year the Forth bridge was 
opened. Sir John Fowler was in his 8ist year, and had been in 
delicate health for some time. We have received the following 
from the Honorary Secretary of the Fund : 

The Committee of the Es^pt Exploration Fund, at its 
first meeting after the death of Sir John Fowler, President of 
the Fund, deems it a duty to put on record its appreciation of 
the valuable services which he rendered to the Fund and to 
the Committee. 

Sir John Fowler was elected President in 1887, in succes- 
sion to our first President, Sir Erasmus Wilson. He has 
therefore been identified with the work of the Society for 
eleven years. During that long period of time, until incapaci- 
tated by his final illness, he was regular in attendance at the 
meetings of the Committee and at the General Meetings of the 
members. It is largely owing to his capacity for business and 
his power of dealing with men that the Society has proved so 
successful in the large operations it has undertaken. Sir John 
Fowler's name alone, as associated with the greatest engineer- 
ing works in modem Egypt, was a tower of strength to us. 
His personal interest in all our projects, his practical knowl- 
edge, and his force of character were of still greater use. 

The members of the Committee will always remember the 
uniform courtesy which he showed to them all, and the many 
occasions on whith he assisted their deliberations to a right 
conclusion. 

The Hon. Secretary is hereby instructed to transmit to 
Lady Fowler, a copy of this extract from the minutes of the 
Committee, together with a cordial expression of the sympathy 
of the members with her in the loss she has sustained. 

J AS. S. Cotton, Hon. Secretary. 



We learn that the valuable Egyptological library of the 
late Professor Ebers is for sale. It will be unfortunate to have 



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BIB LI A. 249 

this valuable collection broken, and we hope that some institu- 
tion or individual will purchase it en bloc^ and that the library 
will come to this country. Particulars regarding price, etc., 
•can be obtained from Dr. W. Max Miiller, No. 40 49^^ Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

A joyful letter from Dr. Bliss has been received in which 
he tells of the beginning of his work, as he went to work in 
irery warm weather, and, as his field under this firman is not so 
limited as before, he had made his beginning upon a tell about 
five miles east of Gath or Tell-es-Safi, and everything was 
progressing well at last accounts. 

A letter from a young Moslem ofl5cial gives some account 
of the visit of the German emperor. My friend was sent to 
Lamleh as temporary governor to receive the distinguished 
visitors at that interesting point. He describes the cavalcade 
as a very beautiful one, and was evidently impressed with the 
fine appearance of the horsemen sent by the Sultan as a body 
guard. Probably every Oriental looks at the horse before he 
looks at the rider. As the company approached, the young 
governor went forward and delivered an address of welcome 
to the Emperor in English, and another to the Empress in 
French. They then alighted and shook hands with him, had 
their noon-day rest, and then went on to Jerusalem leaving 
their host to enjoy in reminiscence the proudest moment of 
Jiis life. So far no real benefit appears to have come to any 
one from this visit, and it is learned that the heavy expenses 
consequent upon the tour must fall on the tax-payers of the 
places visited. Beyrout, for instance, expended for this pur- 
pose, the entire tax levy of 1898, and immediately levied the 
tax for 1899. It is safe to say that, at this rate, the country 
will not desire another visit, even from the Sultan's most 
sympathizing friend. 

I would give notice that the maps issued by the Fund, 
except by the contour map, can now be obtained, like the 
books, casts, and other things, directly from me. There is 
reason to believe that they can be delivered at somewhat 
lower prices than heretofore. For ordinary uses the twelve- 
tsheet map with the Old and New Testament names upon it is 



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250 BIB LI A, 

the best, mounted on rollers the size is about six feet by four. 
It is on the same scale as the Relief Map. I strongly recom- 
mend that these maps be used instead of those made in this 
country, because those made here are not so exact, but often 
indicate a river where there is only a wady, and the towns are 
not so accurately placed. 

Those who are interested in Palestine as it is, will enjoy 
Consul Wallace's book on " Jerusalem, the Holy," published 
by the Revell Co. He touches upon every subject of interest 
and gives an account which is less favorable than might be 
expected. Coal has been found, but the mine has been 
abandoned. Copper is known to be accessible, but the govern- 
ment will not incourage its production. Petroleum product 
exists, but no one is obtaining it. Thus the country must go 
on neglecting its resources and paying great prices to import 
articles of value which it could itself produce if the govern- 
ment would consent. Although without special preparation 
for his task this young clergyman from the far West bore 
himself well as consul, and this book shows how thoroughly he 
examined the city and country. It is not improper to say that 
during his period of office, he lost the regard of the "Americans," 
as they are generally called. It would not have been strange 
therefore if, in treating of the classes of people in Jerusalem, 
he had used sharp words of the Spafford colony, but on the 
contrary he stands on his dignity and has nothing unkind to 
say. Considering that they sent one of their ntmiber to 
Washington to procure the dismissal of the consul, it is pleas- 
ant to see that he has not sought for revenge or in any way 
indicated that he has sufiEered from their attacks. 

The following subscriptions received since last report are 
very gratefully acknowledged : 

Barnes, E. W., $5.00 Howell, Abr. J., . $2.50 

Brimin, Rev. D. J.. D. D., 2.50 Hubbard, James M., . . 5.00 

Bruckbauer. F., 500 JOHNSON, REVERDY, 2S«> 

Butler, Miss Virginia, . 10.00 Lasby, Rev. C. C, D. D., . 2.50 

Clark, E. W 10.00 Leeds, Rev. S. P., . . 2.50 

Colgate University, . 2.50 Logan, Rev. S. C, D. D., 5^)0 

Cowarroe, Mrs. G. M., . 10.00 Lyon, Prof. G. D., Ph. D., 5.00 

Crane, Alfred J., . 10.00 Nicholson, Miss Julia U., . 5.00 

Crocker, Mrs. F. W., . 5.00 Poor, Rev. W. G., . 5.00 

Davis, Rev. John D. D., . 5.00 Rendall, Prof. I. U., Ph. D., 5.00 

Davis, Rev. W. P., D. D., 2.50 Rogers, Prof. R. W., D. D., 2,50 

Dempster. Alex., . . 5.00 Sage Library, . . . 2.50 

Dickinson, Miss Mary A. , 5.00 Southern Baptist Seminary, 2.50 



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Google 



BIBLIA, 



251 



Ecdeston, Rev. J. H., . $10.00 

Francis. Jas. G., . . 5,00 

Gage, Mrs. M. A., . 2.50 

Gamwell, Wm., . 10.00 

Holmes, Rev. E. M., 5. 00 

Hopkins, Mrs. Theo. A., . 2.50 



Steele, Mrs. Esther B., 
Stewart, Rev. R. L., 
Thompson, John A. , 
Tincker, Miss Helen. 
Walsh, Rev. John, 
Warren, Rev. S. M., 



$5.00 
5.00 
2.50 
5 CO 
5.00 
5.00 



Theodore F. Wright, 
Honorary Secretary for the United States. 
43 Quincy St., Cambridge, Mass. 



THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND-1899. 

The attention of all readers of Biblia is earnestly called 
to the new advertisement for 1899, ^f ^^is society now entered 
upon its sixteenth year of life and work in America. Ninety 
associate Secretaries stand for increased efforts to secure 
support. The record of discovery and publication, the pros- 
pects before us, speak for themselves. Nearly six hundred 
eminent Americans in official and private life have subscribed. 
One item is, that one hundred and ten university or college 
presidents, another that quite fifty Bishops of the Episcopal 
church, have contributed. While naturally and properly some 
local organizations are at work, primarily to secure fresh sub- 
scribers, in their locales the national office — and their must be 
one — representing the whole land, has its broad mission still 
to fulfill. It alone has the data of subscriptions and books 
ordered, since 1883 ; it has the material and experience re- 
quired to give information ; all the publications can be found 
on its shelves by the caller to seek for knowledge thereon. 
Both of the Secretaries welcome inquiries of every kind. The 
field of the national office, generally speaking, is the United 
States. It is not only a financial, it is a patriotic matter, to 
sustain the office, and therein the nationality of the Fund this 
side of the Atlantic. 

It is just and wise that the " antiquities " should be fairly 
divided among the museums of America pro rata of the sub- 
scriptions in their respective sections. The London Committee 
now sends direct to each museum its quota. Upon the fall 
list of subscriptions from the national office and subscriptions 
or contributions from local organi^ions, the Committee makes 
the basis for apportionment. Let these "object lessons," 
whether in Chicago, or Pittsburg, or Philadelphia, or New 



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252 BIB LI A, 

York, or Boston, stimulate subscriptions. Let local societies 
promote a kindly rivalry to increase our total revenue, and 
obtain each some of the spolia opmia. Let at least doubled 
revenue from all over the land flow into the national office to 
push on the broad and grand work in Egypt. The "results " 
from that work are of universal interest. 

Wm. C. Winslow, 

Honorary Secretary ^ U. S. A. 



Subscriptions to the Esypt Exploration Fund, the 

Archaeological Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 

To thi Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
from November 20 to December 30, are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 

W. Camac, M. D., . . $5.00 Gen. Chas. G. Loring, . $5.00 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, 62.00 Miss Rebecca S. Lowrey, 5.00 

Mrs. Eliza Cox, . 5.00 D. M. Mcintosh, . 5.00 

THEODORE M. DAVIS. 50.00 Galen B. Royer, 5.00 

John Dowst, 5.00 Mrs. Swett, . 1.00 

Miss Emma C. Grafflin, . 5.00 Hon. W. F. Stewart, 5.00 

Rev. Francis A. Horton, D. D., 5.00 Rev. Chas. J. Wood, LL. D.. 5.00 

Prof. Chas. F. Kent, 5.00 

From November 20 to December 30, I have received very 
thankfully these subscriptions to the Archaeological Survey 
Fund; 

MRS. EM' A B. ANDREWS, $25.00 Gen. Chas. G. Loring, , $5.00 
CARNEGIE LIBRARY, 25.00 Miss Rebecca S. Lowrey, . 5.00 
Rev. Francis A. Horton, D. D., 5.00 

From November 20 to December 30, the following sub- 
scriptions to the Grseco- Roman Branch are gratefully acknowl- 
edged : 

MRS. EM'A B. ANDREWS, $25.00 
Prof. Willis J. Beecher, . 
Carnegie Library, 
Very Rev. E. A. Hoffman, 
Mrs. E. A. Hoffman, 
Miss Emma C. Grafflin, 

Office of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 59 Temple Street, 

Boston. 

Francis C. Foster, 
Honorary Treasurer. 



55.00 


Gen. Chas. G. Loring, 


#5.00 


500 


Miss Rebecca S. Lowrey, 


5.00 


5.15 


D. M. Mcintosh. 


5.00 


5.00 


T. H. Porter, . 


5.00 


5.00 


Salem Public Library, 


5.00 


5.00 







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BIBLIA. 253 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Syria and Egypt, from the Tbll El Amarna Letters. By W. M. 
Flinders Petrie. 

The London Speaker refers to Professor Petrie's new book 
as follows : 

If the autograph letters in the British Mnseum, bnried 
beneath the ruins of London, were to be discovered in leg- 
ible preservation by the meditative New Zealander about the 
year A. D. 5000, their interest would be in kind though not in 
degree such as is felt by Egyptologists in the Tell El Amarna 
Letters. Laid up in the royal palace more than 3,000 years 
ago, they were disinterred recently by prowling natives. 
Many of the clay tablets on which, in cuneiform characters, 
they were incised have been destroyed or lost ; but 267 of them 
are recovered, and described by Dr. Petrie in this volume. 
. They cover nearly twenty years of the fourteenth century be- 
fore Christ, ranging from about B. C, 138410 B. C. 1366. At 
their commencement the Egyptians reigned undisputed over 
Syria, Mesopotomia, Assyria, Chaldaea ; at their close all con- 
quests north of Suez have been lost ; and this period of deca- 
dence they minutely trace. After the expulsion of the intruding 
Hyksos in the sixteenth or fifteenth century, a succession of 
warlike Egyptian kings extended their power northward, until 
in the reign of Amenhotep III., whose death Dr. Petrie places 
in 1379, they were lords of the two great cradles of civilization, 
at once of the Nile Valley and of the Mesopotamian Highlands. 
The first group of Letters cover this king's declining years, 
and the opening reign of his son, Akhenaten or Amenhotep 
IV. They speak of impending revolts needing to be sternly 
checked, due chiefly to the powerful Khatti, or Hittites, who 
inhabited the Lebanon district. There are letters from Dush- 
ratta, King of Mitani or Mesopotamia, from two kings of 
Babylonia, from kings of Assjrria, from a king of Cyprus, and 
from petty governors. The smaller men complain of the 
Hittites, and ask for reinforcements ; the kings propose inter- 
marriages, send ivory, jewels, horses, chariots, slaves, and ask 
respectfully but importunately for presents in return. The 
King of Babylon is building a temple, "Send me, therefore, 
much gold." Amenhotep III. dies; condolences are sent to 
the Queen-Mother Tyi, and to her son, who marries a daughter 
of Dushratta. The King of Cyprus forwards copper from his 
already famous mines, complains of the Lycian pirates who 



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254 BIB LI A. 

harry his sea-board, asks that customs dues may be relaxed, 
prays for an "eagle conjurer'* or haruspex. Affectionate 
letters pass between the ladies of the several courts. But 
Akhenaten neglects his foreign interest ; and the second 
group of letters are ominous of successful and extending in- 
surrections in Northern S3rria. The Hittites seize the Leontes 
Valley ; the Khabiri, or "Confederates," chiefs of S3rrian tribes, 
after quarrelling among themselves, league against their Egyp- 
tian suzerain. The Amorites appear upon the scene, under an 
energetic leader, Azira, Lord of the Orontes plain. The 
Egyptian governor Ribaddi opposes him with vigor, but sends 
pitiful appeals for help, which Akhenaten does not g^ant 
Galilee falls, the caravans are plundered, one city after another 
is lost,Ribaddi is shut up in Gublah (Jebleh), that too is taken, 
and he disappears. Down to Lake Meroe Northern Syria is 
lost. The remaining letters indicate the fate of Southern 
Syria. The principal writer is Abdkiba, King of Jerusalem, 
He is loyal, but must have help if he is to hold out against the 
Khabiri. His letters to the king contain curious little post- 
scripts to the cuneiform scribe at the court of Egypt, appar- 
ently a personal friend. ** Bring aloud before my lord the 
king the words, * The whole territory of my lord the king is 
going to ruin.' " He is gradually hemmed in, despairs, and 
apparently joins the Khabiri. 

The letters bear curiously on three points in Scripture 
history : (i) Jerusalem was no mere Jebusite village erected 
into a capital by David and his son, but the capital of Southern 
Palestine from very early times, (a) at the close of the corre- 
spondence the Amorites have not reached Southern Palestine ; 
the Israelite invasion which found them paramount there was, 
therefore, later than the reign of Akhenaten, and the chron- 
ology of the Revised Version,, fixing B. C. 1451 as the date of 
Joshua's arrival, is a century too early. (3) Abdkhiba repeat- 
edly uses of himself the formula, ** Neither my father nor my 
mother appointed me in this place." The writer of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, speaking of another King of Jerusalem, Mel- 
chizedec, quotes the same formula, " Without father, without 
mother, without hereditary descent." The phrase on which 
so much is built by commentators, has therefore no mysterious 
significance, but is merely an official title denoting elective not 
ancestral royalty. There is a strange fascination to most of 
us about Egyptian dates. They stand alone in their antiquity. 
The classical student treads firm ground only about five 



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BIBLIA, 255 

centuries before Christ ; the chronology of Israel is untrust- 
worthy until the establishment of the dual kingdom ; but here 
in B. C. 1400 we move not only with historic certainty, but in 
the light of documents teeming with the personality of the 
writers, rich in coloring of contemporary and local incident. 
Not Egyptian scholars only may study this unpretending little 
volume with profit and delight, grateful to Dr. Petrie for his 
admirably arranged interpretations and for the explicit notes 
which illustrate them. (Methuen & Co., London.) 



The Age of the Maccabees, with Special Reference to thb Religious 
Literature of the Period. By A. W. Streane, D. D. 

One of the most important periods of Jewish history is 
that known as the Maccabean, when the nation, under the 
leadership of Judas Maccabaeus, gained independence after 
many bloody vicissitudes of fortune, and reached a period of 
freedom and glory for Israel, and laid the foundation of that 
. condition of Jewish society which existed in the time of Christ. 
Not only was the wealth of the country increased, but the 
Jewish possessions were increased five times as great as before 
the revolt. During the Maccabean age of some fifty or sixty 
years there was a great literary energy, both in Palestine and 
Egypt. Alexandria, especially, being foremost as an intellec- 
tual centre. It was during this period that the great amount 
of the apocryphal writings were produced. For many years the 
expectancy of an immediate restoration of the Theocracy un- 
der a prophet divinely inspired had taken possession of the 
Jews, and the Jewish literature of the Maccabean period is full 
of the expectation of a King-Messiah. The book of Enoch, 
so remarkable for its Messianic predictions, is of this period. 
The Book of Baruch, the faithful friend and amanuensis of 
Jeremiah, is of the latter Maccabean period; and we have also the 
Book of Maccabees, the first of which is pretty reliable history, 
the Wisdom of Solomon, Esdras, Ecclesiasticus, the stories of 
Judith and of Tobit, the additions to the Canonical Book of 
Daniel, etc. 

Since Thomson's work on the subject {Books which in- 
fluenced our Lord and the Apostles^ being a critical review of 
apocalyptic Jewish literature, Edinburgh, ^Sgi), we have had 
no compact work for the general reader. Dr. Streane's book 



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256 BIB LI A. 

will give the intelligent reader a clear view of the main 
features which are characteristic of Jewish literature during 
the period dealt with. He covers, however, a period much 
larger than history gives to the Maccabean, but this renders 
the work more complete. Dr. Streane begins with a sketch of 
the history of the period from the return of the Jews in accord- 
ance with the decree of Cyrus, till the accession of Herod 
the Great (37 B. C). 

Having estimated the social, political and religious con* 
dition of the Jewish people during the period dealt with, the 
greater part of the book is occupied with an examination of 
the literature '' as closely bound up with the aspirations and 
various modes of thought which are exhibited in the life of the 
nation, mainly, though we cannot say exclusively, in Palestine 
and Egypt." 

The history of each of the apocryphal writings is summed 
up with a brief account of the date, characteristics of the book, 
language, object and value. Chapter XV, is devoted to the 
poetic literature of the period, and those Psalms are noticed 
which have been placed by critics as late as the days of the 
Maccabees. Chapter XVII, is devoted to the Septuagint, 
and treats of the origin, linguistic features and importance. An 
appendix is devoted to the date of the Book of Daniel, and 
with as much fairness as possible, the main arguments on both 
sides of this difficult question are presented. To those in- 
terested in the period and literature which forms a link 
between the Old and New Testaments, we can highly commend 
Dr. Streane's book. 

(London, Eyre & Spottiswoode ; New York, E. & J. B. 
Young & Co., 12 mo, pp. 277. Price, ta.so.) 



Egypt, the Land of Temple Builders. By Walter Scott Perry, 
Director of the Department of Fine Arts, Pratt Institute. 

This finly illustrated book will prove of g^eat interest and 
value to the reader who desires to become acquainted with the 
monuments of Ancient Egypt, but who has not the time to 
study larger and more expensive works. Mr. Perry is a clear 
and concise writer, and he conveys to the reader through de- 
scriptive text, and many illustrations, interesting facts bearing 
upon the life and religion, and the manners and customs of the 



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BIB LI A. 257 

Egyptians, and successive chapters give chronologically, con- 
cise and accurate accounts of the temples of Edfou, Thebes, 
Denderah, Luxor, Kamac, Assuan, Philae, etc., the tombs of 
the old Empire, the Theban necropolis, with the Memnon 
statues, and the reader is enabled to gain a good insight re- 
garding Egyptian architecture, sculpture, painting and deco- 
ration, as revealed by the light of modern research and 
personal study. The text of the book is not broken by refer- 
ence to an illustration, and yet nearly the entire numbet of 
127 plates come exactly opposite the pages they illustrate. 

The subject of Egypt presented in such a graphical way 
will serve to interest many people in the subject, and in the 
explorations being carried on. The illustrations include repro- 
ductions from carefully selected photographs, and from origi- 
nals made by the author. 

Writing of temple decoration, Mr. Perry says : ** As the 
Egyptians probably derived from nature the thought regarding 
the construction of their temples and their symbolic decora- 
tions, so, without doubt, were they influenced by their environ- 
ment in the use of color. 

" No day in their country closes without its glorious sunset. 
The g^eat ball of fire drops into the sand of the Libyan desert ; 
the river becomes a field of magnificent color ; palm groves 
are silhouetted against the sky ; strange outlines are seen here 
and there ; the women go to the river to fill their water- jars ; 
weird forms hurry to and fro; darkness comes on quickly; 
then, suddenly, the wonderful after-glow streams up from its 
western horizon. The heavens become a play of color. It is 
like a sudden glorious transformation from its realities of life 
into the ideal surroundings of another world beautiful beyond 
description. Then the color fades away ; darkness comes 
rapidly ; it is night, and all is quiet upon the dark shores 
of the River Nile." 

The illustrations are all in half-tone, and the book is 
beautifully printed by the Prang Educational Company, of 
Boston. Small quarto, pp. 249. Price, I1.50, 

This book can be ordered from the Biblia Publishing Co. 



Al-Bakoorat Al Gharbeyat Fee Talbem Al Lughat Al Englezyat. The 
First Occtdental Fruit for the Teaching of the English Langu- 
age. By a. J. Arbeely, M. D., Editor and one of the Proprietors 
and Pounders of Kawkab America. 

This book is compiled for the use of Arabic speaking 
people who desire to learn the English language. Grammatical 



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258 BIB LI A, 

rules are dispensed with, but by the OllendorflE method the ele- 
ments of grammar are gradually developed, and in so simple 
a manner as to render them intelligible to the most ordinary 
capacity. The conversational method is adopted, and the 
words in most common use are arranged in simple sen- 
tences, and the English words are translated into Arabic 
equivalent sounds, thus enabling the student to acquire a prac- 
tical knowledge of English. Rules for letter writing are also 
given with a variety of forms for commercial and social 
correspondence. 

The book is also rendered useful to the English student, 
who desires to learn Arabic, by the addition of an English key 
in which the Arabic alphabet and primary lessons and exer- 
cises are explained in English, and the Arabic words trans- 
literated in Roman letters. The student who wishes to Icam 
Arabic without the aid of a teacher will find this work very 
useful. 

(New York: Oriental Publishing House, 25 Pearl St la 
mo, pp. 670. Price, 12.75. Price of Supplement, 50 cents.) 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, writes from on board his dahabiyeh 
Istar, Cairo, to the editor of the Sunday School Times, that 
" the excavators have already arrived in Egypt, and the archeo- 
logical campaigns of the coming winter and spring are about 
to begin. In fact, M. Schafer is already at work clearing the 
fourth dynasty temple at Abusir which was partially excavated 
by Mr. Villiers Stuart some years ago. Mr. Villiers Stuart 
discovered there a number of large alabaster basins, which 
have since been, unfortunately, allowed to be broken up by 
the Arabs. Mr. F. W. Green, late of the Egypt Geological 
Survey, will continue Mr. Quibell's excavations at Kom el- 
Ahmar, opposite El-Kab, where he will doubtless find many 
more of those remains of primitive Egyptian art which have 
cast such a startling and unexpected light on the beginnings 
of civilization in the valley of the Nile. Mr. Quibell is now 
attached to the Giza Museum, where he is taking part in com- 
piling the scientific calalog of the objects contained in it, and 
which Dr. Borchardt estimates will be a work of at least five 
years. Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt will search for papyri, on 



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BIBLIA, 259 

behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund, in certain naonnds at 
the southern end of the Birket el-Qariim in the Fay)nim, while 
Professor Petrie intends to excavate the necropolis of Hu in 
Upper Egypt, a little to the south of Naga Hamadi, where the 
new Upper Egyptian railway crosses the Nile. M. Am^lineau 
is also expected to continue his excavation at Abydos. 

"During the past summer, tombs of the Roman period 
have been found near Beni Suef, and, as the site of Nankratis 
is about to be leveled for agricultural purposes, we may look 
for the discovery of early Greek monuments there. The 
Marquis of Northampton, with the assistance of Messrs. New- 
berry and Spiegelberg, is working at Thebes among the tombs 
of Drah Abu-n-Nagga, and on the site of the temple of Amen- 
hotep I, the remains of which were discovered by Dr. Spiegel- 
berg three years ago. Dr. Schweinfurth, the famous botanist 
and traveler, has also arrived at Alexandria on his way to 
Luxor. 

'*The smaller objects found last spring in the tomb of 
Amen hotep II at Thebes are now being arranged in the Giza 
Museum. They comprise vases and other objects of blue 
porcelain, large dnkhs (or symbols of life) of painted wood, 
MshebtiSy or small figures which were supposed to assist the 
spirit of the dead man in cultivating the fields of the other 
world, and, above all, fragments of glass vases and bowls of 
the most beautiful colors and forms. The glass manufactories 
of modem Venice could not turn out better work. On some 
of the fragments is the name of Amen hotep II, thus fixing 
their date. The ushebtis are of all patterns, and once more 
illustrate the danger of attempting to date Egyptian anti- 
quities by their external characteristics, forms which have 
hitherto been assigned to different periods being here found 
side by side. The mummies and larger objects have been left 
in the tomb exactly as they were)discovered, so that the tourist 
will be able to see it just as it was when it was first opened. 
Dr. Schweinfurth, it may be added, has found the leaves of 
the olive in some of the garlands of dried leaves and flowers 
that were laid on the royal mummy, while M. Loret, the 
director of antiquities, claims to have found the lemon among 
the preserved fruits which were deposited in earthenware jars 
and offered to the dead. 

'*The great bronze statue of King Pepi of the sixth 
dynasty, found by Mr. Quibell at Kom el-Ahmar last winter, 
is being put together, and it has become clear that the inscrip- 



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26o BIB LI A. 

tions giving the name and titles of the Pharaoh, which was 
believed to have run round his belt, was really upon the pedes- 
tal of the image. The toe-nails were gilded, and a head-dress, 
probably of gold, was fastened to the head by means of bronze 
nails. Inside the statue was a smaller statue, also of ham- 
mered bronze, which has been successfully extracted from its 
hiding place, and proves to be quite perfect. The face is the 
same in the case of both statues, and must have been a portrait. 
It is somewhat non-Egyptian in type, the nose being unusually 
large and prominent. As works of art the two statues stand 
on a very high level, and excite our wonder at the advanced 
state of Egyptian culture in the age of the sixth djmasty, or 
about five thousand years ago. The excavations of Professor 
Flinders Petrie at Dendera last spring had already shown that 
the Egyptians of that remote epoch were acquainted with the 
true principle of the art, and were able to apply it on a large 
and magnificent scale. Once more we are impressed with the 
fact that there is nothing new in Egypt." 



A firman for excavating the Assyrian mound, el-Hadra, the 
upper strata of which are particularly rich in antiquities of the 
last three pre-Christian centuries, has been granted to M. 
Posscy, of Paris, who has immediately proceeded to the ground,, 
a little southeast of ancient Nineveh. 



A subscriber has a nice clear copy in numbers, of Drs. 
Davis & Cobem's ''Ancient Egypt in the Light of Modem 
Discoveries," which she will sell at a very low price. The 
work has been out of print for some time. 



Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt, who are now in Egypt, hope 
in the summer of 1899, ^^ issue the second volume of the 
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, to include many new classical fragments. 
Parts of a tragedy on Niobe, early scholia on the twenty-first 
book of the Iliad, and a portion of Menander's **Perikeiromene'* 
are promised among the rest. 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC 

Vol. XL Meriden, Conn., February 1899. No. 11. 

THE ORIGIN OF HIEROGLYPHS. 

THE new volume of the Archaeological Survey of Egypt, 
entitled A Collection of Hieroglyphs^ by Mr. F. LI. Grif- 
fith, is entirely devoted to a matter which formed part of the 
contents of the previous volume by the same author, Beni 
Hasan^ III. That volume dealt chiefly with two topics : the 
history of Egyptian writing, as illustrated from early hiero- 
glyphic pictures, and scenes depicting contemporary civiliza- 
tion, such as the manufacture and use of flint knives. It is to 
the former subject that Mr. Grifl5th returns in the present 
volume, drawing his materials from a wider area and treating 
them with fuller knowledge. 

Considering the amount of attention now given to all 
departments of Egyptology, it is curious how little has really 
been added to the original decipherments of Champollion, De 
Roug€, and Birch, in tracing the history of Egyptian writing. 
These scholars displayed extraordinary ingenuity in ascertain- 
ing the meaning of hierogljrphic signs, and in identifying 
some of their origins. But since their time an immense mass 
of new material has become available. We are now able to 
distinguish between forms of an early and a late period, to 
render outlines and colors more accurately, and to determine 
more certainly their phonetic and ideographic powers. Mr. 
Grifl5th draws special attention to the critical classification of 
hieroglyphs and their powers in Professor Erman's Grammar, 
and to the valuable collection of forms of the Old Kingdom 
illustrated in Professor Petrie's Medum. In an introductory 
chapter he explains generally the powers of the signs, consid- 



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262 BIBLIA. 

ering first their original use as the name of the object 
pictured, and then their phonetic or ideographic transference. 
For us, the process of phonetic transference is the most inter- 
esting, as it leads directly to alphabetic writing. To quote 
Mr. Griffith : 

" These phonograms, which are very limited in number, 
may indicate one consonant only, in which case they are 
termed Alphabetic ; or more than one, in which case they are 
termed Syllabic. There is no further difference between 
alphabetic and syllabic characters. The origin of many of 
the alphabetic values is still obscure ; and it does not seem 
likely that the Egyptians ever consciously resorted to the 
principle of acrophony, i. e., of assigning to a symbol the value 
of the first only of several sounds in the word which it repre- 
sents. In the Old Kingdom there are no homophones among 
the regular alphabetic characters. Of these there are 25, in- 
cluding the sign used at the end of a word for / as a distinctive 
grammatical ending ; but this was not used as such until the 
Middle Kingdom. The syllabic phonograms in use at a good 
period do not exceed 40." 

One of the most interesting features of Mr. Griffith's book 
is that he has taken advantage of the fact that the number of 
alphabetic characters is limited to 35 , in order to devise a 
novel method of transliteration. Hitherto, the various meth- 
ods adopted by different schools of Egyptologists have all 
alike required the abundant use of diacritical points, which 
are displeasing to the eye and form a serious obstacle to 
beginners. One or other of these methods is freely used by 
Mr. Griffith in his text, but at the same time he has universally 
adopted his own system. Briefly, this consists of a new fount 
of hieroglyphic type, limited to the 25 alphabetic characters, 
which at once sufficiently represents the Egyptian signs, 
distinguishes the transliterations from the true words, ranges 
with ordinary English type, and is clear and not tmpleasing to 
the eye. 

Putting aside this vexed question of transliteration, which 
must be left to experts to settle, the amateur in Egyptology 
will find nuch to interest him in this volume. Mr. Griffith 
has arranged the signs that he discusses in fifteen groups: 
such as humanity, mammals, birds, reptiles, buildings, vases, 
textiles, implements, etc. Each sign discussed is illustrated 
from fine examples, most of which have been copied during 
the operations of their survey. Their large size, faithful 



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BIB LI A, 263 

coloring, and early date, are alone enough to make the plates 
invaluable for anyone who would attempt to trace the history 
of Egyptian writing. On one point we notice that Mr. Grif- 
fith has changed his mind since the issue of Bent Hasan^ III, 
He was then disposed to consider the well-known heiroglyphic 
symbol for /as a slug, supporting his opinion by the picture 
of a very similar creature crawling up a papyrus stem. He 
has now come back to the common opinion that the animal 
intended is the cerastes or homed snake, which certainly 
seems to us much more reasonable. 

Another matter to which Mr. Griffith has devoted special 
trouble is the determination of the several species of birds 
represented, which ought to secure for his work the notice of 
ornithologists. The familiar bird-symbol for a has never 
before been so clearly shown to be a vulture ; while the rarer 
bird-symbol having the value of tiw is now for the first time 
identified as an eagle. The hawk of Horus, " the soarer," 
which gives its name to Hierakonpolis, is the male sparrow- 
hawk. The owl is not long-eared until very late times. The 
duck is a pintail ; the goose is of the white-fronted species, in 
spring plumage ; the chick is that of the quail which was then 
half domesticated, as indeed it is in India at the present day. 
The barn-door fowl was, of course, unknown in ancient Egypt. 
Both the sacred and the crested ibis are clearly represented, 
though it is noteworthy that the latter species is no longer 
found in the Valley of the Nile. The bird-symbil for «/r== 
" great," " old," must be the swallow, or possibly the martin ; 
the color and markings vary considerably, but the general 
outline and forked tail are constant. 

We have only touched upon a very few of the many inter- 
esting points raised in Mr. Griffith's volume. As he would 
himself be the first to admit, he is here breaking new ground 
in a field that is both obscure and imperfectly surveyed. He 
modestly asks for the criticism of experts, and he acknowl- 
edges that his own opinions are liable to be modified by fresh 
light. It is one of the objects of the Archaeological survey, as 
a special branch of the Egypt Exploration Fund, to collect and 
publish such fresh material from sites already excavated. 
Mr. N. de G. Davies, as agent for the Survey, has already set- 
tled down to his task of copying the sculptures on the tomb of 
Ptahhetep at Sakkara. A new era of activity is thus com- 
menced ; but more money is needed to place the undertaking 
on a permanent basis, and to enable Mr. Griffith to continue 



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264 BIBLIA, 

his studies in Egyptian palaeography, which have already been 
crowned with so much success. J. S. C. 



AMERICAN WORK AT CORINTH. 

THREE years ago the Ephor-General of Antiquities in 
Greece granted to the American School at Athens the 
privilege of conducting excavations on the site of ancient 
Corinth. The director of the school, Professor Richardson, 
and his colleague for the year. Professor Benjamin Ide 
Wheeler, of Cornell University, agreed that no available site 
in the kingdom promised more important results from exca- 
vations than this city, which in all Greece was second only to 
Athens in magnificence, wealth and population, and had great 
historic interest. They were well a^ivare of the magnitude of 
the enterprise ; not only was the extent of the ancient city 
vast, but the ruins also are covered by a layer of soil, which 
in many places is from fifteen to twenty feet in thickness. 

The work in 1896 was of a tentative nature. The topog- 
raphy of Corinth was absolutely unknown, except for the 
great landmarks of the two harbors, Acrocorinthus and the 
Isthmian Sanctuary in the suburbs. Even the old ruined 
temple had no certain name. Twenty trial trenches were 
dug, and the ancient Greek theatre was discovered, with por- 
tions of a Roman theatre resting upon it, and indications of 
the proximity of the agora. 

In 1897 the work of excavation was interrupted by the 
war between Greece and Turkey. 

In 1898 the excavations were continued, with about one 
hundred and twenty men, and were facilitated by the use of a 
track and twelve cars which the French had used in their work 
at Delphi, and had now kindly rented to the Americans. The 
main result of these excavations was the discovery of the 
fountain Pirene, which was the center of the life of the ancient 
city. In tentative digging near the old temple, which is now 
identified as the temple of Apollo by its relations to Pirene, 
two of its fallen monolithic columns were found. Five statues 
were discovered, but unfortunately they are headless. The 
number of inscriptions was not large, but includes the lintel 
of the Synagogue of the Jews — probably the very s3magogue 
in which St. Paul taught when he came first to Corinth. Many 



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BIBLJA. 265 

smaller objects of interest were discovered from all ages of 
the city's life. 

The American School at Athens has no money with 
which to continue the excavations at Corinth in the spring of 
1899. The Managing Committee would regret on every ac- 
count to stop the work at the present point. The stage of 
experiment is passed. With the temple of Apollo, the theatre 
and Pirene identified, no further excavation in that region 
need be at random. The track and cars are now at Corinth 
ready for use. The discovery of the two fallen columns of the 
temple of Apollo warrants the hope of further discoveries in 
the vicinity. That so much has been accomplished on so great 
a field, with such limited means, testifies, in the opinion of 
those who are best qualified to judge, to the learning and 
judgment of the director, and entitles him to the gratitude and 
support of the friends of the school. 

The fountain of Pirene must be laid quite bare, and the 
aqueduct which still carries the water supply for the little 
hamlet must be made entirely secure. The cost of land ex- 
propriated has been about $1,000. About l5»ooo has been paid 
hitherto for these excavations. About half this sum has been 
contributed by or through the Archaeological Institute. Colonel 
John Hay gave |i,ooo, Dr. Charles Peabody |soo, W. W. Law 
$250, and others smaller amounts. 

The sum of 1 1,500 would suffice for the work immediately 
about Pirene and the temple of Apollo. If another thousand 
dollars was at the command of the director for the determina- 
tion of the agora and for following up the broad, well-paved 
street which has been found near the theatre, all friends of the 
school and of archaeological studies would be glad. These 
excavations do not simply furnish fresh material for study to 
the students of the school ; they also throw much desired light 
on old archaeological problems. 

Contributions may be sent to the treasurer of the Manag- 
ing Committee of the school, G. M. Lane, No. 44 State street, 
Boston, or to Thomas Day Seymour, chairman, Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Conn. 



T 



RELICS OF BUDDHA. 

HE King of Siam is sending an envoy to India to 
receive the relics of Buddha discovered some time ago 



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266 BIB LI A, 

on the Nepaul frontier, which were offered to His Majesty by 
the Indian Government. The King, who gratefully accepted 
the offer, has agreed to distribute portions of the relics among 
the Buddhists of Burma and Ceylon from Bangkok. 

It will probably be remembered that in January last a 
well-preserved stupa was opened at the village of Pipra-Hwa, 
on the Nepaul frontier in the Basti district of the northwest 
provinces. This village was in the Birdpur grant, a large 
property owned by William C. Pepp6 and his brother. Inside 
the building was found a large stone coffer, crystal and steatite 
vases, bone and ash relics, fragments of lime, plaster and 
wooden vessels, and a large quantity of jewels and ornaments 
placed in two vases in honor of the relics. A careful list was 
at once made of all the articles, and Mr. Pepp6 generously 
offered to place them at the disposal of the Government. 

The special interest of the discovery lies in the fact that 
the relics in honor of which the stupa was erected appear to 
be those of Gautama Buddha Sakya Muni himself, and may 
be the actual share of the relics taken by the Sakyas of Kapil- 
avastir at the time of the cremation of Gautama Buddha. 
The inscription on one of the urns proves that the builders 
of the stupa believed the relics to be those of Gautama Buddha 
himself. It runs : " This relic receptacle of the blessed Sakya 
Buddha is dedicated by the renowned brethren with their sis- 
ters and their sons' wives." The characters of the record, 
Professor Biihrer points out, do not mark medial long vowels, 
and appear to be older than those of the Asoka inscription. 

The relics, being a matter of such intense interest to the 
Buddhist world, were offered by the Indian Government to 
the King of Siam, who is the only existing Buddhist monarch, 
with a proviso that he would not object to offer a portion 
of the relics to the Buddhists of Burmah and Ceylon, and it 
was suggested that His Majesty should send a deputation to 
receive the sacred relics with due ceremonial. 

No relics of Buddha authenticated by a direct inscription 
have before been found in modem times, so the relics are as 
rare as they are unique, and by all Buddhists will be regarded 
as most sacred and holy objects of devotion. Their presenta- 
tion to the King of Siam, the recognized head of the religion, 
is, therefore, highly proper. The accessories which were 
discovered will, it is understood, be distributed among the 
Imperial Museum at Calcutta, the Lucknow Provincial Mu- 
seum, and, perhaps, the British Museum, Mr. Pepp^ retaining 



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BIB LI A, 267 

a reasonable number of duplicates for his own use. The stone 
coflfer above referred to is over four feet in length and two feet 
in height. It is made out of a solid block of sandstone and 
weighs about sixteen hundredweight. It is understood that 
the acknowledgements of the Government have been conveyed 
to Mr. Pepp6 for his public-spirited action in the matter. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Jastrow on the Religion of the Babylonians. 

The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. By Morris Jastrow, Jr., 
Ph. D., Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

This book is one of the series of " Handbooks on the His- 
tory of Religions," and it follows the same general plan of Pro- 
fessor Hopkins' Religions oflndia^ noticed in Biblia for January, 
1896. Professor Jastrow says that the time has not yet come 
for an exhaustive treatise on the religion of Babylonia and 
Assyria; that increasing knowledge leads necessarily to a 
change of perspective and a readjustment of views, and that 
the chief reason for writing a book is to prepare the way for 
the next one on the same subject. 

Milnter, Hincks, Tiele, Lenormant, Oppert, Halevy, 
Sayce, Jensen, Rawlinson, and a number of other Assyriolo- 
gists have written upon Assyrian and Babylonian religion, 
but the ancient Akkadian faith of Mesopotamia has not yet 
been adequately studied, and the present state of our knowl- 
edge does not allow us to determine the development of 
Babylonian religion. The sources of our information are 
almost wholly monumental. The few stray notices in the Old 
Testament and Herodotus, and a few classical authors who 
simply reproduced extracts from other works, were all the 
knowledge that we had on the subject until about the middle 
of the present century. But since Botta in 184a in Mesopo- 
tamia, the work of excavators, such as Layard, Rassam, de 
Sarzec, the University of Pennsylvania, and others, have 
brought to light from the long lost and almost forgotten cities 
of the Tigris and Euphrates valley an enormous amount of 
material, incantations, prayers and hymns, lists of temples, of 
gods and their attributes, traditions of the creation of the 
world, legends of the deities and of their relations to men, 



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268 BIBLIA, 

material which it will take years to fully study ; and the soil 
of Mesopotamia undoubtedly holds still greater treasures than 
those which it has already yielded. Notwithstanding this 
immense amount of material, our knowledge of the religion, 
though increasing every year, is still very imperfect, especially 
as to its development. 

Undoubtedly, however, a large proportion of the deities 
of the Babylonian faith had their first origin in the beliefs of 
the Akkadian people, and Professor Jastrow says that it is 
generally admitted that ail the literature of Babylonia, in- 
cluding the oldest and even that written in the *' ideographic " 
style, whether we term it " Sumero- Akkadian " or " hieratic," 
is the work of Semitic settlers of Mesopotamia. Therefore 
the culture, including the religion of Babylonia, is likewise a 
Semitic production. However, a great majority of scholars 
now admit that the Semitic Babylonians borrowed their 
methods of writing and many of their beliefs from an earlier 
race of non-Semitic origin. To this race, which is assumed to 
have preceded the Semites to Assyria, and to have transmitted 
their civilization and religious beliefs, as well as their cunei- 
form letters, Oppert gives the name of Kasdo-Sythic, or 
Sumerian, and calls their language Sumerian. 

While the cuneiform syllabary is largely Semitic in char- 
acter, yet there is a residium that has not been satisfactorily 
accounted for by those who favor the non-Semitic theory or 
by those who hold the opposite view. Probably the popula- 
tion of their country consisted of two layers : one, the Akka- 
dians, reminding, in many respects, of the Uralo- Altaic race ; 
and another, the Chaldaean, belonging surely to the Semitic 
race. However, the religious belief of the Sumerians, and 
possibly of other peoples, had, no doubt, some influence on the 
religious ideas of the Semites. All the principal gods of the 
Akkadians reappear in the Babylono- Assyrian Pantheon, the 
original names being sometimes preserved, sometimes par- 
tially modified in accordance with Semitic idiom, and some- 
times translated. But to the student of the Babylonian 
religion the most important consideration is, that from all 
of the literary sources at our command, we find that the 
religious conceptions and practices are distinctly Babylonian. 

The period of religious activity extends over a long 
interval, between 4000 B. C. and the middle of the sixth cen- 
tury. The development of this religion follows closely the 
course of civilization and of history in the territory under 



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BIBLIA. 269 

^consideration. Professor Jastrow, in the introductory chap- 
ters, considers briefly the land and the people, and the sources 
and methods of study. Then over six hundred pages arc 
occupied with an account of the Babylonian and Assyrian 
gods, the magical texts, processional hymns, penitential 
psalms, oracles and omens, myths and legends, the temples 
and the cult, the future life, Babylonian cosmology, etc. The 
author has gathered together in convenient arrangement and 
readable form what is at present known about the religion of 
the Babylonians and Assyrians. He has not hesitated to pre- 
sent his own views, derived from his own studies, and to often 
indicate his dissent from views advanced by other schools. 

Professor Jastrow shows that the Babylonian religion, in 
the oldest form known to us, was a mixture of local and 
nature cults. Starting with Animism, or a worship of trees, 
stones, and plants, and the phenomena of nature, as storm, 
rain, and wind, probably borrowed from an earlier cult, the 
Babylonians impressed the stamp of their own spirit, and the 
nature-beings whom they invoked, in imitation of the Akka- 
dians, became among them real gods, some of whom exercised 
a more decided influence upon the affairs of man than others. 
Above the highest triads they placed a god whose commands 
all the others reverenced, as the head of an unlimited 
theocracy. The number of gods was innumerable, and the 
thousands of tablets constantly being brought to light will 
undoubtedly furnish many additional names of deities and 
perhaps throw further light on those known. 

The religion of Assyria was borrowed from that of Baby- 
lonia. But the Assyrian pantheon was much smaller, with 
fewer minor details. Almost the only difference observable in 
the religion of the two kingdoms was that, whereas Bel- 
Marduk, the god of mercy, was the supreme god of Babylonia, 
Ashur, a " god of war," was the supreme god of Assyria. 

The beginnings of Babylonian literature are enveloped in 
obscurity, but it was largely developed in the great centres of 
commercial activity, Ur, Sippar, Agade, Eridu, Nippur, Urak, 
and Lagash. Every great Babylonian city had at least one 
library, and the Assjrrian kings established libraries in their 
own country in imitation of those of Babylonia. About two- 
thirds of the library of Nineveh, formed by Ashurbanabal, is 
now in the British Museum. If all the texts at present in the 
museums of Europe and America were published, they would 
rival in extent the books of the Old Testament. The excava- 



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270 BIB LI A. 

tions made under the auspices of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania brought to light over 21,000 tablets, and carrying back 
history to 7000 B. C. 

Nearly all of the Babylonian and Assyrian literature is of 
a religious character, consisting of magical texts, hymns and 
prayers, omens and forecasts, the cosmology, and epics and 
legends, but as the religion of Babylonia permeates all 
branches of literature, it is difficult to draw a sharp dividing 
line between sacred and secular productions. Professor 
Jastrow takes up each of these subjects, and enters very fully 
into their influence upon the religious life of the Babylonians, 
giving many translations of the original texts. The chapter 
on the cosmology of the Babylonians takes up the subject of 
the " Creation Epic," two independent versions of which have 
been found among the remains of Babylonian literature, and 
Professor Jastrow thinks that there is no reason to suppose 
that the versions were limited to two, and that they might 
appropriately be called " The Epic of Marduk," as they con- 
stitute a great hymn in honor of Marduk. The account of the 
beginning of things and of the order of creation is but inci- 
dental to an episode which is intended to illustrate the great- 
ness of Marduk, the head of the Babylonian pantheon. Pro- 
fessor Jastrow concludes that the variation between the 
Babylonian versions rest upon varying traditions that must 
have arisen in different places. The attempt was made to 
confine these traditions to the Babylonians, and among the 
Hebrews we may see the result of a similar attempt in the first 
three chapters of Genesis. At the same time, the manner in 
which both traditions have been worked over by the Hebrew 
compilers of Genesis precludes the theory of a direct borrow- 
ing from cuneiform documents. The Babylonian exile brought 
Hebrews and Babylonians once more together, and under the 
stimulus of the direct contact the final shape was given by 
Hebrew writers to the cosmological speculations. Yahwe is- 
assigned the role of Bel-Marduk, the division of the work of 
creation into six days is definitely made, and some further 
modification introduced. Says Professor Jastrow, " It is by 
no means impossible, but on the contrary quite probable, that 
the final compilers of the Hebrew versions had before them 
the cuneiform tablets, embodying the literary form given to 
the traditions by Babylonian writers. Such a circumstance, 
while not impl)ring direct borrowing, would account for the 
close parallels existing between the Hebrew and the two 



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BIBLIA. 271 

Babylonian versions, and would also furnish a motive to 
the Hebrew writers for embod)ring two versions of their 
narrative." 

The Gilgamesh Epic, which resembles so closely the 
Biblical account of the deluge, receives thorough treatment. 
Professor Jastrow considers the epic as a compound of faint 
historical tradition and of nature myths. He considers that 
the slight variations between the Biblical and Babylonian 
narratives justify the conclusion that the Hebrew story is not 
directly borrowed from the Babylonian version. The diverg- 
encies are just of the character that will arise through the 
independent development of a common tradition. 

The chapter on the Babylonian views of the life after 
death shows that the views embodied in the Old Testament 
regarding the fate of the dead coincide with Babylonian con- 
ceptions, which would not seem singular, for when the 
Hebrew clans left their homes in the Euphrates Valley, they 
carried with them the traditions, beliefs, and customs that 
were current in their district, and which they shared with the 
Babylonians. Further discoveries beneath the mounds of 
Mesopotamia and further researches in Babylonian literature 
will add more evidence to the indebtedness of the Hebrews 
to Babylonia. 

The chapters on the temples and cult show that the cult 
of Babylonia, even more so than the literature, is a compound 
of popular l^eliefs and the theological elaboration and sys- 
tematization of those beliefs. The sorcerer of prehistoric 
times became the priest of later Babylonia. Temples were 
numerous, with an organized priesthood, who exerted a great 
influence, and sacrifices, offerings, and days of thanksgiving 
and humiliation were ordained. Sins were confessed in peni- 
tential hymns of deep religious feeling. The official cult 
passed in some important particulars far beyond popular 
practices, and some priests really came very near monotheism. 
Thus, in an early hymn to the Moon-god, which was composed 
in the city of Ur, we read : 

** Father, long suffering and full of forgiveness, whose hand upholds 

the life of all mankind ! 
Pirst-bom, omnipotent, whose heart is immensity, and there is 

none who may fathom it! 
In heaven, who is supreme ? Thou alone, thou art supreme ! 
On earth, who is supreme ? Thou alone, thou art supreme !" 

Professor Jastrow says, however, that there was only a 



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272 BIBLIA, 

tendency towards monotheism in the religion of Babylonia 
and Assyria. No decided steps in this direction were ever 
taken. Both in the south and in the north this tendency is 
but the expression of the preeminent rank accorded to Marduk 
and Ashur respectively. 

Professor Jastrow emphasises the statement that a proper 
study of the Hebrew religion is closely bound up with an 
investigation of the religious antiquities of Babylonia; and as 
our knowledge of these antiquities increases, it will be found 
that not only are Hebrews and Babylonians equipped with 
many common possessions when starting out upon their intel- 
lectual careers, but that, at diflFerent times and in diverse 
ways, the stimulus to religious advance came to the Hebrews 
from the ancient centres of thought and worship in the 
Euphrates Valley. This influence was particularly strong 
during the period of Jewish history known as Babylonian 
exile. The finishing touches to the structure of Judaism — 
given on Babylonian soil — reveal the Babylonian trademark. 
Ezekiel, in many respects the most characteristic figure of the 
exile, is steeped in Babylonian theology and mysticism ; and 
the profound influence of Ezekiel is recognized by modem 
scholarship in the religious spirit that characterizes the Jews 
upon the reorganization of their commonwealth. 

Professor Jastrow has written a very exhaustive and inter- 
esting book, gathering together the investigations of scholars 
that are scattered through a large variety of periodicals and 
monographs, and many mooted points are fairly discussed. 
The book well represents our present knowledge of the 
religious views of the Babylonians. The translations, which 
are numerous, have been made direct from the original text, 
and are as literal as is consonant with presentation in idiom- 
atic English. An excellent bibliography completes the work. 

(Boston: Ginn & Co. 8vo, pp. 780. Price, 13.25). 



A most important Coptic text has recently been published 
by Dr. Wallis Budge under the title of The earliest known 
Coptic Psalter: the text^ in the dialect of Upper Egypty edited 
from the unique Papyrus Codex Oriental 5000 in the British 
Museum, 

Luzac's Oriental List refers to this work as follows : The 
Papyrus-book from which the text is copied forms part of one 
of the greatest " finds " that has been made in Egypt during 



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BIB LI A, 273 

the last few years. About three years ago some Egyptian 
peasants were clearing away the light soil from the ruins of 
an ancient Coptic church and monastery in Upper Egjrpt, 
their object being to collect the soil for use as " top-dressing " 
on their farms. Suddenly their tools struck on a rectangular 
slab of stone, which proved to be the cover of a stone coflFer 
firmly fastened in the ground. Inside were found two books, 
which, though written on papyrus, were bound in stout 
leather covers, after the manner of Egyptian books. The 
books, which had evidently lain in the coflFer for several hun- 
dreds of years, had been expressly written for the use of the 
monastery. It is probable that at some period of persecution 
an ofl&cial of the church had carefully prepared the box in 
case it should be necessary to hide the books. When the 
need arose they were carefully wrapped in linen, placed in 
the coflFer, and the lid was closed. There they have remained 
until discovered by chance some three years ago. One of the 
volumes contains ten complete homilies by fathers of the 
Monophysite Church, the other a complete copy of the Psalter 
in the dialect of Upper Egypt, which has now been published 
by Dr. Budge. To all those interested in Coptic literature 
the value of this volume will be considerable, for it is the 
only complete copy of the Psalter in the dialect of Upper 
Egypt that has come down to us. Portions of the Psalter in 
this dialect have been published by Tuki, Zoegi, Lagarde, 
Peyron, Schwartze and Maspero, and Signor Ciasca, in his 
edition of the Sahidic-Coptic books of the Old Testament, has 
collected and published a number of the Psalms ; but these do 
not represent a complete Psalter. Dr. Budge's volume con- 
tains the first complete text of the Sahidic-Coptic Psalter 
published. From a palaeographical point of view the volume 
is of unique interest, inasmuch as papyrus has been used for 
the leaves. Dr. Budge has been able to trace the history of 
the book by the patches and repairs that have been made at 
diflFerent periods. The book has been much handled, the 
lower portions of the leaves being discolored. Several of the 
leaves have been recopied, some of the characters retouched, 
and cracks repaired by pasting over them pieces of new 
papyrus on pieces or leaves of old books. The repairs, how- 
ever, have been carefully carried out, as the reader may see 
from the plates that accompany the volume, and Dr. Budge 
has fortunately been enabled to publish an absolutely com- 
plete text. 



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274 BIB LI A. 

Mr. J. Elfreth Watkins, C. E., Curator of Technology, 
United States National Museum, contributes a valuable article 
to Gassier* s Magazine for December, on '* The Transportation 
and Lifting of Heavy Bodies by the Ancients." The ability 
displayed by the ancients in transporting heavy objects from 
place to place, and in raising them many feet above the sur- 
face of the ground in the construction of temples, palaces, and 
pyramids, has long since been a source of wonder. It may, 
indeed, be truly said that the engineers of the present era 
would find it difficult to perform similar feats, even when 
aided by the most approved appliances devised through the 
ingenuity developed in this inventive age. 

So impressed with amazement at the achievements of the 
ancient architects have trained archaeologists become that not 
infrequently the opinion is expressed that these men, whose 
work has withstood the ravages of scores of centuries, must 
have been aided by well-devised machines, possibly operated 
by one or more of the generated forces. Notwithstanding 
these conjectures, in the many careful and thorough explora- 
tions made in late years the remains of no hoisting machines 
have thus far been discovered, nor has there been foimd, 
either in the Assy ro- Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions or in 
the Egyptian hieroglyphics, an account or description of the 
processes employed by the ancients in lifting heavy masses 
to extraordinary heights. In fact, no equivalent for the 
words "derrick," ** pulley," "wrench," etc., have yet been 
identified in these ancient records to encourage the belief in a 
seaculo sapienii. 

The purpose of Mr. Watkins' paper is to explain how 
many of the edifices now regarded as remarkable could have 
been constructed by primitive tools and simple methods. 
While several pictorial remains are in existence, showing 
how, by the aid of sledges, rollers, and levers, huge images of 
stone were moved over ground from the quarry to the build- 
ing under construction, nothing has been found to show how 
the heavy masses were lifted into position. In examining the 
photographs referred to, it was noted, especially in the pic- 
torial representations of Assyrian and Egyptian remains, that 
many figures are represented in various attitudes, carrying 
something in baskets or bags. It occurred to Mr. Watkins 
that this "something" was clay or other kinds of earth, and a 
method of lifting heavy bodies into position suggested itself, 
in which the sledge, the roller, the lever, and the inclined 



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BIBLIA. 275 

plane, made of earth, were the only mechanical powers neces- 
sary to be utilized, no pulleys, cranes, or other machinery 
being employed. 

By means of several illustrations Mr. Watkins shows how, 
by the aid of inclined planes of earth, the huge stones used in 
the construction of pjrramids could be put in position by the 
use of primitive appliances. 



Mr. Theodore Stanton has an interesting article in the Open 
Court for November, on " The Guimet Museum." The Guimet 
Museum of Religions was founded at Lyons in 1879, ^Y M. 
Emile Guimet, who, though a manufacturer and active busi- 
ness man, has long devoted his leisure hours and a large part 
of his ample fortune to the study of ancient religions. Ten 
years ago the valuable collections were transferred to Paris 
and presented to the State. 

M. de Millou^, the director of the Museum, thus describes 
its object: "To propagate a knowledge of Oriental civiliza- 
tions, and to aid religious, artistic and historic studies by means 
of sacred images and books, objects of worship and art, found 
in its collections — such is the aim of this foundation. But the 
history of religion, the primitive purpose of the Museum, re- 
mains its principal object. 

The Museum building is situated in the Place d'Jena, and is 
•composed of four wings, three stories high, and a round cen- 
tral tower, where is kept the library of twenty-five thousand 
volumes. In two galleries on the ground floor is a collection 
of Chinese and Japanese ceramics of artistic and industrial 
value. A third gallery contains original monuments and casts 
from the ancient cities of Siam and the celebrated temples of 
Angkor, a ruined city near the frontier of Cambodia. 

On the floor above is a room filled with objects used in fire 
worship, a gallery divided into five rooms containing objects 
relating to the religions of Cambodia, Burmah, Siam, Annam, 
Tonquin, Siberia, and the popular religions of the Chinese 
previous to Fuh Kien. Six more rooms on this floor are 
^ven up to the religions and history of Japan, and two more 
to Japanese art. 

On the next floor are to be found four rooms devoted to the 
religion of Ancient Egypt ; others where are exhibited Japan- 
-ese pictures and engravings and antiquities of Italy and Greece; 



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276 BIBLIA. 

six more where are monuments of archaic Greece, Assyria,. 
Babylonia, Phoenicia, and Cappadocia; specimens of the Mus- 
sulman arts of Occidental and Central Asia, and a very im- 
portant series of Corean objects. 

The Guimet Museum has issued some twenty-five volumes 
under the general title of " Annales du Mus^e Guimet," cover- 
ing the whole subject of religious history, idol worship and 
various archaeological questions pertaining thereto. Many 
well-known scholars, as Max Miiller, for instance, are the 
authors of the best of this splendid collection. Owing to the 
maps and illustrations these volumes are very costly, but the 
Museum issues a more popular and cheaper series of works, 
like Am^lineau's Essay on the Egyptian Monks, Millou6's His- 
tory of the Indian Religions, Sayce's History of the Hittitcs, 
and other like books which are sold at three francs and a half per 
volume. M. Jean R^ville's semi-quarterly Revue de VHistoire des 
Religions is also issued by the Museum, and it contains among 
its contributors such distinguished scholars as Maspero, Dar- 
mesteter, Goblet d'Alviella, de Pressens^, Sabatier, etc. 

M. Guimet is continually sending out exploring expeditions 
for the purpose of collecting new materials. Thus, for the 
past two years, he has been directing the excavations on the 
site of the Roman city of Antinoe, between Memphis and 
Thebes. M. Alexandre Gayet, who has superintended the 
work, has succeeded in finding in the necropolis of Antinoe a 
large mass of objects which furnish much new information 
concerning the religion, arts and customs of the lower and 
middle classes of Egypt from the third to the seventh centuries 
of one era. 



Contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology. Vol. XX. Part 7 : 

Assyriological Notes. — Prof. A. H. Sayce. — Hittite In- 
scriptions, W. H. Rylands. — An Ancient Egyptian Toilet-box, 
with an analysis of its contents, W. L. Nash and W. Gowland. 
—A Coptic * Letter of Orders,' W. E. Crum.— L'Exode des 
Hebreux, Prof. J. Lieblein. 

Prof. Sayce refers to M. Chantre's account of his Mission 
en Cappadoce as one of the most important works from an 
archaeological point of view that have appeared for many years. 
The discoveries made at the two Hittite centres of Bogha^ 
Keui and Euyuk have thrown new and unexpected light, not 



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BIB LI A, 277 

only on the archaeology of Asia Minor, but also on many of the 
problems connected with the early civilization of Western 
Asia and Egypt. Among the objects disinterred by M. 
Chantre and his wife at Boghaz Keui are numerous fragments 
of cuneiform tablets. Prof. Sayce shows that some of these 
tablets were in the language of the country in which stood one 
of the chief Hittite cities, and he concludes that in these frag- 
mentary cuneiform texts we have at last lighted on the mys- 
terious and long-sought language of the Hittite hieroglyphs. 
It seems at last that solid ground has been reached from which 
to attack the still undeciphered Hittite hieroglyphs. 



Messrs. Luzac & Co. announce the early appearance of 
the second volume of their " Semitic Text and Translation 
Series." This volume will deal with a series of ancient 
Babylonian historical documents of the highest importance to 
the student of cuneiform inscriptions and to the archaeologist, 
and will contain complete copies of forty-six letters of Kham- 
murabi, king of Babylon about B. C. 2200, and twenty-four 
copies of letters and other documents of Khammurabi and 
other kings of his dynasty. These will be accompanied by a 
full list of the documents, with descriptions, measurements, 
etc., and the whole will form a corpus of the earliest known 
Babylonian texts written in a Semitic dialect. The inscrip- 
tions have been autographed by Mr. L. W. King, M. A., of 
the British Museum, who has supplied an interesting intro- 
duction, in which he traces the sources of our knowledge of 
ancient Babylonian history, and gives a summary of the 
principal work which has been hitherto done in this subject. 
He discusses the important letter of Khammurabi which has 
been published by the Rev. Father Scheil, and traverses his 
statements concerning the alleged discovery in it of the name 
of Chedorlaomer ; and Mr. King proves that the discovery 
rests upon a misreading of certain cuneiform signs. Owing 
to the kindness of His Excellency O. Hamdi Bey, Director of 
the Imperial Ottoman Museum, Constantinople, Mr. King has 
been enabled to place before his readers a photographic 
reproduction of the tablet published by the Rev. Father 
Scheil. It was originally intended to include within the 
volume, translations, with notes, of all the texts published in 
it ; it has, however, been found impossible to do this, as an 
already bulky volume would have been swollen to an incon- 



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278 BIB LI A, 

venient size. It has therefore been decided to print the 
translations, notes, vocabulary, etc., together with a number 
of supplementary texts, in the fourth volume of the series. 



The official publication, in fac simile, of the Rhind Math- 
ematical Papyrus in the British Museum, will revive discussion 
on the state of mathematical science in ancient Egypt, and 
also on the indebtedness of Greek mathematicians to their 
Egyptian forerunners. The composition of the treatise goes 
back to the ages of hoar antiquity. For though the present 
papyrus does not belong to a period earlier than B. C. 1700, it 
traces its genealogy to a copy made in the reign of a king 
who lived about 2300 B. C. The title is "Instructions for 
Arriving at the Knowledge of All Things Obscure, and of All 
Mysteries." These "mysteries" consist, among other things, 
in the multiplication or division by any number higher than 
two, the measurements of volume and area, the computations 
of amounts of grain to be stored in spaces of different sorts, 
and the measurements of pyramids. After having slumbered 
for a series of centuries in the ruin of a small building at 
Thebes, the papyrus was brought to light about forty-five 
years ago. Mr. A. H. Rhind bought it at Luxor in 1858. 
After his death it came into the possession of Mr. David 
Bremner, from whom it was purchased for the museum in 
1864. Since then, much has been written on the subject by 
the late Dr. Samuel Birch, A. Eisenlohe, and others. If this 
papyrus represents all that the ancient Egyptians knew of 
mathematics, it does not amount to much, and on the theo- 
retical side of the subject they seem to have been wholly 
astray. But whether Herodotus and other Greek writers 
were inaccurate in speaking highly of the mathematical 
science of the Egyptians is a different question. Thales and 
Pythagoras, as well as Herodotus, lived more than a thousand 
years, at the lowest computation, after the writing of the 
present papyrus. In that time sufficient progress may have 
been made by Eg3T)tian mathematicians to justify the praise 
bestowed upon them by their Greek visitors. Mr. E. Wallis 
Budge, who edits this work, refrains from accompanying the 
text by explanatory remarks, but he gives in his preface a 
useful list of the principal works from which all the necessary 
information may be gleaned. 



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BIBLIA, 279 

Contents of the American Journal of Archceology^ Vol. II, 
Nnmbers i, a : The Identification of the Marbles Used in 
Greek Sculptures. H. S. Washington. — ^A Capital from the 
Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome. A. Marquand. — The 
Epigraphic Sources of Suetonius. W. Dennison. — Inscriptions 
from Gortyna, Lyttos, and Lat6pros Kamara. S. A. Xan- 
thoudidis. — Addenda to the Cretan Inscriptions. F. Halbherr. 
— Archaeological News from August, 1897, to February, 1898. 

Contents of Vol. II, Nos. 3 and 4 : Notes on Oriental 
Antiquities, i. The Horse in Ancient Babylonia. 2. Ne- 
hushtan. Wm. Hayes Ward. — The Orpheus Relief. John 
Pickard. — Terra-cotta Reliefs from the Argive Heraeum. C. 
Waldstein and J. C. Hoppin. — The Eiskylema in the Eretrian 
Theatre. Andrew Fossum. — An Old Corinthian Vase from 
Corinth. R. B. Richardson. — Terra-cotta Figurines from 
Corinth. R. B. Richardson. — A Trace of Egypt in Eleusis. 
R. B. Richardson. — The Excavations at Corinth in 1898. Pre- 
liminary Report. R. B. Richardson. — Archaeological Reports 
(August, 1897 — February, 1898). Eleven plates. 



We have received a reprint from the Report of the U. S. 
National Museum for 1896, entitled "Biblical Antiquities. A 
Description of the Exhibit at the Cotton States International 
Exposition, Atlanta, 1895." By Cyrus Adler, Ph. D., and I. 
M. Casanowicz, Ph. D, This exhibit comprised the Oriental 
antiquities in the U. S. National Museum, and a collection of 
objects representing Religious Ceremonial Initiations. This 
exhibit was the first attempt to show in outline all the possi- 
bilities of study in the department of Biblical history and 
antiquities. 

The exhibit covered the geology, flora, fauna, precious 
stones, coins, dress ornaments and household utensils, etc., 
and also objects relating to Jewish religious ceremonial, and 
casts of statues, mummies, etc., from Egypt, Assyria, Baby- 
lonia, and from the land of the Hittites. Specimens were also 
exhibited of Bibles, ancient versions and modem translations. 
These articles are very fully described by the authors, and the 
pamphlet of eighty pages is illustrated with forty-six full page 
half-tones. It will prove of great value to all persons inter- 
ested in the archaeology and history, the ethnology, and the 



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28o BIB LI A. 



art of Bible lands. The pamphlet is issued by the Smith^^ 
sonian Institution, Washington. 



Dr. Freiherr Heller von Gertringen, of Berlin, contributes 
to the Reports of the Berlin Academy of Science, an account 
of a new Septuagint text of the eighteenth Psalm (according 
to the Hellenistic numbering the seventy-ninth). The find 
was made while the author was living on the island of Thera, 
and was sent to him by a physician from the island of Rhodes, 
where it had been found in a leaden roll. This roll contains 
the great portion of the Psalm in question, but in a peculiar 
type of the Septuagint version. The accoimt states that 
" authorities " who have examined the original claim that the 
manuscript belongs to the third, or, at the latest, the fourth 
Christian century." The document is now deposited in the 
Royal Museum of Berlin. 



A work on Mesopotamian geography of uncommon interest 
has just been published under the title, " Das Sandschak Sulei^ 
mania," in which the author has succeeded in verifying a 
number of localities, as indicated by the Babylonian and 
Assyrian inscriptions, by means of comparing them with the 
descriptions of Mesopotamia as supplied by modem travelers. 
This book is published by Mr. A. Billerbeck, and he has care- 
fully examined the cuneiform documents for that purpose, and 
for those who have studied Dr. Strack's first article on the 
subject, published in the last number of the Zeitschrift fur 
Assyriologie, it will be interesting to compare the conclusions 
at which the two writers have independently arrived. 



The ninth part of Dr. Winckler's Altorientalische Forsck- 
ungen contains a treatise on the history of Cilicia and Phrygia 
as illustrated from the cuneiform inscriptions, especially from 
some of the so-called oracles published by Dr. Knudtzon, and 
an explanation of the oldest Greek reference to Persian kings, 
contained in the Persae of Aeschylus, verses 751 if. 



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BIBLIA. 281 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

EARLY in the winter word came that Dr. Bliss had found 
a great room some eighty feet square, and had discov- 
ered scarabs and other objects which determined him to clear 
it. Prom the time the word was received the long anxiety 
was over, for it was felt that a rich vein had been struck. In 
good ground, and not in the sewage of the Tyropoeon, Dr. 
Bliss has a happy field, and may he prosper in it. 

The disposition to defraud the public is so strong in some 
people that they are continually assailing the religious world 
through some pretended discovery. One day recently I re- 
ceived a telegram from a leading newspaper, asking judgment 
upon an oflEer of a party to sell to the paper a "letter of 
Christ, found by the Palestine Exploration Fund in Jerusa- 
lem." I immediately replied that it must be a fraud, and 
have heard no more of it. Here was a deliberate attempt of 
some one to reap a large price for a manifest forgery and to 
put the responsibility on the Fund. 

The latest rumor of " finds " is that the courageous Pro- 
fessor Haupt, who is best known as the editor of the *' Rainbow 
Bible," has discovered in the Tell El-Amama letters mention 
of the temple of "Gahive" at Jerusalem. It is said that the 
Professor believes this to be a fact, but he does not explain 
how the dating of the letters can be so utterly wrong, nor how 
it was that an Eg}rptian king was receiving cuneiform letters 
when there was constant going back and forth of people 
between the allied royal families of Egypt and Israel. But 
there are hundreds of things in the " Rainbow Bible " which 
have not been explained, except it may be considered an 
explanation that they are plain to the editor. 

The very rapid work in Egypt during the last year and 
the number of explorers at work in different places, almost 
causes a feeling of envy in the breasts of our people ; but, 
after all, it is possible to push this work on too rapidly, so that 
some things are lost and others are destroyed, and there is 
serious complaint, on account of his haste, with M. Amelineau, 
discoverer of the Osiris tomb. We are at least on the safe 
side in Palestine, with only one explorer and only one field of 
operation. We can see that a larger work might have been 
done in the Tyropoean by employing more men, but who could 
have seen this at the time ? We can now assert the thorough- 
ness of all our work, and that is a great point. In excavating 
it is certainly true that "haste makes waste." 



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282 



BIBLIA, 



An invoice of maps has been received from London and I 

can now furnish them in sheets, or mounted on rollers to hang, 

or backed with linen to fold in a case. I have also now a good 

supply of slides, a full list of the photochromes, books, casts, etc. 

Theodore F. Wright, U, S, Secretary, 

42 Quincy street, Cambridge, Mass, 



Subscriptions to the E^ypt Exploration Fund* the 

Archaeological Survey Fund, and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 

To tki Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions to the Egypt Exploration Fund 
are gratefully acknowledged : 



Rev. W. W. Adams. D. D., $5.00 

Mrs. James B. Ames, 5.00 
C. M. Anderson, . . 5.00 

Miss R. H. Barrows, . . 5.00 

JOHN H. BLISS. . 25.00 

Col. Henry M. Boies, . 5.00' 

Prof. H. G. C. Brandt. . 500 

Edward M. Brewer, . 10.00 

Hon. Addison Brown, 5.00 

Mrs. Arthur Brooks, 5.00 

Miss H. C. Butler, 5.00 

Pres. Franklin Carter, LL. D., 10.00 
Refv. Joseph Carey. D. D., 5.00 

R. Stuart Chase, . 5- 00 

F. Collingwood, . . . 5.00 

Miss Sarah A. Drew, . . 6.00 
A. Dempster, . . .10.00 

A. E. Douglas, . . 5.00 

Edmund D wight, . . 5.00 

Mrs. J. W. EUiot, 5.00 

Arthur B. Emmons, . 5- 00 

Ralph H. Ensign, . 5.00 
Rev. J.N. Fradenburgh, Ph.D., lo.oo 

James G. Francis, . 5.00 
Prof. W. W. Goodwin, LL. D., 5.00 

Prof. W. Henry Green, 5.00 

Hon. Lynde Harrison, 5.00 

Rev. H. C. Haydn, D. D.. 500 

Daniel Holmes, . . 500 

R. J. Hubbard, . . 500 



Thomas E. Jones, . $5.00 

Dr. Christopher Johnson, 5.00 

HoN.REVERDY JOHNSON. 25.00 
Mrs. Anna M. King, . 5.00 

H. Shumway Lee, . 5.00 

Mrs. J. EUerton Lodge, 5.00 

Rev. Samuel May, D. D., 5.00 

Thomas MacKellar, Ph. D., 5.00 
Miss Annie S. Penfield, . 5.00 
Mrs. Wm. H. Perkins, 5.00 

Hon. Henry E. Pierrepont, 10.00 
Frank E. Platt, . 5.00 

Miss Sarah B. Reynolds, 5.00 

Miss F. B. Robbins, 5.00 

Hon. John E. Russell, . 10.00 
Hon. Chas. P. Sherman. . 5.00 
Mrs. W. J, Scott, . 5.00 

George W. Snow, . . 5.00 
MISS ELLEN J. STONE, 125.00 
Edward B. Sturges, . . aaoo 
Mrs. J. H. Thomdike, . * 5.00 
T. W. Thomdike, . 5.00 

Miss Ellen M. Ward, 5.00 

Julian LeRoy White, 5.00 

Rt. Rev. O. W.Whitaker, D. D., 5.00 
Rt. Rev. H. P. Whipple. D. D., 5.00 
Rev. John Worcester, D. D., 5.00 
Rev. W. L. Worcester, D. D., 5.00 
Mrs. N. Lansing Zabriskie, 5.00 



Rev. W. W. Adams, D. D., 
Mrs. James B. Ames, . 



$5.00 Mrs. J. A. Penfield, . $5.00 

5.00 M. Taylor Pyne, . 5.00 



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BIBLIA. 



283 



Rev. Dana W. Bigelow. D. D.. 5.00 

Miss R. H. Barrows, . 5.00 

Edward M. Brewer, 5.00 

F. CoUingwood, . 5.00 

James G. Francis, . 5.00 

F. A. Hoffman, . 5.00 

Rev. F. D. Blakeslee, D. D., $5.00 

Hon. Addison Brown, . 5.00 

Rev. Joseph Carey, D. D., . 5.00 

J. W. A. Cluett, . 5.00 

Henry P. Curtis. . . 5.00 

Horace Davis, . 5.00 

Prof. Mortimer Lamson Earle, 5.00 

Miss Georgiana G. Eaton, . 5.00 

Arthur B. Emmons, 5.00 

James G. Francis. . . 5.00 

Francis C. Foster, . 5.00 

Prof. W. W. Goodwin, LL. D., 500 

Daniel Holmes, . 5.00 

R. J. Hubbard, 500 

Miss Sarah Ome Jewett, 5.00 

Rev. George E. Merrill, D. D., 5.00 
Rev. Alexander McKenzie, D.D., 5 00 



Hon. John E. Russell, . 15.00 

MISS ELLEN J. STONE, 25.00 
MISS GEORGIANA WIL- 

LARD, . 50.00 

Julian LeRoy White, 5.00 

Mrs. N. Lansing Zabriskie, 5.00 

Rev. J. C. Nevin, Ph. D., . $5.00 

Prof. James W. Paton, 5.00 

MRS. J. C. PHILLIPS, . 25.00 

M. Taylor Pyne, 5 00 

Rev. Wm. L. Ropes, . 3.00 

Hon. JOHN E. RUSSELL, 25.00 

Dr. Julius Sachs, . . 5.00 

Rev. James A. Sei.ss, D. D., 5.00 

Ephraim Smith, . . 5.00 
MISS ELLEN J. STONE, 125.00 

Edward B. Sturges, . 5.00 

Prof. Chas. M. Tyler, D. D., 5.00 

Mrs. L. Tuckerman, . 5.00 

Prof. J. C. Van Benschoten, 5.00 

Henry L. Yonng, . 5.00 

Mrs. N. Lansing Zabriskie, 5.00 

New York Public Library, 5.00 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Corrigendum — By the misplacement of a comma -my 
meaning was changed in an important sentence, in my article 
for January headed "The Egypt Exploration Fund — 1899." 
The sentence should mean, as well as read : " While naturally 
and properly some local organizations are at work, primarily 
to secure fresh subscribers in their locales^ the national office, 
representing the whole land, has its broad mission still to 
fulfill." Wm. C. Winslow, 

Honorary Secretary^ U, S. A, 



Two most extraordinary Egyptian mummies were ex- 
hibited by E. Dufaur at the rooms of the Marylebone Anti- 
quarian Society, London. One of them — they both having 
been discovered in Lower Egjrpt in the course of the recent 
campaign — was remarkable for its size and extraordinary 
weight. On its head was a crown composed of copper, with 



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284 BIB LI A. 

a gold covering shaped in pieces resembling plates and 
buttons, having decorations of leaves and fruits. On the case 
containing the body were painted figures resembling those of 
the zodiac. A nearly undecipherable Greek inscription was 
also on it. Between the folds of the dress was found a piece 
of papyrus, with an inscription which gave the name of the 
dead monarch as Pentemenon. 

The mummy in its wrappers weighed 160 pounds. Its 
length was 6 feet i inch, the head was abnormally large, and 
the shoulders very broad. Next the dress was found an outer 
cloth covering with paintings and hieroglyphics, which 
denoted that the original was one of the royal house of £g3rpt 
some a,5oo years B. C. Next came more wrappings, and then 
a close garment of samite, fastened around the neck by a 
sailor's knot. Beneath this again were some finer bandages, 
like napkins. Next came four Egyptian tunics, of a kind of 
linen, with sleeves, and woven without any joints. These 
were fixed to the body at the neck and the ankles by some 
stuff of a bituminous nature. Next came bandages placed 
lengthways, from the head to the feet, with cross bands ; four 
large pieces of linen came next, rolled round and round the 
body. The sixth envelope was formed of transversal bands 
of a yellow color, from the bitumen in which they had been 
soaked. After this fifteen similar wrappers. Next, an en- 
velope saturated in black bitumen, and, finally, next to the 
skin, a thin shirt of the finest linen. The toes were wrapped 
up separately, the arms and hands were laid straight down 
alongside the body. 

The mummy was a male, and looked about forty-five 
years old. The length was 5 feet 9 inches. The breast and 
part of the abdomen were gilt over. The body was filled 
with a black balsam. No MS. was found. The legs had been 
covered in black balsam. The unrolling of the body took 
three hours, and no less than 2,800 square feet of linen were 
taken off it. The hands were long and perfect ; the fingers 
well made, with " filbert " nails ; the ears entire, and the nose, 
which had been cut open when the body was embalmed, in 
order to extract the brain, a little deformed. The face looked 
almost alive, and the hair was perfectly preserved, very fine, 
and — what is unusual in Egyptians of the pure breed — a 
little curled. On the left side, below the ribs, was an opening 
by which the balsam had been introduced into the body. 
Under the cloth which covered the face below each eye, and 



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BIB LI A, 285 

on the ball of the cheek, a gold plate was found, with the 
representation of an eye and its lids. Over the mouth, and 
fastened by a gold wire run through and behind the teeth, 
was another plate, with a picture or representatian of a tongue 
placed perpendicularly to the closing of the lips, which were 
fast shut and secured by wires. 



We learn from Professor Hilprecht's letter to the Sunday 
School Times of an exceptionally strong and well-equipped expe- 
dition to Arabia. The new expedition is essentially Austrian. 
Emperor Francis Joseph is its patron, and the Academy of 
Vienna has granted a very large sum for its equipment. But 
also King Oscar of Sweden, long known for his deep interest 
in Oriental research, has made especial efforts in its behalf, 
while the English government in Aden has promised its 
hearty help and support to this strictly scientific undertaking. 
The expedition stands under the direction of the Swedish 
Arabist, Count Landberg, who has paid repeated visits to 
South Arabia,, is familiar with the life and customs and several 
dialects of Bed'ween, and has established close personal rela- 
tions with powerful sultans and chieftains of the provinces to 
be explored, notably with the emir of Marib (capitol of 
Saba). The other members of the expedition, which has its 
-own boat, are : (i) the well-known Arabist of Vienna, Professor 
Dr. D. H. Mliller, acting as expert for Sabean epigraphy and 
Semitic history ; (2) Professor Dr. Simony, botanist and 
physicist; (3) Dr. Cossmat, geologist; (4) Dr. Gimley, phy- 
sician and botanist ; (5) Dr. Jahn, whose chief task will con- 
sist in a thorough study and examination of the Mahra dialect ; 
(5) Mr. J. W. Bunj, private secretary of the director, and 
guide of the caravan. In addition, a number of European 
servants, native mail-carriers, and a constant guard of six 
Bed'ween, one of whom knows German, will accompany the 
expedition, which will use forty or fifty camels for operations 
in the interior. The chief aim of the expedition will be the 
exploration of the ruins of Shabwa (Saboto), the ancient 
capitol of Hadhramot, which, according to communications 
from a shaykh from that region, abound in temples, palaces, 
sculptures, and inscribed marble slabs. Later on, the Mahra 
district and the island of Soqotra will be examined. 



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286 BIB LI A. 

Information received from the most remote comer of 
Shensi, Northern China, within the sphere of the important 
British concession in that region, leaves no room for doubting 
that systematic excavations, conducted on a scientific principle^, 
would yield valuable and important objects of antiquarian 
interest. The very primitive and fragmentary attempts in 
this way already made have revealed many pieces of antique 
bronzes and pottery, several of which have now arrived in 
London. Experts who have seen them state that they are at 
least two thousand years old. Reports have also reached cer- 
tain quarters in London of the discovery near Foungsian-Pou 
of gold objects, supposed to belong to coats of mail, and an 
inlaid casque ; all of which news makes it evident that a rich 
harvest for the antiquarian is in store when the time is oppor- 
tune to carry on the work of exploration in those regions. 



Maspero translates the term Chabiri^ found in the Tel-cU 
Amama tablets by ^^Bedouins** In a recent number of the 
Deutsch' Evangel Blatter (No. 7), Hermann Billet, who appeals 
to Winckler's discussion, "Z?/V Hebrder in den Tel-Amarna 
Brief en" in Kohut's " Semitic Studies" energetically maintains 
that the Ibrim (Hebrews) of the Old Testament and the 
Chabiri of the tablets are one and the same people. 

At the late meeting of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 
and Exegesis, held in New York, Professor Paul Haupt an- 
nounced his firm conviction that not only were the Chabiri to 
be identified with the Hebrews, but that there was a temple 
to Yahveh in Jerusalem, as is mentioned in letter No. 183, of 
Winckler's edition of the American letters. 



During a recent excavation of the Forum at Rome a 
column was found marking the spot where Cssar was cre- 
mated. Round the base of this column was found a quantity 
of ashes carefully bricked over. These are considered to be 
the remains of the funeral pyre. The work of investigation is 
proceeding. 



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BIBIylA 



A Monthly Journal of Oriental Research in 

ARCHiEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, LITERATURE, RELIGION, HISTORY, 
EPIGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, LANGUAGES, ETC. 

Vol. XI. Meriden, Conn., March 1899. No. 12. 

THE DATE AND MEANING OF "CREATION." 

SO long as the narrative in Genesis was mis-read — ^being 
mistakenly regarded as a historic record of events which 
occurred only six thousand years ago — it was natural that 
lovers of the Bible should seek to reconcile its statements to 
the facts of science, or feel disturbed in mind by the discrep- 
ancies. Many and various were the ingenious suppositions 
put forth in explanation of geological facts and fossils, or by 
way of enlarging the meaning of Scripture words and phrases. 
The overwhelming proof of the earth's antiquity was met by 
the contention that the first words of Genesis — "In the Begin- 
ning" — might apply to millions of years ago, the second verse 
commencing the story as it concerns mankind. If geological 
and palaeontological evidence demanded millions of years for 
the succession of living forms before man, then it could be 
argued that each of the Six Days of Creation represented a 
long period, and perhaps the scenes were presented in succes- 
sive visions to the Bible writer. Ingenuity was further tasked 
when proofs began to multiply of the great antiquity of man 
himself. The flint knives and bone harpoons which were part 
his handiwork were found in ancient river gravels or early 
cave deposits, and indicated, though not millions of years, yet 
tens of thousands. Man might even be inter-glacial or pre- 
glacial, and the Glacial Period was calculated as having begun 
about 200,000 years ago, and ended about 80,000 |years ago. 
Speculation, however, was equal to the emergency, and a 
theory was put forth concerning a supposed pre-Adamic race 
which had ended its career before the race of Adam began. 
Their remains might be found, the work of their hands might 



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288 BIBLIA, 

be preserved, but their fate and fortunes did not concern us. 
It was not their blood that runs in our veins. They may have 
been savage and degraded and yet Adam and Eve be created 
perfect; or they may have been faultlessly moral and yet our 
first parents may have sinned. 

For some time past the literalists have been confronted 
with a new difficulty, in the great antiquity of civilization; and 
they are not very likely to overcome it. Proofs are multiply- 
ing of an advanced state of the arts, in Egypt and in Babylonia 
more than 6,000 years ago, and their continuous development 
among the same peoples down into times later than the Bible 
Adam. There is no room to question that the Babylonians 
and the Egyptians belonged to the same human race as our- 
selves; and no room now to doubt that they began their up- 
ward career more than 6,000 years ago. The date of Menes, 
the first king of Egypt, is given by Brugsch at 4455 B. C, by 
Maspero at 4500, and yet in the last report of the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund, Professor F. Petrie is able to describe a civil- 
ization which he terms pre-dynastic. The remains discovered 
indicate a civilization of high mechanical taste and ability, 
though very low in imitation of natural forms, with unrivalled 
skill in working flint, and only just beginning the use of metals 
— gold, silver, and copper. Maspero, in his Dawn of Civilization 
tells us that the Egyptians when questioned as to the remote 
past of their race proclaimed themselves the most ancient of 
mankind. "Their forefathers," they said, "had appeared on 
the banks of the Nile even before the Creator had completed 
his work." Similar evidence is available regarding the early 
civilization of Babylonia, and it is a significant fact that 
the British Museum authorities have labelled several writings 
and works of art as older than 4000 B. C. 

I am well aware that the literalist is not limited to the 
traditional date exactly. He has a right to repudiate it and 
say it is Archbishop Usher's reckoning and is not found in the 
Bible. Usher, no doubt, deduces it from the Bible by adding 
up the ages of the patriarchs (at the time when a son is bom); 
but the ages differ in diflEerent versions of Scripture, and while 
modern Jews place Creation at 3761 years before Christ, the 
Sepuagint calculates it at 5390. The literalist may fairly take 
advantage of the longer date; but the gain is not sufficient 
for that purpose. The extra 1,300 or 1,400 years will all be re- 
quired for early civilization in Babylonia; besides which it will 
be found impossible to sever man the worker in metals from 



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BIB LI A, 289 

man the shaper of rude stone weapons. Even if we take the 
date given in Josephus, it is but 5688 B. C, whereas the pre- 
historic development of mankind appears to require scores of 
thousands of years. 

I will now endeavor to show that the explanation of the 
Bible narrative is to be arrived at in quite a different way. 
The story is not an idle invention; it is an actual record, but it 
has been misunderstood. "Creation," in fact, is a word 
which did not originally possess its modern meaning. It does 
not refer to the origin of the earth, of the firmament, of the 
great' lights, of mankind, and the beginning of time. It 
records the era when men began to reckon time, adopting the 
sun and moon for signs and for seasons, and by them calculat- 
ing the days and the years. It was only then that mankind 
began to have a history that could be recalled. Previously no 
one knew how the years went by; the husbandman misjudged 
the time for sowing, there was not sufficient foresight of flood 
or frost, there was no methodical record of events. All was 
confusion and chaos, without tabulation or reckoning; form- 
less and unhelpful. The bringing of order out of this chaos 
was what is called Creation, in the ancient books. It was dis- 
covered that the dome of sky does not really rest on the earth 
at the horizon, but is equally removed from it all round; and that 
was the lifting up of the heavens from the earth. It was 
recognized that the sun and moon, previously regarded as fires 
lighted on the horizon, and shooting up into the sky like 
rockets, were heavenly bodies always in the sky, and that was 
the placing of the great lights in the firmament. The repeti- 
tion of their round and the regularity of their motion afforded 
a means of measuring months and years; and that was the be- 
ginning of time. 

This passage out of chaos into order is plainly connected 
with the beginning of writing and record in the early legends. 
The years were henceforth counted, their recurrence was cal- 
culated, and the divinity assumed to preside over this business 
became thus the inventor of letters and figures or speech and 
prophecy. In Egypt his name was Thoth, in Assyria, Nebo, in 
Greece Hermes, in Rome Mercury; all the mythologies had 
need of him, because they had all the same basis and frame- 
work. Prof. Sayce, in studying the Babylonian writings, finds 
reason to say — "chaos is a period when as yet writing was un- 
known." {^Records of the Past, new series, I, 148). The Crea- 
tion tablets begin by telling us that up to that time heaven had 



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290 BIBLIA, 

not announced and earth had not recorded a name. Chaos 
was personified as a female dragon, named Tiamat; and we 
may conjecture that the brood of monsters attributed to her 
was the crowd of falsities and contradictions involved in me- 
moritor tradition or such crude calendar reckoning as had been 
attempted. Although chaos prevailed, "the earth already ex- 
isted, and was pnhabited by the chaotic brood of Tiamat, im- 
perfect first attempts, as it were, of Nature." These mon- 
strous things perished when the present world came into 
being. (Sayce, Hibbert lecture, 392). The present world here 
spoken of is the existing "Creation," in the sense of an estab- 
lished calendar, founded on the Divine Order. I have sug- 
gested the existence of a previous tradition, possibly even a 
calendar crude and erroneous, which led to the confusion and 
had to be abolished. Such a tradition or imperfect calendar 
would be a first creation. The Babylonian writings tell of two 
creationsi the first of which was a failure. The earlier crea- 
tion, says Sayce, had been the work of chaos, and the destruc- 
tion of it by the younger gods of light and order ushered in 
the new creation of the visible world. Light and dark- 
ness, chaos and order, are ever struggling against one another, 
but the victory of light and order was assured ever since. 
Merodach, the Sun-god, overthrew the dragon Tiamat, " the 
wicked serpent," as she is called, who represented chaos and 
anarchy. 

Gerald Massey seems to regard this destruction of Tiamat 
as the prelude to the first creation; for he says — "The first 
creation represents the passage of m)rthology out of chaotic 
space into the fixed world of time." (^Natural Genesis^ 11^ 4). 
Time, however, recorded on tablets, probably constituted the 
"tablets of destiny;" the astronomical reckoning was to be in 
better hands for the future. 

Now it was that the Great Lights were appointed for signs 
and for seasons : — 

" He prepared the twin mansions of the great gods. 

He fixed the stars, even the twin stars, to correspond with 
them. 

He ordained the year, appointing the signs of the zodiac 
over it. 

For each of the twelve months he fixed three stars. 

From the day when the year issues forth to the close. 

He founded the mansion of the Sun-god, the god of the 
ferry-boat, that they might know their bonds. 



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BIB LI A, 291 

That they might not err, that they might not go astray in 
any way. 

He established the mansion of Bel and £a along with him- 
self. 

Moreover, he opened the great gates on either side. 

He strengthened the bolts on the left hand and on the 
right. 

And in the midst of it he made a staircase. 

He illuminated the Moon-god that he might be porter of 
the night, that the day may be known, 

(Saying) month by month, without break, keep watch in 
th^ disk. 

At the beginning of the month light up the night. 

Announcing the horns that the heavens may know. 

(Fifth Tablet of the Story of the Creation, Sayce). 

We see then, plainly enough, that "Creation " in ancient 
legend is not intended for the origin of things at the hands of 
God, but for an era in the history of man. In the Babylonian 
narrative the earth has already been in existence for some 
time. In the traditions of the Egyptians, their forefathers had 
inhabited the Nile valley before creation was finished. In 
Greece the Arcadians claimed that they existed before the 
moon; which probably means that their progenitors were star- 
worshippers before the moon was adopted as a time-measurer. 
In the astro-religious system Creation is not the first event; in 
Egypt it coincides with the accession of the god Ra, i. e., with 
the recognition of the sun as ruler, whereas men had previ- 
ously existed under the rule of Ptah, the pole-star divinity. 
The god Ra began to reign when the firmament was raised by 
Shu. 

The era we speak of appears to have coincided with the 
entrance of the spring equinox into the constellation Taurus, 
a date earlier than 4000 B. C. It cannot be fixed with absolute 
certainty, because we have no representation of the zodiacal 
figures of the time, and the outlines of the constellations may 
have become a little changed. Bonwick in his Egyptian Belief 
and Modern Thought^ and Robert Brown in the Academy^ J^ly» 
1893, follow the estimate 4698 B. C. Prof. Sayce, Hibbert Lec- 
ture^ p. 398, gives 4700 B. C, which must be an approximate to 
the truth. If we adopt Cassini's calculation for the entrance 
of the equinoctial color into the Sign Pisces in 255 B. C, we 
may reckon backwards, allowing 2155 years for the sun's pre- 
cessional passage through one sign; and this would give us 



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292 BIB LI A, 

4565 B. C. But here also we must allow for some degree of un- 
certainty at both ends. All these estimates, however, are in 
the neighborhood of the dates assigned to the event called 
the creation, in the several traditions. There seems great 
probability that the event called creation coincided with the 
sun's entrance into Taurus, and is but another aspect of the 
same thing. The creation of the world signifies the adoption 
of a system of solar reckoning, and the establishment of a 
calendar which was believed to correspond truly to the order 
" things in the heavens." 

It may probably be asked how it happens that this great 
reform should coincide with so rare an astronomical event as 
the entrance of the equinox into a new sign. Men would not 
wait a thousand years for a reform which they desired, and 
the coincidence seems almost incredible. The explanation is 
that there need not have been any coincidence at all; but the 
astronomer-priests, having determined to establish a year of 
twelve months, to reckon by the sun and begin with the 
equinox, then for the first time established the zodiac of twelve 
signs. They made the first sign to begin at the equinox, 
which they adopted as the starting point, and they chose the 
Bull as the symbol of the sign. 

The Hindoos, of both ancient and modem times, and the 
Persians, also, have always associated the sign of the Bull with 
the origin of time. (Halliburton, Festival of the Dead^ pp. 49* 
99). Gresswell tells us that all over the globe we can find 
traces of the cycle of the Bull, which is indeed covered with 
the origin of the human society. When the circle of the Zodiac 
was made and the first four cardinal points were established, 
the Lion was keeper of the corner where the sun was (at mid- 
summer), at the beginning of the year of the innundation. 
(Massey, Book of Beginnings^ II, 105). This conclusion, which 
I have published and explained in my Creation Records^ is sup- 
ported by Dr. Sayce in his Hibbert Lecture. He says — The 
fact the year thus began with Taurus proves the antiquity of 
the Chaldean zodiac, and of the months of 30 days which cor- 
responded to its several signs. . . The zodical circle may, 
therefore, have been invented nearly a thousand years before 
Sargon of Acad was born; and that it was invented at an early 
epoch is demonstrated by its close connection with the Acca* 
dian calendar. 

Thus far I have spoken only of one event and era as associ- 
ated with "creation;" or at most of two creations of the same 



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BIBLIA. 293 

kind. It may, however, be as well to enlarge the stntement. In 
the Egyptian cosmogony ''creation" may mean several things, 
though always involving the idea of generating, or first re- 
covering, or establishing. It means the apparent generation 
of sun and stars, by the revolution of the heavens, which 
brings them into view out of the underworld abyss. It means 
the birth of stars into the upper [hemisphere, through the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes. Or again, the inauguration of a 
new era and time systems, with divinities to preside over them. 
Every great god in succession is called the Creator, the foun- 
tain of life, the lord of existence. Yet among all the deities 
there is one whose work is singular, and whose task was ac- 
complished once for all ; several gods are credited with creat- 
ing men and things, but only one lifted the sky oflf the earth 
and made a firmament, and established the sun to rule the 
year. This work is attributed to Shu, the Egyptian Atlas; and 
the god Thoth is brought in as the counter of the years and the 
keeper of the records. Shu and Toth are associated with that 
era of discovery and stage of reform when the Egyptians 
recognized that the sun did not rise out of the earth, but was 
always at an elevation above it. Then it began to be seen also 
that there are two hemispheres, each equal to the other, and 
constituting a complete hollow sphere. The passage of time 
could be measured by the revolutions of the sun and moon; 
the meridians passing through the cardinal points could be 
taken as datum lines to measure from, and they would seem to 
be like four pillars supporting the sky. It is Shu, therefore, 
who lifts the heavens, so creating a firmament; the two great 
lights are appointed for signs and for seasons, for days and for 
years, and Thoth receives his ofi&ce as time-keeper. Time now 
begins, coincident with order produced out of chaos. Maspero, 
in a paper read before the London Congress of Orientalists, 
1 89 1, stated that the Egyptian creation was considered to en- 
dure only so long as the heavens, separated from the earth, 
should remain solidly upheld by four pillars. 

Geo. St. Clair. 



THE VALUE OF THE SPADE IN BIBLICAL 
CRITICISM. 



A 



VISIT to Bible lands is, to the devout and believing 
student of God's Word, like the opening of the eyes. It 



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294 BIB LI A, 

is not merely that scripture language is illuminated and sacred 
associations perceived more clearly, but that the marvelous 
contributions toward biblical knowledge already made by the 
spade archaeologist and still more the incalculable possibilities 
yet to be uncovered burst into view as though scales dropped 
from the eyes. Hundreds, even thousands, of mounds scattered 
along the valley of the Nile cover the ruins of Ancient Egypt. 
Only a very few of these have as yet been touched by Uie 
archaeologist, while the still unsearched tombs must probably 
be numbered by millions. Great as has been the research at 
Jerusalem, greater and far more important investigations yet 
remain to be made at the Holy City, while of the hundreds of 
ruins which crown the hilltops and form little tells in the 
valleys of Palestine, only a very few have been examined in 
any degree at all. And Babylon and Nineveh and Ur and 
Erech and Accad and Calneh have certainly many secrets 
still hidden away under the dark alluvium of the valley of the 
Euphrates. 

The great outlines of what biblical archoeology has in store 
for us have already clearly appeared ; we know at what points 
of history, of language, of ethnology, of religion, of customs 
and habits, and of civilization contact between archaeology and 
revelation may be expected, and little by little the details of 
such buried knowledge are being brought out of their musty 
graves, with the result that the Bible, at every point of possible 
attestation by archaeological evidence, is being confirmed and 
illumined. 

The critical value of these products of the spade will best 
be made to appear by a few examples selected from the 
accumulated results of archaeological research. 

The long lists of Bible names of people and of places, 
which so weary the ordinary reader by their tedium and unut- 
terableness have seemed to many devout people a useless 
cumbering of the sacred record, and have been scoffed at by 
unbelievers as an exhibition of Jewish genealogical vanity and 
national bombast, and a refutation of the claims of the Bible to 
a high and holy purpose. But now every name in the Bible 
is known to be a hostage given by inspiration to veracity. If 
the holy book is a true account in what it narrates, then these 
proper names will be confirmed in their etymology, in their 
incorporation of divine names and in their actual use, by con- 
temporary, remains collected by the archaeologist from the 
people and the age to which these names are attributed by the 



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BIBLIA. 295 

sacred writings. The spade is rapidly uncovering such con- 
firmation. 

The lists of geographical and ethnic names sculptured by 
Thothmes III. on the walls of the Temple at Karnak, about 
•1450 B. C, the places mentioned in the Tell el-Amama tablets 
in the century preceding the Exodus, and the great number of 
Palestinian names recorded in the papyrus which gives the 
joumeyings of an Egyptian mohar in the days of Rameses IL, 
written either shortly before the Exodus or during the years 
•of the wandering in the wilderness, mention no less than forty- 
four of the names associated with the invasion of Canaan by 
Israel, many of which bring names of cities, towns or peoples 
which, themselves passed away, were unknown by the inhab- 
itants of Canaan in a later age, being treasured in scripture 
-only and now brought again from the dead by the research of 
the archaeologist. 

The existence of Jerusalem before the Exodus, much less 
in the days of Abraham, and the presence at the time of 
Babylonians and Babylonian influence in Canaan, has been 
held up to ridicule. The founding of Jerusalem was said to 
have been thrust back chronologically by Jewish vanity to 
anti-Davidic times, and all evidence of Babylonian influence in 
the language and in the literary character of the Bible was 
attributed to the captivity in Babylon, and every sacred writ- 
ing bearing marks of such influence was brought down, 
forcibly if necessary, to a date subsequent to the beginning of 
the captivity. But, alas, for the vanity that infuses history 
with preconceived theories! Among the Tell el-Amama tab- 
lets ante-dating the Exodus are five tablets certainly, and a 
sixth probably, from Ebed Tab, king of Jerusalem. They are 
written in the cuneiform syllabary and assure the reigning 
Pharaoh of Egypt, then the suzerain of Palestine, that there is 
no occasion to fear a Babylonian attack upon the Temple. " As 
to the Babylonians, let the king ask the commissioners how 
strong (is) the Temple." Here, about a century before the 
Exodus, are found in Palestine Babylonians so powerful as to 
be suspected of intriguing against the government, and that 
government Egyptian ; Babylonian literary influence so potent 
and of such long standing that the difficult and intricate Baby- 
lonian system of writing is used by a provincial governor in 
making a report to the Pharaoh of Egypt ; and this governor 
is seen to be ruling over a city with a great fortress — Temple 



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296 BIB LI A. 

a city even then called by the Babylonian, or rather the still 
older Chaldean, name, Uru-Salem, City of Peace. 

The list of Arabian kings of the Khammurabbi (Amraphel) 
dynasty of Babylon of the age of Abraham, clearly confirms 
the etymological formation of the proper names which the 
Bible attributes to that age, and especially is it seen that the 
divine names incorporated in these proper names and the very 
method of incorporation is the same as in the names the Bible 
gives for that age, and different from that of preceding, and 
especially of subsequent ages. In view of this, it was to be 
expected that, sooner or later, some of the old patriarchal 
names would be discovered, and the expected has, in this case, 
happened. The name Abram (Abu ramu) has come to light 
in Babylon; the names Jacob and Joseph (Yagob-el and 
Yoseph-el) in Palestine, through the inscriptions at Kamak of 
that great conqueror, Thothmes III.; and existing scarabs 
inscribed Jacob-el have recently been identified as bearing the 
name of a Pharaoh of Egypt of the Hyksos dynasty. Though 
no one contends for a moment that this Abram was the Abram 
whom God called from Chaldea out from under that same 
Khammurabi dynasty, or that our Jacob was ever a Pharaoh 
of Egypt, yet the occurrence not only of names combined with 
the same divine names in the very way in which patriarchal 
names were formed, but this actual occurrence of these very 
names at the historical period to which the patriarchs are 
assigned by biblical writers is confirmatory of the biblical 
claims for the times of the patriarchs. 

Even old Nimrod himself has now been rescued from the 
sinister suspicion of being but a relic of the romantic days of 
the supposed childhood of man, when big bear stories were 
current. The Bible does not tell us when Nimrod lived, but it 
does tell us that, in his day, " Out of the land went Ashur and 
builded Nineveh;" and records of Senacharib tell us that this 
event took place in the time of Shalmaneser I., six hundred 
years before which puts the founding of Nineveh and the days 
of Nimrod in the time of Rameses II., the oppressor of Israel, 
and this about the time of the birth of Moses. Soon after this 
time the early Babylonian influence passed away from Palestine 
and the west, and when it returned it was no longer of the old 
d)masties, but of the later empire of Nebuchednezzar. So that 
the period to which both scripture and tradition assigns the 
writing of Genesis by Moses is the latest period at which such 
a proverb as, ** Nimrod, the mighty hunter," is likely to have 



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BIB LI A, 297 

been current in Palestine and Egypt, as it was when Genesis 
was written. 

It has been the favorite method of the destructive, which 
likes to be called the scientific, criticism — though why destruc- 
tive criticism should be any more scientific than conservative 
criticism is hard to see — it has been the favorite method of the 
destructive criticism to assert that all beyond a certain line in 
Oriental chronology is myth, vague tradition before the days 
of writing and history, and in this manner to get rid of some 
very troublesome characters. That certain line in chronology 
shut out Abraham, and, of course, Moses, in Hebrew history, 
together with the early kings of Egypt and Chaldea. The 
recent discovery of the tomb and inscriptions of Menes, the 
first king of Egypt, heretofore classed as over the line of the 
beginning of real history, and hence an unhistorical, half myth- 
ological personage, strikes another blow at the subjective 
method which finds its criteria of ethnic development in the 
mind rather than in the world of facts. Since writing was 
known in the days of Menes, writing that can still be read, the 
prattle about the Abrahamic and Mosaic sages of the days 
before writing was known must cease. 

The four kings of the East who sacked Sodom and Gomor- 
rah, and carried away Lot, have been laughed at as petty sheiks 
of the desert, but recent research in Babylon and ancient Elam 
has brought to light records of the same Amraphel, king of 
Shinar, and Chedorlaomer, the great king. These Babylonian 
and Elamite records give glimpses of that shifting of dominion, 
those vicissitudes of national life and liberty common to all 
nations of the world. About the time that Abraham migrated 
to Canaan, the dynasty of Khammurabi, the Amraphel of the 
Bible, appears independent and in the ascendant. A little 
later, so nearly at the same time, indeed, that the lapse of time 
can only be guessed at by the records, the Khammurabi 
djrnasty sinks into comparative dependence, and the Elamite 
Chedorlaomer gains the suzerainty over the neighboring king- 
dom. Keeping in mind this glimpse of the changes taking 
place, it is exceedingly interesting to note how, in the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth chapter of Genesis, the four kings are 
given as Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, and 
Tidal king of Nations, Amraphel first, Chedorlaomer third; 
but a little further on in the biblical record (Gen. 14:4) it is 
said that the twelve years' subjugation of the kings of the 
plain was to Chedorlaomer, not to Amraphel, and when the 



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898 BIB HA. 

list of kings is again given in connection'with the campaign to 
bring the kings of the plain into renewed^submission (Gen. 14: 
5), Chedorlaomer is at the head of the alliance. He alone is 
named, the individuality of the others, even of Amraphel 
himself, being swallowed up in the added clause, " the kings 
that were with him." This subtle touch of accuracy undeniably 
stamps this record in Genesis as severely^historical. 

Attempt has been made to discredit the Bible by the 
assertion that the children of Israel were already in the land 
of Canaan, and had been for a long time, at the time when the 
Bible says they were oppressed by Pharaoh and led out by 
Moses; but recent excavations in Egypt at Goumeh, opposite 
Luxor, have brought to light the proud; boast of Menephtha, 
that, *'the seed of Israel was destroyed." The time of 
Menephtha's reign makes this account in harmony with the 
Bible account of the destruction of the male children, and the 
peculiar form of the inscription shows that at the time it was 
made Israel was not a settled nation outside of Egypt; hence 
not yet settled in Canaan, but either still in Egypt or else 
already in the wilderness of the wanderings. ^^^ A- ^^3, 

No part of biblical history has been more sneered at than 
the historical portions of Daniel. Indeed, so confused and 
confusing has been a comparison of ancient uninspired history 
with the book of Daniel, that even some conservative biblical 
' critics, it is to be regretted, have been disposed at times to 
give up the historical character of Daniel's record. Though 
the atmosphere is by no means clear of fog yet, a comparison 
of some of the main points of Daniel's record of the fall of 
Babylon and the subsequent govemment"of the kingdom, with 
the account given on a cylinder of Cyrus is very striking, and 
goes far toward the utter defeat at this point of those who 
strive for the overthrow of the infallibility of the old book. 
Daniel says: " Darius the Median took the kingdom, being 
three-score and two years old." And again he says, "It 
pleased Darius to set over the kingdom one hundred and 
twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom." 
The record of Cyrus is, that: "On the sixteenth day Gobryas, 
the governor of the country of Gutium, and the soldiers of 
Cyrus, without fighting, entered Babylon. . The third day of 
the month Marchesvan Cyrus entered Babylon. Dissensions 
before him he allayed. Peace to the city did Cyrus establish; 
peace to all the province of Babylon did Gobryas his governor 
proclaim. Governors in Babylon he appointed.*' Comparison 



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BIB LI A. 299 

develops these main points of agreement between the account 
of Daniel and that of Cyms: that it was not Cyrus in person, 
but a general with a Median name, who led the Persian (more 
properly Elamite) troops in the overthrow of Babylon; that 
this Mede became ruler of Babylon, and that this same Mede 
as ruler of Babylon, appointed governors over all the province 
of Babylon. The one striking point of seeming disagreement 
is in the name of the Mede who led the troops of Cyrus and 
was '* made king over all the realm of the Chaldeans." Daniel 
calls him Darius, Cyrus calls him Gobryus. But when it is 
noted that these are both Median names, that it was usual 
for kings to have more than one name, and that it was of old, 
and still is, the custom of the Bast for one to take a new name- 
or to make such change in the name as to give it a new mean* 
ing upon the accession to a new honor or office, or even upon 
moving to a new place, it will be seen that the apparent diffi- 
culty about the name is reduced almost to the vanishing point 

The " Logia " so recently discovered in Egypt possess an 
extended character entirely independent of the genuineness of 
these particular ** sayings,'* in that they testify to a disposition 
on the part of the people to circulate and treasure up supposed 
sayings of Jesus just because they were believed to be his. 
Now the disposition to quote a man who has himself written, 
or whose sayings have been written by others at the time he 
lived, may arise long after he is dead when the age has risen 
to the man or has sunk to his level. But if a man write noth- 
ing, and nothing be written about him in his times, if the 
disposition to quote or treasure his sayings arise not during 
his lifetime or at his death, it can never arise afterward, and 
no evil disposed effort of designing persons can ever stir up 
such a disposition on the part of the people. Christ wrote 
nothing, yet here, a century and a half after his death, is found 
far from Palestine, away also from the centers of learning of 
Egypt, a disposition thus manifestly widespread to quote and 
treasure up the sayings of the Man of Nazareth. Whether 
these particular ** sayings " are genuine or not, the disposition 
to treasure his sayings must have arisen from one or both of 
two sources : either that gospels and epistles were written by 
the apostles or others of that age, or that the disposition to 
treasure up " sayings " of Christ arose during his lifetime or at 
his death. Thus, in any case, the ** Logia " prove that the con^ 
temporary estimate of Christ was very high. 

Now these products of the spade above noticed are suffi-. 



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300 BIBLIA. 

cient to indicate the character of the evidence adduced by it 
With the knowledge of these discoveries and the perception of 
the possibilities that lie buried in the East, comes, also, the 
conviction that the historical confirmation of the Word of God 
and the final and convincing answer to the destructive critic is 
to come from the field of biblical archaeology. Some may say 
the destructive critic needs no answer. For those who say so it 
probably is so, but there are many others for whom he must be 
answered, and unfortunately they are neither the few nor the 
scholarly. When one sees how confidently and constantly the 
conclusions of the destructive criticism are put forth as 
unquestioned truth by the daily newspapers, by much of the 
periodical literature and by the semi-religious fiction of the 
day, one trembles for the faith of the people. It is appalling 
to see that the masses of the people, especially about our great 
cities, are accepting the notion that the Bible is full of mis- 
takes. The questioning of a few persons will convince any 
one who has been sleeping securely on in ignorance of this 
fact. This condition of things must be confronted. It is not 
enough to proclaim the " good news," when many of the 
unconverted, yea, even of the converted, are already wondering 
whether or not it is altogether " true news." Popular doubt 
must be met with equally popular refutation. Whence shall 
be drawn the weapons for the conflict ? Not so much from 
logic and fundamental truth, as in other conflicts with deists 
and rationalists, nor from exegesis of scriptures, as in theolog- 
ical controversy; but rather from the records of the past 
contemporary with the Word of God, which, of all external 
evidences, most directly confirms the historical teachings of 
the Word and sustain its claims of authorship. The logical 
method of dealing with the destructive criticism will prove 
unavailing alone; it needs an ally, not that there is any defect 
in it, but for the reason that the discussion can never end. 
Logic, with its sling and stone, can lay every Goliath ghost the 
critics have raised, but there is nothing to hinder them from 
raising more, and so the logical battle must go on. It is hope- 
less strife for men to engage in a battle of theories unless they 
agree upon fundamental truths and principles. Now the 
destructive critics claim the right in this discussion to draw 
from subjective sources in a way that the defenders of the 
traditional view of the Word deny. These latter hold to a 
religion that bases its subjective experiences upon objective 
facts; their opponents to a religion, or rather philosophy, that 



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BIB LI A. 301 

builds up so-called facts upon a basis of subjective thought and 
experience. They claim the right to reconstruct the earth, 
the early religious thought, and even the early history of Israel 
according to the evolutionary scheme. Manifestly such hypo- 
thetical criticism can never be finally repulsed and silenced by 
replying with logical batteries to discharges of theory. The 
fire will always be returned, for a gun never runs out of pow- 
der that uses compressed air. 

There are two ways of silencing effectually the destructive 
critics. One way is to convert them; convert them to a relig- 
ion that bases its subjective experience upon the facts of 
history and revelation. Of doing this there is little hope. The 
philosophy that exalts self and human conceit is the most 
unassailable form of sin. The other, and as it seems to me, 
the only practicable way of silencing the destructive critics 
and of vindicating the genuineness and trustworthiness of the 
scriptures against this latest attack upon them, is to hurl at 
these literary vandals the irrefutable facts of contemporary 
history as brought to light by antiquarian research. Spades, 
not pens, are the weaponry for this conflict. The historical 
criticism must be met on its own historical ground. Archaeol- 
ogy is history risen from the dead. The spade is already 
bringing up the events of the Abrahamic, the Davidic and the 
post-exilic ages. This resurrection of buried history will be 
the judgment day of the Higher Criticism. 

M. G. Kyle. 

Philadelphia, Pa, 



ANTIQUITIES IN EGYPT. 

THE French government left us alone in i88a to carry out 
the saving of Egypt from rebellion and restore the 
finances of the country, if we could. We have done both, made 
good soldiers of her sons, who reconquered the Soudan under 
our generalship. We are now engaged in doubling the sup- 
plies of irrigation, and so increasing the wealth of the land in 
a similar degree. We have been sixteen years employed thus. 
During all this time we have allowed the French to control 
the important Department of Antiquities — that is, the Cairo 
Museum— and any antiquity in the land, whether discovered 
long ago or still unearthed. All the chief ofi&cials of the 



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302 BIB LI A. 

department are Frenchmen selected in Paris, and all theiir 
inspectors and underlings are selected by the head of the 
department. The Museum is in great need of attention; few 
of the exhibits are labeled, and those labeled are in French. 
Nine-tenths of the visitors are English-speaking tourists and 
residents speaking Arabic. A new museum is much needed, 
as the Gizeh Palace was condemned six years ago as being a 
very hazardous structure in case of fire. The Administration 
of Antiquities undertook to provide a new museum in Cairo. 
Plans were selected and a contract accepted for this much- 
needed work some three years ago. The foundations were 
found insufficient to bear the structure and all the work has- 
been stopped for upwards of a year. Had this new museum 
been in Sir William Garstin's hands it would have been now 
far advanced toward completion. In all appearance there will 
not be a new museum unless we undertake, as we ought to do^ 
the sole direction of this important department. 

Another great abuse exists. The French have sole control 
of the antiquities in the neighborhood of Cairo and of the 
entire Pyramid fields, extending for seventy miles along the 
Nile. There are no custodians of these monuments (save a 
few tombs at Sakkarah), and the Great Pyramids and Sphinx 
are left to the mercies of the Bedouin Arabs, who rifle the 
tombs and sell the spoils. There are 10,000 tombs as yet 
unscientifically explored, it is believed, by competent authori- 
ties. The neighborhood of the Great Pjrramid is unsafe, and 
there is no proper police force within seven miles. A friend 
of mine told me recently that his two daughters went up the 
Great Pyramid (he, being an aged man, could not go). They 
had traveled about the world, and thought the country, being 
under English protection, would be quite safe. They were fol- 
lowed up the Pyramid by two wild, fierce Arabs, who terrified: 
them, threatening to throw them down the steep sides if they 
did not deliver up their money, which they did. Their father 
could not wait to prosecute as their steamer was to sail the next 
day. There is another grievance of the French management, 
that when Mr. Petrie was anxious to explore the Pyramid cem- 
eteries (as he did the Pyramids themselves in t88o) he was 
refused. The director said he wanted to keep those places for 
himself. By the way, the excuse for not appointing custo- 
dians over this district is an idle tale that Napoleon derived 
some aid from the men of this tribe, and pledged his royal 
word that they should never be interfered with. The Society 



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BIB LI A. 303 

for Preservation of Ancient Monuments of Egypt (founded by 
Sir Edward J. Pointer, P.R.A.) brought pressure to bear when 
the tombs of Beni Hasan were plundered in 1889, and guard- 
ians and iron gates were put on all important monuments in 
Upper Egypt. But in Lower Egypt, with one hundred visit- 
ors to every monument for one in other places, no care what- 
ever is taken of the finest monuments in the world. 

No person is allowed to make excavations without ofiScial 
authority — that is a good rule. But how is it carried out ? The 
Arabs dig where they please and sell their stolen goods to the 
museum authorities. One well known dealer got recently 
|io,ooo for the things he had rified from a tomb. They sell 
the smaller finds openly, and the dealers ship them to Amer- 
ica. But if Mr. Petrie, for example, wants to excavate any- 
where, he is kept waiting months before he gets a reply, and 
then is not given the place he wants. Of course, everything 
he finds is offered to the Museum. But if a Frenchman wants 
to dig the case is different. Before Mr. de Morgan resigned 
his charge of the Museum, he licensed M. Amelineau to dig 
where he pleased for five years. It is feared that many of the 
important discoveries made by this gentleman may have had 
no scientific record made of them. It is very important that 
all " finds " of forgotten dynasties should be registered for use 
of patient investigators. Mr. Petrie and Mr. Naville (acting for 
the English Egypt Exploration Fund) always publish clear sci- 
entific records of all their researches. M. de Morgan, when 
director, also published scientific accounts of his finds (which 
were made with the public funds of Egypt), but all his reports 
were printed in the French language, and were not available 
to the visitors of the Museum without purchasing them at a 
very high price. 

John Ward, F.S.A. (in London Times), 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

THE Quarterly Statement for January reflected the joyful 
energy with which the new work has been taken up. In 
large type and with photographic illustrations account was 
given of the work in charge of Dr. Bliss and Mr. Macalister. 
The Tell Zakariya is not yet identified, but it proves its value at 
every turn. Mr. Macalister's suggestion that it may be the 
Azekah of Joshua XV., 35, is worthy of attention, and indeed 



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304 BIB LI A, 

the same suggestion was made years ago by Col. Conder. Dr. 
Bliss believes that it may be Gath itself, but asserts nothing as 
yet. He has forwarded objects to London which will be heard 
from later. 

It is pleasant to know that Mh,^ firman covers so much space 
that three important tells or remains of cities will be excavated. 

In addition to this full account of the field work Dr. Schick 
sends two views of Abraham's Oak at Hebron/and conveys the 
sad news that it is now entirely dead, so that one of the most 
interesting trees in the land must presently disappear. He 
also figures a very elaborate wine press which merits study. 

Again, the former draughtsman, Mr. Dickie, describes with 
illustrations the church over the church of St. John, a curious 
proof of the filling up of the city by debris. 

The many other valuable papers, especially the narrative 
of "A Trip to the Eastern Lava Beds," make this the best num- 
ber of the Quarterly ever issued. 

A valuable government publication is deserving of mention. 
Drs. Cyrus Adler and J. M. Casanowicz of the Smithsonian 
Institution have prepared a list of the Biblical antiquities 
shown at the Atlanta Exposition in 1895. There is a full and 
very accurate account of all the exhibit, and the book is fur- 
nished with forty-six plates. The contents include descriptions 
of the Contour Map, the Geology, Flora Fauna, Casts of Ob- 
jects, Musical Instruments, Precious Stones, Coins, Dress, 
Ceremonials, Egyptian, Assyrian and Hittite Antiquities, Bibles, 
ancient and modern, &c. An intelligent visitor to Palestine 
could add materially to this collection at a small expense, but 
it is very good already. 

A somewhat careful examination of the first volume of the 
Bible Dictionary, being issued by the Scribner's, causes disap- 
pointment in some respects. Its leading articles on Assyria, 
Babylon, Chaldea, and like subjects, are worthy of the highest 
praise, being written by specialists at great length, but minor 
subjects are hastily treated. The question as to the shewbread 
being leavened or unleavened has usually been considered by 
the Dictionaries with both sides of the dispute stated, but the 
Scribner ignores it. Again we are told that "Ephratah, in Psalm 
cxxxii., is probably not an ancient name of Bethlehem, but 
means the territory bordering on Judah and Benjamin, in which 
lay Kirjath Jearim, where the ark rested for a time, and where 
it is represented as being 'heard of.' 2. A place near Bethel 
where Rachel died and was buried, Gen. xxxv. 19, and xlviii 7, 



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BIB LI A, 305 

in both of which passages ' the same is Bethlehem ' is a gloss. 
3. A name of Bethlehem, Ruth iv. 2, Micah v. 2." 

This is certainly very singular work. By rejecting a state- 
ment as a '* gloss/' this writer makes out three Ephratah, and 
yet is obliged to identify one with Bethlehem. Why does he 
assert that Rachel died near Bethel ? We are not taught that. 
Why does he assert that Ps. cxxxii. does not mention Bethle- 
hem ? We are not taught that. And then he has put one place 
of that name in a ** territory bordering upon Judah and Ben- 
jamin," which might mean east, west, north or south, and 
amounts to saying, " somewhere in Central or Southern Pales- 
tine," and another north of Jerusalem to the total rejection of 
the unbroken tradition as to the tomb, and then at last, when 
there is no escape, Ephratah is conceded to be Bethlehem in 
Ruth and Micah. Thus the popular negative criticism begins 
with denials, concedes only what it is impossible to deny, and 
ends in darkening counsel by words without knowledge. 

I can promptly send copies of the January " Statement" to 
new subscribers — now especially needed. 

Theoeore F. Wright, 
Hon. Secretary for United States. 
\2 Quincy Street y Cambridge^ Mass. 



The rich collection of papyri finds made at Oxjrrhynchus 
by the English scholars Grenf eld and Hunt, of which a portion 
was recently published by the Egypt Exploration Fund, as 
Part I. of the "Graeco-Roman Branch," is evidently destined 
to prove a facinating source of historical and archaeological 
data. One of these fragments, covering four columns, each of 
fourteen or fifteen lines, has already excited international 
interest. Mommsen, who spoke on this fragment at a meet- 
ing of the Berlin Academy of Sciences soon after its appear- 
ance, and whose view is published in the report of the session, 
p. 498, called it '' remnants of a remarkable protocol in which 
an Alexandrian ambassador and gymnasiarch Appianos stands 
before the Emperor for judgment and is condemned to death, 
probably on account of impudent insults to his Majesty uttered 
during the trial." The Halle professor Blass, in the Liter ar- 
isches Centralblatty expresses similar views, as also do O. Cru- 
sius and some others. An altogether new face is given the 
matter by a detailed discussion by Professor Deissmann of 
Heidelberg. 



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3o6 



BIBHA, 



Subscriptions to the Effypt Exploration Fund* the 

Archaeological Survey Fund* and the 

Graeco-Roman Branch. 



To thi Editor of Biblia : 

The following subscriptions from January 20 to February 
20 are gratefully acknowledged : 



Mrs. W. C. Baylies . $5.00 

JOHN BENTLEY . ,25.00 
Richard P. Borden . 5.00 

C. G. G., in Memoriam 25.00 

Miss Fanny G. Chandler . 6.00 
J. W. A. Cluett . . 6.25 

William Bmmette Coleman 5.00 
ECKLEY BRINTON COXE 

Jr 50.00 

C. F. Cutter . 5. 00 

Waters S. Davis . . 5.00 
JAMES DOUGLAS . 25.00 

Mrs. H. P. Emerson . 10.00 

Mrs. Winsor B. French 5.00 

Miss M. A. Gage 5.00 

Mrs. Helen A. Oilman 5.00 

Miss Harriet Gray . 5.00 

Mrs. Asa Gray . .10.00 
Col. Jacob L. Green . 5.00 

Eugene B. Hagar . 5.00 

Miss Alice Hall . . . i.oo 

Prof. Henry W. Haynes . 5.00 

Hon. Lynde Harrison . 5.00 
D wight B. Heard 5.00 

Walter C. Hubbard . . 500 
Mrs. Ambrose Lawrence 5.00 



Prof. C. Leidich . $5.00 

Edwin F. Locke . . 5.00 

Prof. D. O. S. Lowell 5.00 

Edgar G. Miller ... 5.00 

M. M. Morse 5.00 

Galen C. Moses . 10.00 

Rev. R. W. Norman, LL. D. 5.00 

Charles Piatt 5.00 

H. K. Porter . 5.00 

Mrs. John D. Prince . 5.00 

Pratt Institute 5.00 

C. W. Smith ... 5.00 
Miss Elizabeth W. Stevenson 5.00 
Rt Rev. Ethelbert Talbot 

LL. D. ... 5.00 
The Pres*t White Library. 10.00 
Miss Helen' Tincker 5.00 
Mrs. E. E. Turner 5.00 
UNIVERSITY OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA saoo 
Mrs. H. L. Van Nuys 5.00 
CORNELIUS VANDER- 

BILT .... 125.00 

D. L. Webster . 5.00 
Mrs. Sarah^E. Whitin . 5.00 



Archaeological Survey Subscriptions. 



ECKLEY BRINTON COXE. 




H. K. Porter 


$5.00 


Jr 


$25.00 


Miss Elizabeth W. Stevenson 


5.00 


Waters S. Davis . 


5.00 


The Pres't White Libray . 


20.00 


Miss Harriet Gray 


5.00 


UNIVERSITY OF PENN- 




Prof. Henry W. Haynes . 


5.00 


SYLVANIA . 


25.00 


Mrs. J. CAMPBELL HAR- 




Mrs. HENRY J. WILLING 


25.00 


RIS ... . 


25.00 


Mrs. Sarah E. Whitin 


5.00 



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BIBLIA. 


307 


Graeco-Roman Branch. 




Mw. W. C. Baylies • $500 


Prof. George T. Little 


$5.00 


John Bently .10.00 


Metropolitan Museum of Art 


5.00 


G. H. Candee . 5.00 


Princeton Theological Sem'ry 


5.00 


ECKLEY BRINTON COXE. 


H. K. Porter 


5.00 


Jr 25.00 


Prof. Thomas Day Seymour 


5.00 


Waters S. Davis. . 5.00 


Miss Elizabeth Skinner 


5.00 


Mrs. Weston Dodson . 5.00 


Miss Elizabeth W. Stevenson 


5.00 


Miss Harriet Gray 5.00 


J. H. Treat 


5.00 


Mrs. Asa Gray . 5.00 


UNIVERSITY OF PENN- 




Hon. Lynde Harrison . 5.00 


SYLVANIA . 


25 00 


Harvard University . 5.00 


Mrs. MARGARET WADE 


125.00 


Walter C. Hubbard 5.00 


Miss Cornelia Warren 


5.00 


Thomas M. Johnson 5.00 


Mrs. Sarah E. Whitin 


5.00 


Francis C. 


Foster, Honorary Treasurer. 


Office of Egypt Exploration 1 


Fund, 




S9 Temple Street ^ Boston, 







ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES. 



Extracts From Petrie's Report. 

How : Jan. 23. 

***** I have now worked for 2 J^ weeks here. The tem- 
enos on the desert is disappointing, as it proves to have been 
entirely founded in late Ptolemaic times over a Ptolemaic cem- 
etery; it was converted into a bastioned fort in Roman times. 
I have made a plan of it, which I shall further complete with 
details. There were two small temples in it, one late Ptolemaic, 
the other of Nerva. Part of the barrack-wall has a great quan- 
tity of scrawls by soldiers. I have copied all that are intelli- 
gible, with some names, as Aurelios Grermanos, Aurelios, son 
of Diogenes, Aurelios Gerianos, Theodosios Philosophos, &c. 

** Outside of the temenos, the ground is a close mass of 
Roman burials for many acres to the west and south. These 
are absolutely without objects. Many of them are in re-used 
vaults of Ptolemaic age, which abound here. The Ptolemaic 
tombs are also worthless. And before all these there was a 
considerable number of XI.-XII. Dynasty tombs. These are 
nearly all plundered, but yet contain some good alabaster vases, 
&c., with much pottery. The fine things from here are— an 
untouched tomb, with necklace and ornaments (XII. Dyn.); a 



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308 BIB LI A. 

good small double statuette (XI. Dyn.); a cartonnage all gilt, 
head to foot (Ptolemaic); and the finest modelled portrait head 
in colored plaster that I have ever seen, a man of Roman date. 
In a rich house on the temenos wall were some good things : 4 
silver armlets, 3 small bronze busts of Isis and Serapis, an iron 
sword, &c. Several good necklaces of large glazed beads of 
XII. Dyn. have also been found. 

"The principal historical interest is quite unexpected. 
Marks on the pottery are very common here, but so late — ^being 
Roman — that we cannot assume them to have descended from 
the earlier marks known from I. to XIX. Dynasties. They 
more probably belong to some unknown alphabets used by 
Roman soldiers. And a potsherd (probably Roman) has sev- 
eral words scratched between lines, carefully written, in an 
alphabet closely akin to Harian, if not pure Harian. The signs 
found here therefore probably belong to some Asia Minor sign- 
aries or syllabaries, not yet fully known. The Harian graffiti 
at Abydos (near here) are well known; and this place suggests 
that they were not the work of Greek mercenaries of XXVI. 
Dyn., but of Roman legionaries, as here found. 

***** We are now working into promising ground of the 
various ages of cemeteries, VI. (?), XL, XII,, and XVIII, Dyn- 
asties." 



The German Orient Society has selected the ruins of 
Babylon, the capitol of the United Babylonian empire from the 
days of Hammurabi, as the place of its operation. The expe- 
dition sent out by the society will be in charge of the well 
known German architect, R. Koldewey, who was prominently 
connected with the Berlin excavations at the Babylonian ruins 
of Surghul and El Hibba (1886-87) and at the Hittite ruins of 
Senjirli in Northern Syria (1890-91-94). Dr. Bruno Messner, 
of the University of Halle, will accompany tbe expedition as 
Assyriologist. 



Dr. W. Max Miiller sends to the editor of the Sunday School 
Times the following list of excavations in Egjrpt during this 
winter. M. B6n6dite has undertaken excavations in the Delta, 



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BIBLIA, 309 

examining the site of Behbet, the ancient Iseion, where temple 
ruins dating from the time of Nectanebos and Ptolemy II, form 
the only considerable ruin of that kind remaining in Lower 
Egypt. After this he will attack the locality of Benha (An- 
cient Athribis). The director of the Egyptian museum, M. 
Loret, has excavated for three weeks at Bedrashen (fourteen 
miles south of Cairo), and M. Botti of the same museum at 
Alexandria, but no results are known so far. Mr. Davies is 
working in the famous tomb of Ptahhotep near Sakkara, to 
take up a new plan of it. A chief result of the excavations by 
Dr. Schafer, from the Berlin museum, who is joined now by 
Professor Erman, is the discovery of remains from one of those 
strange monuments in half-obeliscal, half pyramidal form, 
dedicated to the sun-god, near Abusir (west of Cairo). The 
present one has the name Sshb-yb-re — ** pleasing the heart of 
the sun-god/' — a name which is mentioned in several tombs of 
the period. It was erected by King N-weser-re (usually trans- 
literated Ra-n-user) of the fifth dynasty. It had an enclosure 
covered with relievos representing the celebration of festivals, 
but, unfortunately, these sculptures have been ruined almost 
completely. This is most unfortunate, because we know nothing 
of the cult connected with those monuments, and their exact 
religious meaning. Dr. Spiegelberg, of Stassburg, and Mr. 
Newberry have obtained important results near the temple of 
Amenhotep I, in the necropolis of Thebes, discovering traces 
of a chapel and a royal palace from the beginning of the 
eighteenth dynasty. The alleged mummy of the sun-disk 
worshipper, Amenhotep IV, from Biban-el-muluk, has now 
been examined by several scholars, and a supposition ventured 
lately by Mr. GroflE has shown to be an indisputable fact. It 
is not Amenhotep IV, whose mummy must, besides, have been 
destroyed during the revolution following soon after his death, 
but King Met^r)neptah of the nineteenth dynasty, who was un- 
til quite recently considered the Pharoah of the exodus. , His 
absence from the g^eat mummy find of Der-el-Bahri, made 
several years ago, had confirmed many in the belief that his 
body must rest on the ground of the Red Sea. In general, 
the old theory which connects Memcptah with the exodus 
seems to have become untenable. 



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310 BIB LI A. 

The preliminary report of Prof. J. De Morgan's valuable 
discoveries on the site of ancient Susa, in Persia, has been 
lately submitted to the French Minister of Public Instruction 
The bearing of these discoveries upon Assjoiology and Bi- 
blical research is of great importance. Not only does Assur- 
banipal refer to his having taken Susa and destroyed it, but in 
the Spartali collection of clay tablets in the British Museum are 
poems referring to the time when the kings of Elam had over- 
run Babylonia. De Morgan found confimatory evidence of 
Assubanipal's statement that he had destroyed Susa with fire, 
for many of the monuments of that period bore traces of the 
flames. 

Among the more interesting monuments discovered was a 
large stele, six and one half feet high and forty inches at its 
broadest part. This stele, its discoverer holds, is a very im- 
portant example of Elamite art. A remarkable bronze tablet 
or altar was discovered in the same trench. A granite obolisk 
found here promises much information, for it is covered on all 
four sides with an inscription deeply cut into the stone. There 
are 75 horizontal lines, divided into more than 1,500 small 
columns, and containing almost 10,000 characters. This very 
archaic text is unquestionably the longest that has ever been 
discovered in Mesopotania and the neighboring countries, and 
is almost complete. The translation of the inscriptions by 
Pere Scheil will be awaited impatiently by scholars. 



A movement is well under way for an international cata- 
logue of the hieroglyphic and hierarchic papyri scattered 
through the public collections of foreign countries. Germany 
has promised compliance, Austria-Hungary has promised to 
send lists of the papyri in the Imperial and Royal House, Den- 
mark has sent a list of the pap3rri in the Museum at Copenha- 
gen, with an account by Prof. Valdemar Schmidt; the Smith- 
sonian Institute has promised to prepare a catalogue; Sweden 
and Norway have sent a catalogue of the papyri in the private 
collection of M. Lieblein, and the English government has 
presented the lists of papyri in the British Museum. The reg- 
istration and cataloguing will be undertaken by the Egyptian 
government. 



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BIBLIA, 3" 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

Contents of the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 
ArchcBology, Vol. XX, Part 8. 

The Babylonian Ideogram for " Image," and the Slate Pal- 
ette from Hiearconpolis, Prof. Dr. Hommel. Babylonian 
Hieroglyphs, Rev. C. J. Ball. On the reading of Mesha^ F. 
Ll.D. Griffith. Purim, Tophet, Zobah, and Mizpah,|G. A. Sim- 
cox. Contributions on Dictionnaire Hieroglyphique, Prof. Dr. 
Karl Piehl. 

Dr Hommel shows a remarkable coincidence between 
Babylonian ideograms and Egyptian hieroglyphs, which he 
thinks to be the very keystone of several of his proofs for the 
Babylonian origin of the Egyptian civilization. 



The S. P. C. K. Press, Madras, has two important works in 
hand. One is an English translation by Lady Mackworth 
Young of Rabbi Geiger's learned book on Mohammed. This 
was first published in German, at Bonn, in 1833, and still 
remains the standard work on the relation between Judaism 
and Islam. The Rabbi has shown how much Mohammed bor- 
rowed from the Rabbinical account of Old Testament history, 
and supports his position by copious extracts from Rabbinical 
literature and Muslim commentaries. It will be a valuable 
addition to the English literature on the subject. 

The other book is a dictionary of the Western Punjabi or 
Jatki language, which is spoken by Mohammedans, for the 
most part of Hindoo extraction, from the confines of Cashmir 
to Sindh, on both banks of the Indus, and to some distance to 
the west of that river. The language comes from Sanskrit, 
but after the advent of Mohammedan invaders many Arabic 
and Persian words crept into it, and it has many dialects, which, 
in the absence of a literature, are continually changing. The 
character to be used in the dictionary is the Persian one, 
though in Jatki there are sounds for which the Persian alpha- 
bet provides no letters. These have now to be made. The 
dictionary is being compiled by Dr. Jukes of Dera Ghazi Khan, 
and will, when completed, be of great value to missionaries 
engaged in translation work. 



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312 BIBLIA, 

Contents of Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archae- 
ology, vol. XXI, part I. Secretary's report 1898; council and 
officers for the year 1898; the new Babylonian Chronological 
Tablet ; contract from the country of Khana ; an early Baby- 
lonian document relating to the Shuhites, Prof. A. H. Sayce ; 
the tomb of Pepi Ankh (Khna), near Sharona, Miss M. Brode- 
rick and Miss A. A. Morton (5 plates); Deux Fables Assyrien- 
nes, K, 3456, A. Boissier ; letter to Mr. Rylands, Prof. Dr. 
August Eisenlohr ; statement of receipts and expenditures for 
the year ending 31st December, 1898. 

The new Babylonian Chronological Tablet throws fresh and 
important light on the chronology of early Babylonia. It was 
written in the reign of Ammizadok, the great grandson of Samsi- 
iluna,with whose death it ends, and it furnishes us with a com- 
plete chronological register of the earliest reigns of the first 
djmasty of Babylon to which these two kings belong. The 
years are enumerated one by one with the events which char- 
acterized each, and at the end of each king's reign comes a 
summation of the number of years it lasted. The chronology, 
therefore, seems to be exact, and it is consequently curious 
that it disagrees very materially with the chronology of the 
same period given in the tablet known as the Dynastic Tablet, 
indeed the tablet contains one of the lists of the dates of chron- 
ological annals out of which the D3mastic Tablet was compiled. 



Contents of American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. II., 
No. 5. The Washim Papyrus of Iliad, 1-68, E. J. Goodspeed; Pau- 
sania's Description of Greece, H. N. Fowler ; the Artemis 
Brauronia of Praxiteles, John Pickard ; some new inscriptions 
from Puteoli, Baiae, Misenum and Cumae, Walter Dennison ; 
The notes — i. On some Oscan inscriptions ; 2, Commentarium 
Actorum Saecularium Quintorum, 1-64, Walter Dennison ; 
Archaeological Bibliography (Jan.- June, 1898), H, N. Fowler. 

The Egyptian papjrrus formed part of a roll, inscribed on 
one side only, the columns, each containing thirty-three lines. 
The hand is an even uncial, written with evident care. The 
dated pieces suggest for the Homer fragment a date not later 
than 159 A. D. This papyrus has several variants from the 
accepted text. It is accompanied by a half tone illustration of 
the papjrrus, original size. 



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(59 



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EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 

Grbat Russrix Strbet, I/>ndon, W. C- 



Officbs 

Tbmpxa Strbbt, Boston, Mass. 

Fresident. 

Sm John Powi3it, Bart., KX.M.G. 

Tlce-^resicleiits. 
Maj.-Gbn. Sm Francis Grbnpbi«i^ G.C.M.G., K.C.B, 
Thb Rbv, Prof. A. H, Saycb, D.C.I^., LL.D. 
Sir E. Maunds Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., P.S.A, 

Honorary Ykc^resideRt 
Charles Dxtdi^ey Warner, L.H.D., D.C.I^. 

Ylce-Presldeiits fl>r tlie United States^ 

WnxiAM Copi,EY WiNSW)W, Ph.D., Sc.D., Iv.H.D., D.C.I^., I^L.D. 

Hon. Charus I<. Hxttchinson. 

Tke-Presldent Ibr Canada. Ylce-Presldent Ibr AnstralUu 

Sir J. Wm. Dawson, P.R.S., D.C.L. Josiah Muixins, Esq. 

Vice-President Ibr France. 
Prop. Gaston Maspero, D.C.L., Member of the Institute of Fhince. 

Vice-President finr Germanj. Vice-President for Switzerland. 

Prop. Adoi,p Erman, Ph.D. M. Charles Hentsch. 

Honorary Secretary. Honorary Secretary in United States. 

James S. Cotton, Esfi., M.A. Rev. Wiixiam C. Winslow, D.D. 

Honorary Treasurer. Honorary Treasorer finr United States. 

Herbert a. Grueber, Esq., P.S.A. Francis C. Foster, Esq., A.B. 

Officers in Charife of Explorations. 

Edouard Naville, Ph.D., Litt.D., D.C.I<. 

Prof. W. M. Funders Petrie, D.C.I^, LI^D. B. P. GrenpeUt, Esq. M.A. 

Snperintendent of ArcbaecAoirical Surrey. 
F. liL. Grippith, M.A., F.S.A. 

Editors of Graeco-Roman Branch Docoments. 
B. P. Grenpbix, Esq., M.A. A. S. Hunt, Esq., M.A. 

Secretary. Secretary flir tlie United States 

Miss Emii,y Paterson. Mrs. Marie N. Buckman. 



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Der (resaDdtsclialtsliericlit des Hasan 
Jien AMed El-Haiil 

(Arabisoher Text) 1894. Preis 5 Mk. 

Published by Wolf Peibeb, 

Brandenburg straase II, Berlin, Germany. 

Dr. Humphreys' 

Specifics act directly upon the disease, 
without exciting disorder in other parts 
of the system. They Cnre the Sick. 

HO. CURES. FRICES* 

1— Fevers, Congestions, Inflammations. .33 
tl— Worms, Worm Fever, Worm Ck>lic.. . .33 
3— Teethlnc, Ck>Uo, Crying, Wakefulness .39 

4— Diarrhea, of Children or Adults 39 

T^CoBghs, Colds, Bronchitis S9 

8-IVeuralgla, Toothache, Faceache. 39 

•-Headache. Blck Headache, Vertigo. . .39 
10— Dyspepsia. Indlgestlon,WeakStomach.39 

1 l-8nppressed or Painful Periods 39 

13- Whites. Too Profuse Periods 39 

13— Cronp, Laryngitis. Hoarseness 39 

14-itelt Rheum, Erysipelas. Eruptions. . .39 

1 9— Rheumatism . Rheumatic Pains S9 

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19— Catarrh, Inlluensa, Cold In the Head .S9 

30-WhooplBg-Congh 39 

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77-0 rip. Hay Fever 39 

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B IB LI A. 

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 

-- ^ (37 Great Russell Steset, London, W. C. 

National Offices \ ' ny o d %# 

i 59 Temple Street, Boston, Mass. 

President. 

The Late Sir John Fowler, Bart, K.C.M.G. 

Yiee-Presidents. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 

The Rev. Prof. A, H. Sayce, D.C.L.. LL.D. 

SirE. Maunde Thompson. K.C.B.. D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Honorary Yiee-President. 

Charles Dudley Warner, L.H.D.. D.C.L. 

Yice-Presidentg for the United States. 

William Copley Winslow, Ph.D., Sc.D., L.H.D., D.C.L., LL.D. 
Hon. Charles L. Hutchinson. 

Otlier Yiee-Presidents. 
For Canada, For Australia, 

Sir J. Wm. Dawson, F.R.S., D.C.L. Josiah Muluns. Esq. 

For FraneOy 

Prop. Gaston Maspero, D.CL. 

For Oermanj, For Switzerland, 

Prof. Adolf Erman, Ph.D. M. Charles Hbntsch. 

Honorary Secretary. Honorary Secretary in United States. 

James S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. Rev. William C. Winslow, D.D. 

Honorary Treasurer. Honorary Treasurer for United States. 

Herbert A. Gruebbr, Esq., F.S.A. Francis C. Foster, Esq., A.B. 

Officers in Gharye of Explorations. 

Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., LL.D. 
Bdouard Naville, Ph.D., LitLD., D.C.L. B. P. Grenfell. Esq., M.A. 

Superintendent of Archeological Surrey. 
F. Ll, Griffith, M. A., F.S.A. 

Editors of €(r»co-Boman Brancli Documents. 

B. P. Grenfell, Esq., M.A. A. S. Hunt, Esq., M.A. 

Secretary. Secretary for the United States. 

Miss Emily Paterson. Mrs. Marie N. Buckman. 



Local Honorary Secretaries for America. 

New York aty, Miss Sybill Carter, 281 Auburn, N. Y., Prof. Willis J. Beecher, 

4th Ave. D.D. 

^i^'Ty^.f!?'^^- « UA P^es't Henry M. Booth, d.d., 140 

Prof. C. R. Gillett, d.d., 700 Park Av. vr^^i, Of 

_--__, ^ w ^. * North St 

C. M. Hyde, 206 Madison Ave. ^ ^t .r t>_ i. ^ . ,«^ ,^ 

Mrs. E. A. Hoffman, i Chelsea Sq. ^^^°^*' ^' Y.. Prof. Dean A. Walker, 

Rev. A. F. Schauffler, d.d., 105 East ^"•^' 

22nd St. Binghamton, N. Y., Rev. R. G. Quennel, 

C. W. Sloane, Esq., iii Broadway. d.d. 



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BIB LI A, 



Brooklyn, N. Y.. Prof. Walter S. Perry. 

Pratt Institute. 
Buffalo. N. Y., Mrs. Donald Y. Leslie. 578 

Richmond Ave. 
Cazenovia, N. Y., Rob. J. Hubbard. Esq. 
Elmira. N. Y.. Francis Hall, Esq. 
Geneseo. N. Y., Rev. J. E. Kittredge, d.d. 
Ithaca, N. Y.. Prof. Chas. M. Tyler, d.d. 
Rochester, N. Y.. Mrs. Chas. B. Potter, 

III Spring St. 
Prof. Howard Osgood, d.d. 
Saratoga, N. Y., Mrs. Winsor B. French, 

17 18 Broadway. 
Syracuse, N. Y., Rev. Jeremiah Zimmer- 
man, D.D. 
Utica, N. Y., Gen. Chas. W. Darling. 
Watertown, N. Y., Wm. G. Johnston, 

Esq. 
AUeghaney. Pa., Prof. M. B. Riddle, d.d. 
Bethlehem. Pa.. Prof. E. H. WUliams. Jr. 
Drifton, Pa. Eckley Brinton Coxe, Jr. 
Edgewood Park, Pa , Rev. Wm. R. 

Farmer. 
Harrisburgh. Pa., Rev. Thos. B. Angell, 

D.D. 

Philadelphia, Pa., E. W. Clark. 

T. Powers Harris, 1607 Walnut St. 
Rev. Francis A. Horton, d.d., 1705 

Oxford St. 
Rev. Jas. Morrow, d.d., 701 Walnut 

St. 
George Vaux. 171 5 Arch St. 
Pittsburg, Pa., Henry Phipps. Jr.. 42 

Fifth Ave. 
Scranton, Pa., Edward B. Sturges. Esq. 
Wilkes Barre. Pa., Miss Mary A. Sharpe, 

25 W. River St. 
Williamsport, Pa., Rev. Geo. C. Foley. 
York, Pa.. Rev. Chas. James Wood. 
Hoboken. N. J., Pres't Henry Morton. 

ph.d.,sc.d., ll.d. 
Morristown, N. J., T. Quincy Brown, Jr., 
Morristown School. 
Frank Waller, 4 Franklin Place. 
New Brunswick, N. J., Prof. John C. 

Van Dyke, l. h. d. 
Princeton, N. J., Prof. Allan Marquand, 

PH.D., litt.d. 
Detroit, Mich., Charles Buncher, Esq. 



Cleveland, Ohio, Mrs. J. H. Devereux, 

882 Euclid Ave. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Rev. Edwin F. Small, 

Clifton. 
Baltimore, Md., Miss Emma C. Grafflin, 

1016 McCulloh St. 
Washington, D. C, Rev. J. L. Ewell, 

D.D., Howard University. 
Rev. S. M. Newman, d.d., loth and 

G Sts.. N. W. 
Rev. Richard P. Williams, 3rd and 

CSts., N.W. 
Milwaukee, Wis., David Harlowe, Esq., 

3002 Mt Vernon Ave. 
Duluth, Minn., Renwick B. Knox« Esq. 
Minneapolis, Minn., Mrs. Geo. H. Chris- 
tian, 404 South 8th St. 
Rev. Harry P. Nichols, d.d. 
St Paul, Minn., Prof. J. R- Jewett, ph.d. 

226 Summitt St. 
St. Louis, Mo., Rev. William Short, 3629 

Pine St. 
Chicago. 111., Hon. E. W. Blatchford. 
Mrs. Herrick Johnson, 1070 No. 

Halstead St. 
Rev. James S. Stone, d.d., 128 Rush 

St 
Rev. S. D. Peet, ph. d., 5327 Madi- 
son Ave. 
Mt Morris, 111., Rev. D. L. Miller. 
Springfield, III., Rev. F. W. Taylor, d.d. 
Omaha, Neb., Mrs. Wm. H. Hanchett 

821 Pine St 
Nashville, Tenn., Pres't A. T. Sowerby, 

PH.D., LL.D. 

Denver, Col., Rev. Camden M. Cobem, 

PH.D. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Mrs. Stephen G. Hub- 
bell, 1315 Pleasant St 
Rev. J. C. Nevin, ph.d.. 1319 Santee 
St. 

Bangor. Me., E. R. Burpee, Esq. 

Bath, Me., Mrs. Margaret Wade, 619 
High St. 

Brunswick, Prof. E. F. Woodruff, ph,d. 

Portland, Me., Hon. Jos. W Symonds. 
38 Exchange St. 

Concord, N. H., Rev. Nathan F. Carter. 

D.D. 

Burlington, Vt., Mrs. Theo. A. Hopkins. 



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BIBLIA. 

Hartford, Conn.. Prof. Sam'l Hart, d.d. Providence, R. I.. Prof. Wilfred H. 

Prof. Charles C. Steams. Munro, l.h.d. 

Meriden, Conn., C. H. S. Davis, m.d., Cambridge, Mass., Mrs. James B. Ames. 

i*H.D. Fall River. Rev. W. W. Adams, d.d. 

Middletown, Prof. J. G. Van Benschoten. Lynn, Mass., Mrs. Henry B. Emerson, 

LL-^- 205 Ocean St 

New Haven. Conn., Rev. Chas. Ray Leicester, Mass., Hon. John E. Russell. 

Palmer, D.D. Northampton, Mass., Prof. Irving P. 

Prof. J. M. Hoppm, d.d. Wood. 

East Greenwich. R. I., Rev. F. D. Springfield, Mass.. H. Curtis Rowley. 
Blakeslee, D.D. « ,, ., ,, « * , 

Rev. Daniel Goodwin, ph.d. Stockbndge, Mass., Rev. Arthur Law^ 

Newport, R. I., Mrs. EmmaB. Andrews. ^^^^' ^•^• 

•'The Reef." Williamstown. Mass., Prof. J. H. Hewitt, 

Rev. Geo. W. Cutter, m.d. , 29 Kay St. p^- d- 

HONORARY SBCRBTARY, U. S. A. 

Rev. William C. Winslow, 525 Beacon St., Boston. 

SECRETARY, U. S. A. 

Mrs. Marie N. Buckman, 59 Temple St., Boston, Mass. 



THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 

This Society was founded in 1883 by Amelia B. Edwards, R. Stuart Poole and 
Sir Erasmus Wilson ; the American Branch, now the national representative of the 
Fund, being formed late that year, by William C. Winslow. Its discoveries and 
other labors in Egypt relate to the settlement of obscure questions of the highest 
importance, touching the pre-pyramid and pre-historic times, the *'Hyksos" con- 
quest, and the origin and growth of language, science, industries and arts. They 
relate to Biblical sites, New Testament corrobations, hitherto unknown classical 
writings of the great authors, and the life man led in remote as well more particu- 
larly in Ptolemaic times. The results from the explorations appeal to every depart- 
ment of learning, and are of universal interest. The books are popular as well as 
scholarly, and the illustrations will delight every tourist upon the Nile that appreci- 
ates the monuments and the scenery. 

Three distinct departments of the Society perform its work in the field, and each 
publishes its annual volume ; besides which the Archeeologic^l Report, an artistic 
brochure^ summarizes and reviews all discoveries, and all published in Egyptology 
for the year. In the chief department, that of the Fund itself, the sites of famous 
cities have been identified ; the Biblical Pithom-Succoth, the city of Groshen, the 
Greek Naukratis, and Daphnse have been discovered ; statues and inscriptions, 
j>apyri, and beautiful objects in bronze and other metals, as well as in porcelain 
and glass, have been found; new and unexpected light has been cast upon the 
ancient history of the Hebrews; the early stages of the Route of the Exodus 
have been defined, and its direction determined; most important chapters in the 
history of Greek art and Greek epigraphy have been recovered; Ahnas, the 
Hanes of Isaiah, has yielded interesting monuments; Tell Basta, the Pi-Beseth 
of the Bible and Bubastis of the Greeks, has afforded ruins of peculiar significance 



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BIB LI A, 

and grandeur, inscribed with texts of especial value ; and the excavations of the 
ruins of the temple built by Queen Hatshepsu, at Deir-el-Bahari (Thebes), mark 
a distinct and brilliant epoch in the history of exploration in the Valley of the 
Nile. The discoveries at Deshasheh relating to the fifth d3masty era, and in the 
cemetery of Denderah, and at Behnesa (Oxyrhjmchus) of thousands of papyri, in- 
cluding portions of the New Testament and classical writings of the greatest authors, 
not only prove the value of original discovery, but the astonishing archseological 
richness of the soil of Egypt. 

The ARCHiBOLOGiCAL Survey of Egypt. 

The ArchsBological Survey of Eg3rpt, organized as a special fund in 1S90, is of 
incomparable importance in many ways, and, in view of the wholesale and irre- 
parable destruction of sculptures by Arabs, tourists and dealers in "Antiques," 
needs to be pushed vigorously forward. The tombs of Beni Hasan and El Bersheh 
have now been scientifically surveyed, and their scenes and texts copied with 
absolute accuracy and in fullest detail. The pictures of life, "as it was," 2500 
B. C, are historically of great value. 

The Archaeological Institute of America passed a vote indorsing this work. 

GRiVco-RoMAN Branch. 

This department of the Fund, established in 1897, is specially devoted to the 
discovery and publication of remains of classical antiquity and early Christianity in 
Egypt. The remains already published include the earliest known texts of St 
Matthew and St. John ; the Logia or Sayings of Christ ; a new poem by Sappho, and a 
mass of fragmentary literature by the classical masters, and of documentary and 
epistolary papyri which illumine the political, business, social life of that age for 
our instruction and delight. 

A volume of about 300 quarto pages with illustrations will be published annually 
from these and future collections of pap3rri. Classical scholars and professors at 
American Universities are urged to support this important branch of the Egypt 
Exporation Fund. 

The Books Published. 

I. The Store City of Pithom. Thirteen plates and two maps. Price, $5.oa 
(Ed. exhausted.) 

II. Tanis (Zoan). Part I. Nineteen plates and plans. Account of the greatest 
of all colossi is in this volume. Price, $5.00. 

III. Naakratis. Part I. Forty-one plates and plans. Valuable to students in 
Greek arts, and all interested in antiques^ such as coins, amulets, scarabs, pottery, 
etc., and in ancient epigraphy. Price, $5.00. 

IT. Goshen. Eleven plates, maps and plans. Price, $5.00. 

V. Tanis (Zoan). Part II. Including Am and Tahpanhes. Fifty-one plates 
and plans. Price, f 5.00. 

VI. Naakratis. Part II. Twenty-four plates. Price, $5.00. 

VII. The City of Onias and the Mound of the Jew. Twenty-seven plates. 
Extra Volume. Price, $5.00. 

VIII. Bnbastis. Part I. Fifty-five plates. Price. $5.00. 

IX. Two Hieroglyphic Papyri ft-om Tanis. Fifteen plates. Extra Voiumt, 
Price, 1.25. 

X. FestiTal Hall of Osorkon II. (Bubastis, Part II.) Thirty-nine plates. 
Price, $5.00. 



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BIBLIA, 

XI. Ahnas and the Tomb of Paheri. Frontispiece and twenty-seven plates. 
Price, $5.00. 

XII. Deir-el-Bahari (Queen Hatshepsu's Temple.) Preliminary Volume. Fif- 
teen plates. Price, $5.00. 

XIII. Deir-el-BaharL Parti. Royal Folio Edition. Twenty-four plates, three 
of them superbly colored, in full or double-page size. CF* Twice the size of the 
Folio. Price (except to regular subscribers), $7. 50. 

XIY. Part II. Royal Folio. Thirty plates, two of them colored. Price 
(except to subscribers), $7.50. 

XT. Deshasheh. Thirty-four plates, one colored. (Oldest statuary group 
•known 3500 B. C.) Price, $5.00. 

XVI. Deir-£1-Bahari. Part III. Royal Folio. Splendidly illustrated. Price 
(except to subscribers), $7. 50. 

XVII. Denderab. (Dark period from Sixth to Eleventh Djmasty.) In press. 

Archaeological Survey Volumes. 

SuTTej Volume I. The sculptures and pictures of Beni Hasan. Forty-seven 
plates. Very valuable and unique. Price, $5.00. 

Surrey Volume II. Beni Hasan. Part II. Thirty-seven plates. Price, $5.00. 

Surf ey Volume III. El Bersheh. Part I. Thirty-four plates. Transport of a 
Colossus portrayed. Price, $5.00. 

Surrey Volume IV. El Bersheh. Part II. Twenty-four plates. Price, $5.00. 

Surrey Volume V. Beni Hasan. Part III, Ten of the plates in colors. Price, 
$5.00. 

Surrey Volume VI. Hierolgyphs from the Collections of the Fund. With 
^colored plates. Price, $s.oo. 

The Graeco-Roman Branch Volumes. 

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Part I. Eight fac-simile plates. One hundred and 
fifty-eight papyri, texts and translations, of a sacred, classical, municipal, business 
and social character. Price, $5.00. 

Part II. (1899.) In continuation. Price, $5.00. 

Other Publications. 

Atlas. An Atlas of Ancient Egypt, with eight fine maps in colors; having a 
• complete index, geographical and historical notes. Biblical references, etc. In- 
valuable to the historical reader and tourist Price, $1.00. 

Arehnological Report (1892-3). Illustrated. Price 70 cents. 

ArehfBological Report (1893-4). Illustrated. Price, 70 cents. 

Arehnologioal Report (1894-5). Illustrated. Price, 90 cents. 

Arehnologloal Report (1895-6). Illustrated. Transport of Obelisk, illustrated. 
Price, 90 cents. 

ArchfBological Report (1896-7). Oxymychus Papyrus, etc. Price, 70 cents. 

Archnologieal Report (1897-8). 

Temple of Delr-El-Baliarl. A g^de to, with plan. Price, 15 cents. 

Sayings of oar Lord. Two plates. Price, 15 cents. 

Tlie Wall Drawings and Monnments of El Kab, in an edition de luxe, by J. 
J. Tylor, F. s. a., is being issued by him. in seven volumes, at $10.50 per volume. 
.Plates 20 by 35 inches. A superb book super-royal size. Volumes I. and II. ready. 



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BIBLIA. 



Subscriptions* Books and Antiquities. 

Each Donor or Subscriber to the year's Exploration of but $5 receives (i) the 
illustrated ** Archseological Report;" (2) the elaborate illustrated quarto volume 
of the season; {3) the Annual Report, with lists of patrons and subscribers, lec- 
tures, account of annual meeting, balance sheet, etc. No other Archaeological 
Society in the world gives so much for so little money. It is hoped, however, 
that all who can will subscribe liberally to the catise for itself. Patrons con- 
tribute not less than $25 ; $125 constitutes life-membership. 

The Archaeological Survey Fund and the Graeco-Roman Branch are distinct 
departments and require separate subscriptions, which are separately acknowl- 
edged in the Annual Report. A subscription of $5 to either Fund will entitle the 
subscriber to the annual volume of that Fund, and a donation of $125 will consti- 
tute life-membership. 

The publications of the Fund are forwarded to libraries and individuals free <rf 
duty and postage. The volumes are handsome quartos^ embellished with photo- 
graphs, photogravures, phototypes, photo-lithographic plates, and sometimes 
with colored plates, especially to illustrate facial and architectural characteristics. 

Antiquities are now distributed among American Museums by the London Com- 
mittee pro rata of the combined subscriptions received through the national office 
(59 Temple Street, Boston), and local organizations. All subscriptions from every 
source form the basis for distribution and the apportionment of ** objects" is sent 
direct to each museum from London. To subscribe through a local organization rather 
than through the national office does not thereby increase the apportionment. The 
national office alone represents the unity of the Society in the United States, and it 
is a matter of patriotism as well as of finance to maintain it 

The national office alone has the data of past subscriptions and records of the 
American Branch, where, too, may be seen copies of all our publications. Without 
endowment, the Society depends on subscriptions or donations to continue its work. 
All services by honorary officials for the Fund are a gratuity. 

Inquiries, orders for books or circulars, may be addressed to the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund, 59 Temple Street, Boston, Mass., where the Secretary, Mrs. Marie N. 
Buckman, is in charge. Checks may be made payable to Francis C. Foster, Honor- 
ary Treasurer. All official and personal letters for myself should be addressed t& 
me as below. 

WM. C. WINSLOW. 

Honorary Secretary and Vice President, U. S. A 
^2S Beacon Street^ Boston, Mass. 
January 2, i8gg. 



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BIBLIA. 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 

Patron. 

THE QUEEN. 

President. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Chairman of Exeeatiye Committee. 

James Glaishbr, Esq., F. R. S. 

Honorarj Treasurer. Honorary Secretary. 

Walter Morrison, Esq.. M. P. Sir Walter Besant, M. A., F. S. A. 

Acting Secretary. 

George Armstrong. 

Offices. 

24 Hanover Square, W. London, 

American Members of General Committee. 

President Daniel C. Gilman, LL.D., Baltimore. 
President William R. Harper, LL.D., Chicago. 

Professor H. V. Hilprecht, LL.D., Philadelphia. 
Very Rev. E. A. Hoffman, D.D., New York. 
Clarence M. Hyde, Esq., New York. 

Rt. Rev. John H. Vincent, D.D., Chautauqua. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright, Ph.D., Cambridge. 

A Society for the accurate and systematic investigation of the Archeology, the 
Topography, the Geology and Physical Geography, the Manners and Customs of the 
Holy Land, for Biblical Illustration. 

This Society was founded June 22nd, 1865. It was established on the following 
basis: 

1. It should not advocate or attack any form of creed or doctrine. 

2. It was not to adopt or to defend any side in controversial matters. 

3. It was to be conducted on strictly scientific principles. 
These rules have been jealously observed. 

The best guarantee of the accuracy of the work done is found in the names and 
positions of the officers who have carried it out, and of the travelers who have sent 
their observations to the committee. Among them are Gen. Sir Charles Wilson, 
K. C. B., K. C. M. G., F. R. S., LL. D., R. E. (the Surveyor of Jerusalem and 
Sinai); Gen. Sir Charles Warren, K. C. B., G. C. M. G., F. R. S., R. E. (who con- 
ducted the Excavations of Jerusalem); Col. C. R. Conder, R. E. (Surveyor of West- 
em Palestine and of the east country, unfinished); Gen. H. A. Kitchener, C. M. G., 
R. E (Surveyor with Col. Conder); the late Major Anderson, C. M. G., R. E. ; 



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BIBLIA. 

Canon Tristram. P. R. S. ; Dr. Selah Merrill, of Andover, Masa.. and Dr. F. J. 

Bliss. 

Although the Society is not a religions society, strictly so-calkd, its w<^ is 
especially for Bible Students, and its supporters are found among ministers and 
others, who see in the results of the explorations confirmations of the tmth of 
Scripture. 

In the course of its existence, the Society, with limited funds at its disposal, has 
done tm immense amount of work, and published the results in bocto, pi4>ere, 
maps, plans, and photographs, for the benefit of its subscribers, and also for the 
advantage of all students of the Sacred Scriptures. 

Among its chief operations may be enumerated the following: 

1. Excavations at Jbrusalxm.— These were conducted by Sir Charles War- 
ren, and had very remarkable results. Jerusalem is now proved to be, to a great 
extent, a buried dty, and the ancient foundations are in some places a hundred 
feet under ground. The walls of the Temple enclosure have been examined down 
to the foundations, and the original masons' marks found upon them. The con- 
tour of the rock, showing how the city was situated before the valleys were fiUed 
up, have been ascertained. In consequence of these discoveries, many questions 
of topography, and all Bible references to locality, are now viewed in new light. 

The Excavations at Tell el Hesy having been brought to an end, the Committee 
obtained from the Sublime Porte a new firman for carrying on excavations at 
Jerusalem. These were made by Dr. F. J. Bliss, and have led to very valuable dis- 
coveries. 

Full account of these researches will be found in the QuarUrly Statemsnii of 
the Fund. 

2. Tm RxcovBRY 07 THB Stnagoguxs.— Ruius of many of these structure s still 
stand in Galilee. They have all been planned and sketched. The building in ^^lich 
Christ taught the people could now be reconstructed. 

3. Thx Survey of Wbstxen Falbstinb.— This work, occupying t^i years, 
was carried out by Major Condor, R. E., and Lieut -€ren. Kitchener, R. E. Before 
it was undertaken, many parts of Palestine were a terra incognita — some names 
were filled in conjecturally, and 360 Scripture places remained unknown. But now 
we possess a map, on the scale of one inch to the mile, as beautifully and accuratdy 
executed as the Ordnance map of England. In the course of Survey, 172 of the 
missing Biblical sites were recovered and fixed. 

4. Thb AxcHiVOLOGicAL WoRK OF M. Clbrmont-Gannbau. — ^Amoug the illus- 
trations of the Bible furnished by this learned archceologist may be mentioned 
the Discovery of the stone Zoheleth, the Inscriptions at Tell Jezer (Gezer), the 
Inscribed stone of Herod's Temple, the «* Vase of Bezetha," the ancient Jewish 
cemeteries at Jerusalem and JafiEa, &c. The famous Moabite Stone, the Inscribed 
Stone at the Pool of Siloam, the Hamath Inscriptions, and the Cromlechs and 
Dolmens of Moab, are archaological discoveries of incomparable importance due to 
other explorers. Casts and photos of these are on sale. 

5. Five Hundred Square Miles east of Jordon were surveyed by QkA* Cooder. 
R« E., and the results published. The Trans-Jordanic District is full of interest, 
and abounds with ruins of places Biblical and Classical. There are also special 
surveys of all the most important ruins in the district surveyed. The JaulAn, 
* Ajl&n, and part of the Hauran, embracing a district of fifteen hundred square 
mUes, have been surveyed by Herr Schumacher, and the results published. 

6. Thb Geological Survey of Palbstinb, by Prof. E. Hull, F. R. S.^ 



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It cannot be too strongly urged that no time should be lost in punraing these ex- 
plorations for the vandalism of the East, and the newly imported civilization of the 
West, together, are fast destroying whatever rea^rds of the past lie exposed, 

1. Subscribers of five dollars a year are entitled to receive — 

(i) Post free the "Quarterly Statement," which is the Journal of the Society, 
and contains the reports of work done by its agents, and a record of all discoveries 
made in the Holy Land. 

(2) The maps published by the Society at a greatly reduced price. 

(3) Tost free on first subscription, a copy of •• Thirty Years' Work." 

(4) Copies of the other books issued by the Society at reduced prices. 

2. Subscribers of I2. 50 annually receive the "Quarterly Statement," free and are 
entitled to the books and maps at the reduced price. 

Subscriptions for the Palestine Exploration Fund are recorded in the Quarterly 
Statements and in Bihlia. They may be sent to the undersigned, from whom 
books, casts, price lists, &c., can be obtained. Circulars giving full information sent 
on application to 

THEODORE P. WRIGHT, Ph. D., 

Honorary Secretary for the United States. 
4^ Quincy Street, Cambridge, Mass, 



Publications. 



!• The Surrey of Western Palestine. This magnificent work consists of 
*'The Memoirs," in 3 vols. ; * The Name Lists," i vol. ; **The Special Papers," i 
vol. ; "Jerusalem," i vol. ; "The Flora and Fauna of Palestine." i vol. In all seven 
volumes, with the maps, great and small. The last two volumes, " Flora and 
Fauna" and the " Jerusalem" volume, with 50 plates, can be had separately. 

II. The BecoTerj of Jernsalem. By Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson, 
K.C.B., R.B., &c., and Major-General Sir Charles Warren, k.cb., r.e., &c 

ni. Tent Work in Palestine. By Lieut -Col. Conder, r.k. 

IT. Heth and Moab* By Lieut. -Col. Conder, d.cl., r.s. 

y. AerosB the Jordan. A Record of Exploration in the Hauran, by Gottlieb 
Schumacher, c.b. 

TL The Surrey of the Janlan. By G. Schumacher, cb. 

YII. Mount Seir. By Poof. E. Hull, m.a., ll.d., f.r.s. 

Till. Syrian Stone Lore. By Lieut. -Col. Conder, d.cl., r.b. 

IX. Thirty Tears' Work : a Memoir of the Work of the Society. By Sir Walter 
Besant, m.a., p.s.a. 



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BIBLIA, 

X. Altaic Hiroflyphs and HittitelnseriptioBg. ByLiettt-CoLConder,D.cL.,a.B. 

XI. The Geolofj of PalestiBe and Arabia Petraea. By Prof. E. Hull, m-a., 

LL D.. P.R.S. 

XII. Names and Places in flie Old and New Testaments and Apoerypka, with 
references to Josephus, and their Modem Identifications. By George Armstrong. 

XIII. The History of Jenisalem. By Sir Walter Besant and Prof. E. H. Palmer. 
XIY. The Bible and Modem Discoyeries. By Henry A. Harper. 

XT. Palestine Under the Moslems. By Guy le Strange. 

XYL Lachish (one of the five strongholds of the Amorites). An account of the 
excavations. By Professor Flinders Petrie. 

XYII. An IntrodnctioB to the Surrey of Western Palestine, its Highways, 
Plains, and Highlands, with reference to Map No. 6. By Trelawney Saunders. 

XYIIL The City and the Land. Second Edition, with Plan of Jerusal^n ac- 
cording to Josephus. A series of Seven Lectures on (i) Ancient Jerusalem ; (2) The 
Future of Palestine; (3) Natural History of Palestine; (4) The General Work of the 
Fund; (5) The Hittites; (6) Tell^l-Hesy (Lachish) ; (7) The Modem TraveUer in 
Palestine. 

XIX. The Tell Armama Tablets, including the one found at Lachiish. Second 
Edition^) Translated from the Cuneiform Characters by Lieut -CoL C. R. Conder, 
D.C.L., LL.D., M.R.A.S., ILE. The Letters, numbering 176, are from Palestine and 
Syria, and were written about 1480 B. C. .by Amorites, Phoenicians, Philistines, &c., 
naming 130 towns and countries. 

XX. Abila, Felia, and Northern 'AJlun (of the Decapolis). By G. Schumacher, 

CI. 

XXI. A Monnd of Many Cities (Tell-el-Hesy excavated. By F. J. Bliss, m. a. 
Explorer of the Fund ; with upwards of 250 illustrations. 

XXII. Jnbas Maceabaens and the Jewish War of Independence. A new and 
revised edition by Lieut. -Col. Conder, d.c.l., r.e. 

XXIII. The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099 to 1291 A. D. By Lieut-CoL 
C. R. Conder, ll.d., m.r.a.s., r.e. 

XXIY. Index to the (Quarterly Statements, 1809-1893 incluslTe. 

XXy. The Snrrey of Eastern Palestine. (In one volume. ) By Lieut -Col, C 
R. Conde., d.cl., ll.d., r.e. 

XX YI. The Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra, and the Wady*Arabah. ByH. 
Chichester Hart, b.a., f.l.s. 

XXYII. The Archaeological Researches in Palestine. (In two volumes.) By 
Charles Clermont-Ganneau, ll.d. 

XXYIIL Excayations at Jemsalem, 1894-1897. By P. J. Bliss and A. Dickie. 



Maps— Scale» 3-8 of an inch— 1 Mile. 

I. Old and New Testament Map of Palestine in 20 sheets. 

IL Modem Map of Palestine in 20 sheets. With modem names only. 

III. Old and New Testament Map of Palestiiie in 12 sheets. 

lY. Modem Map of Palestine in 12 sheets. This map has only tiie modern 
names on it 

Y. The Great Map of Western Palestine, on the scale of one inch to the mile. 

YI. The Reduced Map of Western Palestine (only), showing Water Basins in 
Color, and Five Vertical Sections, showing the natural profiles of the ground accord- 
ing to the variations of the altitude above or below sea leveL 



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BTBLTA. 

VII. Plan of Jemsalem, showing in red the latest discoveries, with separate list 
of references. 
Till. Plan of Jemsalem, according to Josephus. 

IX. The Sections of the Country, North and South, East and West 

X. The Baised Map of Palestine is constructed on the basis of the recently- 
issued Old and New Testament Map. It embraces the whole of Western Palestine 
from Baalbeck in the North, to Kadesh Bamea in the South, and shows nearly all 
that is known on the East of Jordan. 

A New Edition of the Collotype Print ok the Raised Map, 20 inches by 
28 1-3 inches, now ready. Price to subscribers, 25. 3//.; non-subscribers 3^. 3</., 
post free. Lantern Slides of the Raised Map. 



Photographs — A Very Larse Collection. 

A New Catalogae of Photogrraphs, arranged alphabetically according to the Bible 
names of places, with notes and reterences. 

Photos of Inscription from Herod's Temple and Moabite Stone, with transla- 
tions, also of Jar found at the foundation of the S. E. comer of the wall of the 
Temple Area, 80 feet below the present surface, and facsimile of the Siloam In- 
scription with translation. Lantern Slides of the Bible places mentioned in the 
Catalogue. 

Casts. 

Seal of Hagrirai, the Son of Shebaniah." 
Inscribed Tablet, found at Lachish. 
Ancient Hebrew Weight, from Samaria. 
Inscribed Weigrht or Bead, from Palestine. 



Honorary Local Secretaries for America. 

Alabama: Rev. J. M. P. Otts, D.D., LL.D., Selma. 

California : Rev. J. C. Nevin, Ph.D., 1,319, Santee Street, Los Angeles. 

Connecticut- Prof. Edwin Knox Mitchell, D.D., Theological Seminary, Hartford. 

Prof. Frank K. Sanders^ Ph.D., Yale University, New Haven. 
District of Columbia: Prof. John L. Ewell, D.D., Howard University, Washington. 
Illinois: Prof. Shailer Matthews, Ph.D., University of Chicago. 
Maine: Prof. George T. Little, College Librarian, Brunswick. 
Massachusetts : Rev. Geo. E. Merrill, D.D., 666, Centre Street, Newton. 

Prof. Irving F. Wood, Ph.D., Northampton. 
New Hampshire: Rev. S. C. Bartlett, D.D., Hanover. 
New York : Rev. A. F. Schanffler, D.D., United Charities Building, New York. 

Prof. Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., Columbia University, New York. 

Prof. James S. Riggs, D.D., Theological Seminary, Auburn. 

Prof. D. A. Walker, Ph.D., Wells College, Aurora. 

Rev. Jeremiah Zimmerman, D.D., 109, South Avenue, Syracuse. 

Rev. Dana W. Bigelow, 98, State Street, Utica. 

Mrs. Donald G. Leslie, 578, Richmond Avenue, Buffalo. 
Ohio: Rev. E. Herbruck, Ph.D., 1,606, E. Third Street, Dajrton. 
Pennsylvania : Rev. James Morrow, D.D., 701, Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Prof. T. C. Billheimer, D.D., Gettjrsburg. 
Rhode Island: Rev. F. D. Blakeslee, D. D., £. Greenwich. 



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EDUCATIONAL. 



BY-PATHS OF- 



BIBLE KNOWLEDGE 



These books are written bjr specialists, and their aim is to jdve the results of the latest and 
best scholarship on questions of Biblical history, science and archaeolos^y. The Tolamcs 
contain much information that is not easily accessible even to those who have a lar^e ac- 
quaintance with the higher literature on these subjects. 

Cleopatra's Needle. A History of the London Obelisk, with an Exposition of the Hieroslypfaks. 

By the Rev. J. King, Lecturer for the Palestine Exploration Fund. $1.00. 
Fresh liii^iits from the Ancient Monunients. A sketch of the most striking confirmatioiu 

of the Bible from recent discoveries in Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Palestine and Asia Minor. 

By A. H. Sayce, LL.D. With Facsimiles from Photographs. $1.30. 
Reoent Dlseoveries on the Teniple Hill at Jemsalem. By the Rev. J. King, M. A 

Lecturer for the Palestine Exploration Fund. With Maps, Plans and Illustrations. 
Babylonian Life and History. Bv B. A. Wallis Budge, M. A., Assistant in the Department 

of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum. Illustrated. $1.30. 
CtaOUee in the Time of Christ. By Selah Merril, LL.D., author of "East of the Jordan,'* 

etc. With Map. $1.00. 
Egypt and Syria. Their Physical Features in Relation to Bible History. By Sir J. W. 

Dawson, F. G., S. F. R. S., Principal oi Mo Gill College,Montreal. Illustrated. $1.20. 
Assyria : lU Princes, PriesU and People. By A. H. Sayce, LL.D. Illustrated. $1.90. 
The Dwellers on the Nile. Chapters on the Life, Literature, History and Customs of 

Ancient Egypt. By E. A. Wallis Budge, M. A. $1.20. 
The Diseases of the Bible. By Sir J Risdon Bennet. $1.00. 

The Trees and Plants Mentioned In the Bible. By W. H. Groser, B. 8c. Illustrated. $1.20. 
Animals of the Bible. By H. Chichester Hart, Naturalist to Sir G. Nares' Arctic Bxpedi- 

tion, and Professor Hull's Palestine Expedition. Illustrated. $1.20. 
The Hittites ; or, The Story of a Forgotten Bmpire. By A. H. Sayce, LL.D. $1.20. 
The Times of Isaiah, as Illustrated from Contemporary Monuments. By A. H. Sairce. 

LL. D. 80 cents. 
Modem Discoveries, on the site of Ancient Bphesus. By J. T. Wood, F. S. A. $1.00. 
Early Bible Songs. By A. H. Orysdale. $1.00. 
Kaces of the Old Testament. By A. H. Sayce, M. A. Illustrations from Photographs by 

Petrie. $i.ao. 
Ufe and Times of Joseph in the Ught of Egjrpttan I«ore. By Rev. H. G. Tomkins, 

M. A. $1.00. 
Social Ufe Among the Assyrians and Babylonfaas. By A. H. Sayce, M. A., LL.D. $i.oa 
The Early Spread of Religions Ideas, especially in the Far Bast By Dr. Joseph Edkins. $t.ao. 
The Money of the Bible. Illustrated by Facsimiles and Wood-Cuts. By G. C. WilliamsoB. 

D. Lit. $1.00. 
The Sanitary Code of the Pentateuch. By Rev. C. G. K. Gillespie. $1.00. 
The Arch of Titus, and the Spoils of the Temple. By K. Knight, M. A. $1.00. 



The above books, published in London, are for tale at the office of BIBLIA, 
and will be sent post paid on receipt of price. 



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A review of his part and place amon^ the 
Pilgfrim Leaders. Pull-page portraits of Govs. 
Edward and Josiah Winslow, with coat of arms 
and facsimile autographs. Portrait of Edward 
Winslow, the only authentic likeness of the 
Mayflower company. Just published. 

The Pilgrim Fathers in Holland. 

Amelia B. Elwanls, PLD.. L.H.D., LL.D. 
•The Queen of Egyptology." 

PULL-PAGE PORTRAIT. 

£«ch of the above Brochures Ten Cents. 
Address the 

WINSLOW, 

BOSTON, MASS. 



by Rev. Alfred H. Kelloggy D. D. 



REV. W. C. 

525 Beaoon Street, 



ineltnt History from the Konnmtnts. 

l6mo., Cloth, with Illiistratlons. 
Each 80 Cento. 

ASSYRIA, from the Earliest Times to the Fall 

of Nineveh. By the late Geors^e Smith, of 

the British Museum. 
BABYLONIA, the History of. By the late 

George Smith. Edited by the Rev. A. H. 

Savce, D. D. 
EOYFT, from the Earliest Times to B. C. 300. 

Bv Samuel Birch, LL.D. 
OBEIIK CITIES and Islands of Asia Minor. 

By W. S. W. Vaux. 
PERSIA, from from the Earliest Period to the 

Arab Conquest. W. S. W. Vaux, M. A. 
SINAI. Prom the Pourth Bgrptian Dynasty 

to the Present Day. By Major Henry S. 

Palmer, F.R. A S. 
This series of books, published in London, is 
intended to illustrate the Sacred Scriptures by 
the results of recent Monumental Researches 
in the Bast. 

For sale at the office of BIBLIA, and will be 
sent postage paid on receipt of price. 

THE FIFTH GOSPEL, 

The littnd Where Jesus Lived. 

BY J. M. P. Otts, LL. D. 
This book presents a pen-picture of the 
present general appearance of Palestine in con- 
trast with what it must have been in the days 
of Jesus, and unfolds and elucidates the most 
prominent events in our Saviour's life in the 
scenes and circumstances in the midst of which 
they occurred. 

We have a few copies remaining of this 
book, which we will send postage paid, for 76 
cents. 

BIBLIA PUBLISHING CO. 



The purpose of this course of lectures is to 
ascertain, if possible, the position of Abraham, 
Joseph, and Moses, in Egypt's history. They 
are a study in the comparative chronology of 
Egypt's monuments and the Bible tradition, in 
the hope that ultimately peaceful harmony 
will be discovered between the chronological 
indications of the monuments and the data of 
Holy Scripture. 

CONTENTS : 
I. The Monumental Chronology of the period 

discovered by Dynasties XII. -X A. 
H. The Chronologv of the corresponding 

period in the Hebrew Tradition, 
ni. Points of Contact of the two Chrono- 
logies; Parti. The Era of Moses. 
1 V. The Eras of Abraham and Moses 
V. The Anarchy at the Close of Dynasty 

XIX., and the Exodus. 
VI. The Pharaoh of the Exodus. 

Octavo, pp. leo, ninstrated. Price 81.50. 

For Sale at the Office of BIBLIA. 



ARCHJEOLOOY. 

Christian ArchsBology. By C. W. Bennett, 
D D.; 8vo., pp. S58, wiih over 150 Illus- 
trations. Price I3.50. 

Studies In Biblical Archaeology* Joseph 
Jacobs. 8vo. Price $1.00. 

Symbolism In Christian Art. F. E. Hulme. 
i2mo. Price $1.35. 

Manual of Archaeology. By Talfourd Ely, 
M. A., P. S. A. Crown 8vo., pp. 272, 114 
Illustrations. Price $2.00. 

BSTPtlan ArchaeolosT. By G Maspero, D.C, 
L. Traiislateaby Amelia B. Edwards. 
8vo., pp. 228, 219 Illustrations. Price 



J\^- 



Manual of Oriental Antiquities. By Ernest 

Babelon. Translated and enlarged by 

B. T. A. Evetts, M. A. 8vo., pp. 312, 

241 Illustrations. Price $3.00. 
Handbook of Archaeology, Egyptian, Greek, 

Etruscan, Roman. By Hodder M. 

Westropp, 8vo., Illustrated. Piice $3.00. 
Manual of Greek ArchsBology. By Maximo 

Collignon. Translated by Dr. J. H. 

Wiight. i2mo Price $2.00. 
The Sculptured Tombs of Hellas. By Percy 

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Outer Mumrry-ciM of Queen Ahmes Nofretan. 

OHTUNES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY, 

BY AUCUSTE MARIETTE. 

Translated and Edited, with Notes, by Mary Brodrick, with 

Introductory Note by Rev. Dr. Winslow. 
•• I heartily welcome an American edition of this opportune and very useful 
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History, Epigraphy, Geography, 

Languages, Etc. 

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BIBLIA, 



A Monthly Journal, devoted to Biblical Archa^logy 
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BiBLiA, now in its tenth year, is the only publication In the United States devoted to Biblical 
Archaeology. Its object is to give the results of the latest researches in Oriental lands, partictt- 
larly Egypt, Palestine and Syria. 

There has been no more important revelation during the present centurr than that of th« 
discoveries in Oriental lands. A literature has been recovered which already car exceeds in cooi* 
nass the whole of the Old Testiment Scriptures, and the later history of the Old Testiment no 
longer stands alone. The records already aiscovered confirm, explain and illustrate the Scripture 
records, and the historical portions of the Bible are now read with an entirely new interest. 

Egypt and Syria have only just begun to be excavated, and as much,] if not more exists 
under the ground as above it 

The object of BiRLiA is to present the latest information in regard to the work of the BfSJP^ 
Exploration Fund, the Palestine Kxploration Fund, and the work of American, French and Ger- 
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CONTRIBUTORS. 

JAS. S. COTTON, M. A. (Oxon.) late Editor of the Iiondon Academy. 
BET. WM. C. WINSLOW, D. D., LL. D., Boston, Mass., Vice-President of the Kgypt 

Exploration Fund for the United States. 
PBOF. TH£OI>OKE F. WRIGHT, Ph. D., Camhridge, Mass., the Honorary Seer«tanr of 
the Palentine Exploration Fund, and Authorized I^ecturer for the United Staiea. 
REV. J. N. FRADENBURGH, Ph. D., D. D. REV. CAMDEN M. COBERN, Ph. ». 

CHARLE8 E. MOLDENKE, A. M., Ph. D. F. U. GRIFFITH, M. A., F. S. A. 

PROF. HIRAM H. BICE, A. M., F. R. G. S. PROF. W. MAX MUIXBB. 

REV. J. HITNT COOKE. J. J. TYIX>B, F. S. A. 

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MARIE N. BUCKMAN, Associate Editor. 

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CONTENTS FOR JANUARY. 

GODS AND TEMPLES OF JAVA, Jiev. A. KingsUy Glover 

RUINS AT QUIRIGUA, Rev. H. C. Farrar, D,D. 

MORE ABOUT THE SPHINX, S. BesuncA^ C. B, 

M. de MORGAN'S DISCOVERIES AT SUSA. 

LATE DISCOVERIES OF NEW TESTAMENT APOCRYPHA. 

SIR JOHN FOWLER 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. .... Theo. F, Wright, Pk, D. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, ITS ARCHiB- 

LOGICAL SURVEY AND GRAECO-ROMAN BRANCH. 
BOOK REVIEWS.— Petrie's ''Syria and Egypt "—Streane's "Age of the 

Maccabees "—Perry's *' Egypt, the Land of the Temple Builders" 

— Arbeely's ''Arabic Grammar." 

ARCH^OLOGICAL NOTES. 

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